Climate Cooperation with
Summary of the Annual Report 2018
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
Environmental and Climate
Cooperation with Strategic
Phone: + 46 (0)8-505 933 40 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Address: Arkitektkopia AB, Box 110 93, SE-161 11 Bromma Internet: www.naturvardsverket.se/publikationer
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Phone: + 46 (0)10-698 10 00 Fax:+ 46 (0)10-698 16 00 E-mail: email@example.com
Address: Naturvårdsverket, SE-106 48 Stockholm, Sweden Internet: www.naturvardsverket.se
ISBN 978-91-620-6882-0 ISSN 0282-7298 © Naturvårdsverket 2019 Tryck: Arkitektkopia AB, Bromma 2019 Cover photo: Yuanbin Du. Peking, Kina.
SWEDISH ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY REPORT 6882 Environmental and Climate Cooperation with Strategic Countries
Summary of Annual Report 2018
SUMMARY OF THE BILATERAL COOPERATION BY THEMATIC AREA 5
THE BILATERAL COOPERATION BY COUNTRY OR REGION 9
Brazil 9 Colombia 11 India 12 Indonesia 13 China 13 Russia 15 South Africa 18 South Korea 21 USA 22 Vietnam 23 Regional cooperation 24
The Arctic Council 24
The Barents Euro-Arctic Council 25
Nordic Council of Ministers 26
Summary of the bilateral
cooperation by thematic area
The Swedish government has a specific fund, hereinafter
referred to as the bilateral cooperation fund, for bilateral
environmental and climate cooperation of Swedish authorities
with countries that have a major impact on the global
About the bilateral cooperation fund
In 2018, the fund amounted to SEK 29.4 million. Collaboration takes place with countries that are strategically important for the global environmental and climate effort. Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa are prioritised within the activities of the fund, as well as strategic countries such as the USA, Colombia, South Korea and Vietnam. Part of the appropriation is used for activities within the Barents Euro-Arctic Council, the Arctic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers. The funds within the allocation, which the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for managing, were distributed between the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, the Swedish Chemicals Agency, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish
Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) and the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
Long-Term and Export-Promoting
The collaborations are permeated by a long-term approach. This is to contribute to capacity development in the countries. Furthermore, the activities within the bilateral cooperation fund should promote exports and contribute to Sweden's export strategy. By presenting technical opportunities and innovative
environmental technologies, Swedish companies are promoted.
Environmental and Sustainability Objectives
Environmental and climate cooperation with the strategic countries touches on a series of transverse issues and several of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The work is also linked in several ways to the Swedish environmental quality objectives, the generation goal and to several international environmental conventions.
A Non-Toxic Environment
In issues regarding a non-toxic environment, among others the cooperation with Brazil and China has helped to strengthen the control of chemicals. In India, in the highly polluted area of Bhopal, activities relating to clean-up measures contribute
to a sustainable living environment and access to drinking water. In Indonesia activities were focused, among other things, on contributing to the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Russia has a major impact on the air and climate as well as on the Baltic Sea environment. Regulation of industrial emissions in the country is therefore of great importance for several Swedish environmental objectives. South Korea has adopted legislation regarding chemicals which is similar to that of the EU, and receives, through the activities, support in the implementation. Vietnam's chemicals agency has received support through the bilateral cooperation fund in relation to the development of its chemicals legislation. Cooperation within the Arctic Council contributes to the ongoing work and development of project proposals in all four expert groups under the Arctic Contaminants Action Program. Within the framework of the Swedish Chairmanship of the Barents Euro-Arctic Council’s Working Group on
Environment, the activities contributed to the its subgroups on hot spots exclusion, particularly noteworthy sources of emissions.
Gender and Social Equality
As a contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals on gender equality and reduced inequalities, activities in the Arctic increased the involvement and participation of indigenous and local populations in environmental efforts and make it available to these groups in innovative ways. The cooperation in Brazil focused partly on strengthening the public's access to environmental information, and thus the possibilities of participating in decision-making and influence
environmental work. During the activities in Brazil and Vietnam, the importance of increased influence over the water and sea management by people who are directly affected by the work of relevant authorities was emphasised. Efforts in Indonesia helped to ensure that the work on regulating and risk assessment of chemicals into account equal protection for all people in society. Activities in China included the link between chemicals and the Sustainable Development Goals, including gender equality and human rights. Cooperation with Russia contributed to an increased involvement of Russian youth in the implementation of Agenda 2030. In the US, cooperation contributes to an analysis that will highlight a gender perspective linked to issues of transport-efficient communities in the state of California and in Sweden.
