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Tomo - Materializing the implications of data gathering in a domestic setting


Academic year: 2021

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Materializing the implications of data gathering in a

domestic setting

Nina Cecilie Højholdt

Interaction Design

Master’s Programme (120 credits) 15 credits






Materializing​ ​the 

implications​ ​of​ ​data 

gathering​ ​in​ ​a​ ​domestic 




Nina​ ​Cecilie​ ​Højholdt   

Thesis​ ​project​ ​1​ ​-​ ​2017 

Interaction​ ​Design​ ​Master’s​ ​Programme  Malmö​ ​University 





Abstract 4 

Acknowledgements 4 

1.0​ ​Introduction 5 

1.1​ ​Research​ ​area​ ​and​ ​scope 5 

1.2​ ​Introducing​ ​Tomo 6 

1.3​ ​Research​ ​approach​ ​and​ ​method 7 

2.0​ ​Background 8 

2.1​ ​Smart,​ ​connected,​ ​everything 8 

2.2​ ​Early​ ​explorations:​ ​Creating​ ​a​ ​critical​ ​smart​ ​artefact​ ​for​ ​the​ ​home 10 

2.3​ ​Inspirational​ ​projects 13 

3.0​ ​Theory 15 

3.1​ ​Speculative​ ​design 16 

3.2​ ​Data​ ​collection​ ​and​ ​privacy​ ​in​ ​the​ ​age​ ​of​ ​pervasive​ ​computing 18 

3.3​ ​Big​ ​data​ ​and​ ​AI 19 

3.4​ ​Expressing​ ​data​ ​through​ ​manifestation​ ​in​ ​the​ ​physical​ ​world 21 

3.5​ ​Facilitating​ ​attachment 22 

4.0​ ​Design​ ​experiments 24 

4.1​ ​The​ ​Data​ ​Counter 24 

4.2​ ​The​ ​Data​ ​Mission 30 

5.0​ ​A​ ​creature​ ​that​ ​feeds​ ​on​ ​data 32 

5.1​ ​Breathing​ ​as​ ​the​ ​output 32 

5.2​ ​Physical​ ​form​ ​and​ ​materiality 36 

6.0​ ​Reflection​ ​and​ ​discussion 36 

6.1​ ​The​ ​design​ ​process 36 

6.2​ ​Design​ ​outcome​ ​-​ ​a​ ​more​ ​nuanced​ ​problem 37  6.3​ ​Reflections​ ​on​ ​the​ ​craft​ ​of​ ​the​ ​design 38 

7.0​ ​Conclusion​ ​and​ ​ending​ ​remarks 39 

References 40 






This​ ​project​ ​investigates​ ​the​ ​implications​ ​surrounding​ ​increased​ ​data​ ​collection​ ​in​ ​a  domestic​ ​setting.​ ​Applying​ ​a​ ​​research​ ​through​ ​design​​ ​approach,​ ​the​ ​project​ ​uses  sketching​ ​and​ ​prototyping​ ​as​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​materialize​ ​and​ ​explore​ ​the​ ​field.​ ​Topics​ ​such​ ​as  privacy​ ​and​ ​Big​ ​Data​ ​are​ ​explored,​ ​and​ ​the​ ​complex​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​people​ ​and​ ​data  gathering​ ​is​ ​investigated.​ ​This​ ​relationship​ ​is​ ​embodied​ ​in​ ​the​ ​final​ ​prototype,​ ​an 

interactive​ ​creature​ ​named​ ​Tomo,​ ​which​ ​feeds​ ​on​ ​the​ ​data​ ​people​ ​produce​ ​in​ ​their​ ​homes.  The​ ​design​ ​of​ ​Tomo​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​communicate​ ​these​ ​issues​ ​applying​ ​theory​ ​on​ ​information  visualization,​ ​facilitating​ ​attachment​ ​between​ ​humans​ ​and​ ​computational​ ​artefacts​ ​and  expression​ ​of​ ​emotion​ ​in​ ​robotics. 





I​ ​would​ ​like​ ​to​ ​thank​ ​my​ ​supervisor​ ​Clint​ ​Heyer​ ​for​ ​supporting​ ​me​ ​throughout​ ​this​ ​project,  for​ ​being​ ​available​ ​when​ ​he​ ​had​ ​no​ ​obligation​ ​to​ ​do​ ​so,​ ​and​ ​for​ ​not​ ​losing​ ​patience​ ​or  optimism​ ​when​ ​everything​ ​took​ ​longer​ ​than​ ​expected. 

I​ ​would​ ​also​ ​like​ ​to​ ​thank​ ​Jesper​ ​&​ ​Linn​ ​for​ ​participating​ ​in​ ​my​ ​research,​ ​and​ ​Thomas​ ​&  Victor​ ​for​ ​the​ ​great​ ​input,​ ​discussions​ ​and​ ​designerly​ ​advice​ ​throughout​ ​this​ ​project.  And​ ​finally,​ ​I​ ​would​ ​like​ ​to​ ​express​ ​gratitude​ ​to​ ​my​ ​roommates​ ​for​ ​not​ ​minding​ ​that​ ​I  researched​ ​and​ ​set​ ​up​ ​a​ ​“man​ ​in​ ​the​ ​middle”​ ​device​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​sniff​ ​all​ ​activity​ ​on​ ​our  shared​ ​home​ ​network