Cooperation that contribute to objectives such as a good built environment, sustainable cities and sustainable energy include among others Brazil, where activities will reduce the negative environmental impact of cities, including through activities relating to air quality, management of municipal waste and heat resistance and reduced vulnerability to heatwaves. Cooperation with China focused among others on energy-efficient phasing out of ozone-hazardous substances, renewable energy and sustainable waste management. In Russia, activities included
the fact that the Russian Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources selected two Russian counties to test the introduction of resource efficiency strategies for municipal household waste. Activities in South Africa will contribute to better waste management and thus reduce emissions of, among others,
greenhouse gases. Cooperation with the USA will identify and exchange experiences of policy instruments for a transport-efficient society in the state of California.
Sea and Marine Resources
Cooperation regarding sea and marine resources contributed to Sweden’s environmental quality objectives on a balanced marine environment and flourishing lakes and streams. The cooperation included among others the development of methods for sustainable marine spatial planning. For example, Brazil is in an initial phase of marine spatial planning and Sweden supported this work, as well as to the work on marine littering. In relation to China, cooperation within the so-called China Europe Water Platform contributed to more
environmentally adapted energy systems and better use of water resources. Cooperation with Russia strengthened the knowledge and capacity of the Russian authorities to manage rivers and the marine environment in a more sustainable way. Activities in South Africa generated in-depth knowledge on how Sweden and South Africa conduct environmental monitoring in the marine environment. The cooperation focused also on water issues by evaluating how climate change affects the water quantity and quality. In the USA, activities on collection of knowledge on marine habitats were included. Implementation of the ‘from source to sea’-strategy was strengthened by activities in Vietnam.
Climate and Air
Cooperation regarding climate and air contributed to Swedish and global climate goals, as well as environmental quality objectives on clean air and a protective ozone layer. The cooperation with Brazil contributed to a methodology for faster diagnosis of urban air pollution problems. The cooperation with China and India supported the phasing-out of the powerful greenhouse gases HFCs by means of a centralised energy systems and improved energy efficiency. In South Africa, activitiescontributed to analysing levels of, for example, black carbon. The
cooperation in the USA added both to more efficient emission trading schemes and to transport-efficient society. The cooperation with Russia contributes to energy efficiency in buildings and industries. The activities in the Barents region
contributed to the implementation of the Barents Euro-Arctic Council's action plan on climate change. Within the Arctic Council, the cooperation supported the ongoing work of expert groups for short-lived climate pollutants.
Ecosystems and Biodiversity
The collaborations contribute to goals of a rich diversity of plant and animal life, ecosystems and biodiversity, both in the oceans and on land. In Brazil, cooperation on marine mammals within marine management is underway. The activities focus on studying the red-listed and indigenous La Plata Dolphin. The cooperation with Russia includes genetic enhancement of the Swedish wolf population. Improved knowledge of the genetic status of the Russian wolf population contributes to Sweden's species protection work. The cooperation contributed to the preparation of the international conference on protected areas, which is organised every two years by the Barents Euro-Arctic Council’s working group on environment.
The bilateral cooperation by
country or region
Cooperation partners supported by the bilateral cooperation
fund are countries of great strategic importance for global
environmental and climate work – Brazil, Russia, India,
Indonesia, China, South Africa, South Korea, the USA and
Vietnam. Cooperation also takes place within the Arctic Council,
the Barents Euro-Arctic Council, the Nordic Council of Ministers
and with countries around the Western Indian Ocean.
The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management conducted bilateral
meetings and activities with the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment and an intersectoral commission under the Navy. The cooperation partners agreed upon different priority areas for cooperation that are the basis for the forthcoming work plan for 2019.
A cooperation on marine spatial planning began in 2018. To date, this has resulted in a mutual understanding of the countries' maritime spatial planning processes. A cooperation regarding marine mammals within marine management was also initiated during the year. The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management initiated a collaboration with the University of Joinville to study the La Plata Dolphin, a red-listed and indigenous dolphin species. The cooperation has already resulted in direct contact between Brazilian actors with mutual exchange on priorities, preferences and development opportunities.
For several years, the Swedish Chemicals Agency has been working with Brazil
on the design of a new chemicals law for the country. In 2018, the main content of the law was decided, and the next step will be to adopt it.
The Swedish Chemicals Agency presented Swedish experience at a seminar on so-called institutional capacity to manage chemical hazards. The seminar targeted politicians, authorities and non-profit organisations. The Swedish Chemicals Agency organised a workshop on methods to limit the risks of hazardous chemicals. The event was attended by participants from several Brazilian
authorities and ministries and also representatives from the Argentine Ministry of the Environment.
At the initiative of the Regional Centre for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, the Swedish Chemicals Agency participated in a workshop in Brazil, with the aim of developing a training programme in preventive chemicals control.
In 2018, the cooperation with Brazil was strengthened with an internship period for two environmental risk assessors from the Brazilian environmental authority at the Swedish Chemicals Agency. For two months, they participated in the work and exchanged experiences on environmental risk assessments for pesticides with Swedish colleagues.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency continued its cooperation with a
focus on sustainable waste management and environmental data in Brazil. The activities are largely about supporting identified waste initiatives and strengthening public access to environmental information and thus their ability to participate in decision-making processes and influence the environmental work in Brazil. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency participated in a seminar in the capital Brasilia on the prevention of food waste. The seminar, attended by participants from different sectors of society, was organised by the EU and Brazil. Together with different stakeholders in the field, a platform for increased cooperation on food waste was established.
Two seminars were held during the year on the calculation of waste tariffs and design of recycling facilities. A training of trainers course to start in 2019 was planned. The calculation of waste tariffs has generated considerable interest in many Brazilian municipalities, and the municipality of Curitiba has shown continued interest in being a pioneer in the development of a recycling facility. In the field of environmental data, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency participated in a Brazilian commission on emission registers. The aim is for the commission to produce a legislative proposal in 2019.
As a result of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s cooperation with Brazil, a pilot project in marine littering financed by the Agency's funds for sustainable use of plastic in 2018 was launched. The project is underway with the municipality of Santos, where participants from the project visited Sweden during the year, including for various study visits aimed at identifying land-based
emission sources and drawing up action plans to be communicated to other coastal municipalities.
The cooperation contributes to measures against marine littering and cleaner beaches. Cabo Frio, Brazil Photo: Victor Freitas
In 2018, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has begun to prepare three reports on the planning, implementation and evaluation of Sweden's system for extended producer responsibility system. The reports can be used, inter alia, in the cooperation with Brazil.
SMHI continued during the 2018 project on the impact on air quality of emissions
from particles and soot in the metropolitan region of Curitiba. This year's activities aimed to define scenarios for urban planning possibilities and alternative traffic solutions. The overall objective is to assess effects on air quality and the health of the population based on alternative scenarios.
SMHI started a project to understand the problems of heatwaves and how vegetation can be used to reduce urban heat and the so-called heat stress. In this project, SMHI formed a stakeholder group of local actors. The agency has started work on data collection to simulate the local climate in the city of Fortaleze.
The new and relatively ambitious legislation regulating so-called fine particles (PM 2.5) in Colombia has been the starting point of SMHI’s cooperation with
Colombian authorities. The Regional Environmental Authority in Cali has
requested cooperation with SMHI on how fine particles and the more hazardous and climate-impacting parts from combustion, emissions of black carbon, should be evaluated and controlled.
SMHI has initiated a collaboration to implement a methodology for how Colombian cities can more easily solve problems with high levels of hazardous particles and black carbon. After an initial international workshop on soot, there is
Colombia has a new and relatively ambitious legislation regulating so-called fine particles. Bogotá, Colombia. Photo: Flavia Carpio
a good network of Colombian experts in the field, and bilateral cooperation with Cali may possibly be extended to include more cities, especially the larger coastal city of Barranquilla.
During the year, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency conducted
training for environmental regulators from several Indian states. The project has been going on since 2012. It can be challenging for Indian environmental
regulators to implement Indian environmental legislation. The activities carried out by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with an Indian research and environmental centre have therefore been appreciated. The activities have been aimed both at environmental regulators from all over India and from the central environmental authority.
Training efforts in the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s cooperation with India have been focused in 2018 on:
- good principles of governance and management - environmental permitting of industries
- good industry examples
- sustainable urban development.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has continued cooperating regarding India's ambitions to phase down the use of the powerful greenhouse gases hydrofluorocarbons. In cooperation with the Indian Energy and Resources Institute Teri, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency organised a seminar on district cooling and heating during a global conference on sustainable
Cooperation with India contributes to sustainable state development. New Dehli, India. Photo: Arianna Flores Corral
development. A feasibility study on options for refrigeration applications free of potent greenhouse gases has been developed.
The Swedish Chemicals Agency has received a request for cooperation from
officials of the Ministry of Agriculture in India. However, no further measures have been initiated yet.
SMHI participated, jointly with experts from, among others, India, in a conference
in Nepal on difficulties and knowledge gaps in connection with modelling of air quality. The conference was aimed at researchers and decision-makers from South Asia. For SMHI, it was very valuable to restore existing and establish new contacts with researchers and administrators in India and other parts of southern Asia.
During 2018, the Swedish Chemicals Agency conducted two seminars as part of
the cooperation with Indonesia. One concerned the country’s new legislation on chemicals and the other concerned activities and measures to implement the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. An expert from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency also participated in the latter seminar. In conjunction with the seminars, meetings were held with the Indonesian Ministry of Industry and the Embassy of Sweden, among others.
In 2018, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency participated in a number
of brief initiatives in Indonesia. Among others, as expert support in an OECD review of Indonesia's environmental performance and in the Swedish Chemicals Agency’s workshop on persistent organic pollutants.
The Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management's bilateral
cooperation with China in 2018 was mainly through participation in the China Europe Water Platform. The platform aims to promote cooperation between China and the EU in a range of water-related areas, such as research cooperation, policy dialogue and business cooperation.
The Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management represented Sweden in connection with a so-called high-level meeting in Beijing, as well as at Platform and Steering Group meetings. In connection with the World Water Week in Stockholm, the Agency received a high-level delegation from the Chinese Ministry of Water Resources. The meetings with the delegation resulted in an in-depth dialogue between partners within the China Europe Water Platform.
The China Europe Water Platform promotes cooperation in water-related areas. Xitang, China. Photo: Carol Jeng
During the year, the Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management launched a four-year project on sustainable hydroelectric power in the EU and China. The Agency also launched an innovation network on sustainable
hydroelectric power in connection with the Nordic Clean Energy Week conference in Malmö and Copenhagen.
The Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management has strengthened its commitment to an EU-funded project on integrated water and marine environment management. In particular, the Agency organised a workshop in Beijing on the concept ‘from source to sea’, where Sweden's environmental work in the Baltic Sea Region was presented and discussed.
During the year, the Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management organised and participated in a number of meetings with Swedish actors in China to disseminate information and discuss planned activities promoting exports. The cooperation of the Swedish Chemicals Agency with China was affected
during the year by changes in the structures of the country's ministries and
authorities in the chemicals sector. This has slowed down cooperation between and with these actors. However, several activities have been completed, one of which at the invitation of the Chinese Ministry of the Environment.
The Swedish Chemicals Agency presented its work on preventive chemical control at a roundtable arranged by the Raoul Wallenberg Institute in collaboration with the Embassy of Sweden. The Agency contributed to the financing of four articles on challenges faced by China in relation to chemicals.
The Swedish Chemicals Agency organised a study visit in Sweden for Taiwan's chemicals agency following interest from Taiwan. The visit resulted primarily in an improved dialogue with Taiwan and a desire for continued cooperation in 2019, including a shortened so-called international training programme.
At an annual conference on chemicals control in China, the Swedish Chemicals Agency held presentations on, among other things, the use of HFCs in textile and leather impregnation. These substances are prioritised for phasing out and it was therefore deemed important to communicate how risk assessments for this is carried out. Many products that contribute to the spread of these and similar substances are manufactured in China.
The Swedish Chemicals Agency also attended a chemicals conference organised by the UN Environment Programme in collaboration with the International Chemical Trade Association and the Chinese chemicals industry.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s work with China is partly
aimed at phasing out ozone-hazardous substances in an energy-efficient way as possible. This includes renewable energy and sustainable waste management. The work is closely linked to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer and the Kigali Amendment on the reduction of the powerful greenhouse gases hydrofluorocarbons. During the year, among other things, a seminar on district cooling and heating was arranged jointly with other Swedish actors, including the Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) and Mälarenergi, an electric power and district heating provider.
In the ongoing work with the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has helped to establish a structure and routine for Sweden's financial support of the organization. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has helped to bring together Swedish actors in China with common interests in environmental issues, including by establishing a collaboration platform for Swedish authorities that cooperate with China.
In 2018, SMHI started planning a conference on regional climate information in China. To this end, SMHI carried out a trip to China.
Russia is a member state of the Council of the Baltic Sea States and one of the main players to develop
sustainability in the Baltic Sea Region.
The Council of the Baltic Sea States' expert group on sustainable development, in cooperation with the Nordic Council of Ministers, published a report analysing the global sustainability objectives for the region and recommending suitable measures. The
report was a useful tool to communicate the importance of Agenda 2030 in Russia. The Council of the Baltic Sea States contributed to an analysis of existing
international cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region on the implementation of the UN Sustainable Development goals.
The cooperation with Russia contributed to an increased involvement of Russian youth in the implementation of Agenda 2030. The Council contributed to a youth summit on the new youth movement in the Nordic Countries and the Baltic Sea Region wishing to take part in Agenda 2030. The young people in the forum were given the opportunity to get involved in strategic planning of regions and cities in Russia.
The Council of the Baltic Sea States organised several activities for, among others, Russian actors in connection with several international conferences, such as the Baltic Sea Future Congress.
During 2018, the Council of the Baltic Sea States initiated a follow-up of a
leadership programme on capacity development linked to sustainability objectives. The programme aims to increase knowledge of Agenda 2030 in strategic planning at the local level and will focus on circular economy with practical examples. The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management attended the Baltic
Sea Days Conference and presented Swedish marine spatial planning. The Agency arranged a meeting with the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and
Environment in connection with the World Water Week in Stockholm. The meeting discussed, among other things, the contents of the forthcoming work programme for Sweden's and Russia's cooperation agreements on water issues for the period 2019–2021.
The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management conducted a seminar in Moscow on methodology for implementing so-called cumulative environmental assessments, i.e., assessments that take into account the overall environmental impact in the marine environment. In support of ecosystem-based marine spatial planning, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management has developed the Symphony method for such assessments in the so-called offshore areas. There is a great interest from the Russian side to initiate a pilot study on the method, using Russian data and focusing on watercourses, which has never previously been done. Russian partners intend to carry out the planned study with the support of the Agency for Marine and Water Management and the Geological Survey of Sweden. The activities have resulted in both increased interest in cooperation on measures to improve the environment in Russia and increased cooperation on the Baltic Sea Action Plan, as part of the work on the Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s cooperation with Russia
covers in particular the following areas: • nature conservation and biodiversity • climate and air
• environmental protection and best available techniques • waste management and sustainable urban development.
In the area of nature conservation and biodiversity, cooperation to strengthen the Swedish wolf population has resulted in Swedish and Russian experts sharing experiences about the existence, genetic status and management models of large predators. The activity has resulted in improved knowledge, including on the genetic variation and the distribution of wolf populations in North-Western Russia. Efforts in the area of peri-urban, protected areas, the formation of a marine national park in the Gulf of Finland and ecotourism in protected areas did not start in 2018 and the funds were reallocated to other projects.
In the area of climate and air, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in arranging a seminar on energy efficiency in buildings and
industries and participated in the Climate Forum in Moscow. The Agency arranged a seminar in Stockholm on sustainable planning for public transport and other transport and climate adaptation. No activities were carried out on emission inventories of particles.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency continued to support the
introduction of authorisation based on best available technique (BAT) in Russia. For example, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency participated in an international seminar in Saint Petersburg on environmental aspects of industrial activities. Around 50 external experts participated in the seminar.
Russia has shown interest in maritime spatial planning and spatial planning for water courses. Lake Baikal, Russia. Photo: Ekaterina Sazonova
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency contributes to the development of activities for the subgroup on hot spots exclusion (particularly severely polluted sites), which belongs to the Barents Euro-Artic Council’s working group on environment. In connection with this, the Agency participated in an introductory course in BAT-adapted authorisation and hotspot work.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency contributed to training for Russian experts on life-cycle analysis, conducted by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. The initiative has achieved the goal of establishing the first hub for environmental product labelling in Russia and coordinating together with the international network for verifiable eco-labelling of products. This was achieved in compliance with the IVL patented EPD® system. In 2018, the Swedish
Environmental Protection Agency started to prepare three reports on the planning, implementation and evaluation of Sweden's producer responsibility parts of which can be used in the cooperation with Russia.
In the area of waste management and sustainable urban development, a waste seminar was conducted with Russian participants from authorities and industry associations. In 2018, the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and the
Environment selected two Russian counties to test the implementation of resource efficiency strategies for municipal household waste. The tests will be carried out in 2019, through which the cooperation will be deepened. The Swedish
Environmental Protection Agency conducted a study trip to the pilot counties and started the development of project plans for these, focusing on extended producer responsibility.
As part of the sustainable cities initiative, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency presented an analysis and compilation of Sweden's experiences of support programmes and projects for climate efficiency, as well as other areas of
sustainable urban development. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency participated in the meeting with the City of Moscow’s international council for sustainable urban development.
During the year, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has also worked to identify proposals for measures to be implemented in the new work programme for Sweden and Russia, in the period 2019 – 2021.
SMHI continued work on model simulations of air quality over the parts ofAfrica located south of the equator. These have been compared with high-resolution simulations over South Africa. The activities were carried out by researchers at South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. The work focused on air quality in the industrial and mining district near Pretoria and
SMHI's cooperation with South Africa includes, among other things, air quality and water issues. Photo: Lina Loos
Johannesburg. A draft of a scientific publication has been prepared jointly and the intention is that there will be a joint publication with the researchers from the research council.
SMHI's cooperation with South Africa has also focused on water issues, by: - evaluating how climate change affects the quantity and quality of water - including all of South Africa in a modelling system
- improving the modelling system by collecting new data
- improving the process description through cooperation with South African experts.
In the water-related activities, a large-scale model has also been used to calculate the flow of sediments and waters for South Africa, at present and in a future climate.
During the year, SMHI arranged courses on HYPE, a method for so-called hydrological predictions for the environment. This work is linked to warning and forecasting services in Sweden as well as in West Africa for close to 20
participating countries. The method is tested in the area of warning and forecasting services in several countries in West Africa.
The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management arranged a visit to
Sweden for the South Africa’s Department of Environmental Affairs and South Africa's National Pollution Laboratory, which is responsible for the country's environmental monitoring. Several Swedish actors participated in the visit, which gave in-depth knowledge and exchange of experiences on how Sweden and South Africa work on environmental monitoring in sea and freshwater.
During the year, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management initiated a study on management according to the concept from source to sea. The study will be linked to the work on testing the concept in South Africa and implemented in a designated river and coastal area in the country during 2019. Some of the planned activities have not been implemented, partly because of political circumstances in South Africa.
During the year, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has contributed
to activities related to hazardous household waste in collaboration with the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality. This year's activities included an on-site training in how to carry out a waste composition analysis of household waste from a number of selected areas in the municipality. The actual waste composition analysis was carried out on a local landfill during a one-week period to get an idea of the amount and content of the hazardous waste.
Gästrike återvinnare, a municipal association in the area of waste with five member municipalities in Gävleborg county, participated during one of the year's project activities. At the end of the year, a South African delegation visited Gävle to study collection methods.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has received study visits from the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and hosted visits to several waste facilities, including in Vänersborg. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency provided support to the Department of Environmental Affairs on various waste related issues.
In 2018, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency started to prepare three reports on the planning, implementation and evaluation of Sweden's system for extended producer responsibility, parts of which can be used in the cooperation with South Africa.
In cooperation with South Africa, the Swedish Chemicals Agency has focused on
new legislation to include the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. The legislation is expected to be introduced in 2019. The Swedish Chemicals Agency organised a training for inspectors in the South African Department of Labour to prepare them for the introduction of the new law. The activity is aimed at educators who in turn will pass on knowledge to their colleagues (training of trainers). During the year, the Swedish Chemicals Agency has contributed written comments to clarify the legislative proposal prepared by the Department.
In future, the South African Department of Environmental Affairs will carry out environmental risk assessments when companies apply for authorisation of pesticides. The Swedish Chemicals Agency therefore arranged training with the
aim of laying the foundations for knowledge and methods for implementing environmental risk assessments of pesticide use. Participants in the programme represented, among others, the Departments of Environmental Affairs, and of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.
The Swedish Chemicals Agency has received several study visits from
South Korea in recent years, and the country has shown great interest in
cooperation with Sweden. During 2018, the Agency established contacts
with South Korea's Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Employment
and Labour, as well as with several institutes linked to chemical issues.
South Korea is the fifth largest market in the world when it comes to the sale of chemicals. The country has a chemicals law that will be introduced gradually over the next decade.
The Swedish Chemicals Agency has made efforts to improve understanding
both of what has been done to date and remaining challenges the country is
facing in the implementation of the legislation.
At an international seminar, the authority gave a presentation on chemicals
in products. A meeting was then held with the two South Korean ministries.
The activities in California will contribute to a transport-efficient society. Santa Monica, USA. Photo: Viviana Rische
At the meeting, common challenges and requests for exchange of
experience from South Korea were discussed.
During the year, the Swedish Chemicals Agency has established contacts with
sister authorities in California and a federal laboratory in the USA. Information has been exchanged on the identification of hazardous substances in, for example, consumer products. This facilitates Sweden's supervision of regulatory compliance with future legislation for broad groups of substances, such as perfluorinated substances, which are used in textile and leather impregnation.
The Swedish Chemicals Agency conducted a study trip to the US federal
research laboratory, the National Center for Computational Toxicology. The
purpose was to exchange experiences on, among other things, more
effective collection and processing of information on the use of chemicals
on the market.
The Agency participated in meetings with the California Environmental
Protection Agency and at an international conference to discuss the
phasing-out of so-calledperfluorinated substance
and methodologies to replace
hazardous chemicals. Cooperation with California will begin in 2019, and
will be financed from outside the bilateral cooperation fund.
During the year, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency launched a
partnership with California in the areas of emission trading schemes and transport-efficient society. Within the cooperation on emission trading schemes, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has initiated activities with the California Air Resource Board in Sacramento and held meetings where the parties were informed about Sweden's and California’s emission trading schemes. The aim of the project is to eventually contribute to practical improvements in the design and
In 2018, a project on transport-efficient society was launched together with the Californian Strategic Growth Council. As an initial activity, a study will be carried out in collaboration with Lund University. The study will identify similarities and differences in Sweden and California around policy instruments for a more transport-efficient society. The study, with its associated gender analysis, will be completed in 2019.
The Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management participated in a
conference and a seminar on knowledge collection on marine habitats. The Agency held meetings with researchers from, among others, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California. The meetings focused on discussing possible areas of cooperation and participation in seminars on marine protected areas in Sweden in spring 2019. One of the American researchers who attended the meetings also participated in a lunch seminar at the Swedish agency for Marine and Water Management during the autumn of 2018.
Swedish Chemicals Agency’s cooperation with Vietnam's equivalent
authority has been going on for many years, and the authorities are familiar
with each other. During 2018, the collaboration gained new momentum and
several activities were completed. Together with the authority, the Swedish
Chemicals Agency has worked on the development of Vietnam's chemicals
legislation. Meetings have been focused on existing legislation and
opportunities and needs to revise it, the implementation of the Minamata
Convention on Mercury and how Vietnam can implement and improve its
existing legislation and the implementation of new legislation on preventive
control of chemicals.
During the autumn, training of inspectors on different levels of supervision was carried out according to the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. By improving knowledge of the classification system and how supervision is to be carried out, the risk of damage from hazardous products is reduced.
The Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management participated in
Vietnam's international water week in Hanoi. A seminar on the concept ‘from source to sea’ was conducted in collaboration with the Stockholm International Water Institute, the International Union for Conservation of Nature and SMHI. At the seminar, the Agency's three-year strategy on the concept ‘from source to sea’ was presented.
The Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management participated in
meetings with the Vietnamese Ministry of Natural Resources and
The cooperation contributes to several of the Arctic Council's Environmental Working Groups. Ittoqqoroomiit, Greenland. Photo: Annie Spratt
Environment together with the Embassy of Sweden and the Swedish
Ambassador for Climate Change. The Meeting dealt with the need for
maritime spatial planning, the establishment of marine protected areas and
sustainable hydroelectric power.
A study visit was carried out at the Institute of Oceanography of Vietnam
and in a nearby marine protected area. The activities resulted in an increased
interest from the country's Minister of Natural Resources and Environment
in long-term cooperation on maritime spatial planning, marine protected
areas and sustainable hydroelectric power and in implementing a source to
sea study for the major river systems in Vietnam.
The Arctic Council
During the year, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency participated
actively in the Arctic Contaminants Action Program, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna Working Group, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, though the bilateral cooperation fund is only used within the Arctic Contaminants Action Programme and its four expert groups:
- persistent organic pollutants and mercury - hazardous waste
- short-lived climate pollutants
The Agency is also Chairman of the expert group on persistent organic pollutants and mercury. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the ongoing work and by developing and following up project proposals that are implemented with partner countries in the Arctic Council.
To support the expert group on environmental pollutants among indigenous
peoples, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency participated, among others, in an environmental forum in Alaska, USA. Within the framework of one of the group's projects, school children in various parts of Sápmi were taught about the mobile application for local environmental observers developed in Alaska. The application aims to encourage and coordinate local environmental observations in the Arctic and is specifically aimed at indigenous communities. The observations are needed to better understand the climate change in the Arctic.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has, on a joint initiative of Finland and the other Nordic countries and Canada, contributed to the OECD's work on analysing the benefit of reduced emissions in the Arctic. The project will analyse the economic consequences of measures to achieve the Arctic Council's objective of reducing emissions of black carbon.
Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management's work on
marine littering in the Arctic, a project run by the Arctic Council, has not
been financed by the bilateral cooperation fund during the year, but rather
through the Agency's appropriations on marine and aquatic environment
measures. The reason for this redistribution was an increased interest in and
therefore greater financing needs in other collaborations within the bilateral
The Barents Euro-Arctic Council
Environmental cooperation is one of the central areas of cooperation in the Barents Euro-Arctic Council. In the period 2018–2020, Sweden is Chairman of the
Council's environmental working group. The chairmanship was supported by the
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency by means of a contribution to the
International Barents Secretariat, but also by leading the work of the sub-groups to decommission particularly polluted areas (known as hotspots) as well as for nature conservation and water.
For some time now, Sweden has put a special effort into the work on so-called hot spots. As a result of this work, it became apparent during the year that there are significant knowledge gaps between central and regional administrations in this work and that there is a need for further training in the administrations. This would ensure that work on hotspots is speeded up. An important element is to link knowledge, actors and processes concerning bilateral cooperation on Russia's introduction of authorisation based on best available techniques (BAT).
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, together with the County
Administrative Boards of Norrbotten County and Västerbotten County, supported the implementation of the Action Plan on Climate Change for the Barents
Cooperation by participating in several conferences. A network of climate-relevant actors in the Barents region has been established and an in-depth study on
greenhouse gas emissions from energy production and consumption has been completed.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency contributes to the work on linking knowledge, actors and processes concerning bilateral cooperation on Russia's introduction of an environmental permitting system based on best available techniques (BAT).
Nordic Council of Ministers
Within the framework of the Swedish Presidency of the Nordic Council of
Ministers in 2018, among others, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
participated in two specific activities linked to green public procurement and economic instruments in the field of the environment.
In relation to green public procurement, a seminar was held in Stockholm during the year, with the participation of, among others, the Swedish Environmental
Protection Agency and the Council of the Baltic Sea States. inclusion of
environmental considerations and social considerations in procurements contributes to sustainable development and to achieving environmental quality objectives. In addition to the EU Directorate-General for Environment,
Together with the County Administrative Board of Norrbotten County, the Environmental Protection Agency contributes to the Barents Council's climate plan. Abisko, Norrbotten County. Photo Anne-Lise Vieux de Morzadec
27 representatives from various institutions and organisations from, for example, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia and Germany participated.
As regards economic instruments, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has contributed to the publication of a
report for decision-makersthrough the Nordic Council of Ministers working group on the environment and economy. The analysis has contributed to improved knowledge of economic instruments in the environmental field.
Western Indian Ocean
Last year, the Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management launched
a regional cooperation for countries around the Western Indian Ocean for exchanges in maritime spatial planning, environmental assessment and climate adaptation.
The programme's support is specifically aimed at broadening the Swedish Agency for Maritime and Water Management's poverty reduction involvement in the region. This involves, for example, supporting the poorest countries by including exchanges with the economically strong and influential parties in the region. The island of Mauritius in particular has requested this cooperation. The
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has identified as a first cooperation platform. Joint activities have been planned, including support for cumulative impact assessment in Mauritius, i.e. an assessment that takes into account the overall environmental impact on the island. However, the planned start-up seminar on the French island of Réunion was cancelled at very short notice due to a deteriorating security situation. The seminar is planned to take place during 2019 instead.
The authors assume sole responsibility for the con-tents of this report, which
therefore cannot be cited as representing the views of the Swedish EPA.
Swedish EPA SE-106 48 Stockholm. Visiting address: Stockholm - Virkesvägen 2, Östersund - Forskarens väg 5 hus Ub, Tel: +46 10 698 10 00, fax: +46 10 698 16 00, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: www.swedishepa.se Orders Ordertel: +46 8 505 933 40, e-mail: email@example.com Address: Arkitektkopia AB, Box 110 93, SE-161 11 Bromma. Internet: www.swedishepa.se/publications
Climate Cooperation with
Summary of the Annual Report 2018
The implementation of the 2030 Agenda, multilateral environmental agreements and the Swedish environmental quality objectives demand international cooperation. The Swedish government has a specific fund for bila-teral cooperation with strategic countries in the field of environment and climate. The bilateral cooperation is carried out by the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, the Swedish Chemicals Agency, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute and the Council of the Baltic Sea States.
In this summary of the annual report, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency presents the cooperation with Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, China, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, the United States of America, and Vietnam as well as within the Arctic Council, the Barents Euro-Arctic Council, and the Nordic Council of Ministers.
REPORT 6882 SWEDISH EPA ISBN 978-91-620-6882-0 ISSN 0282-7298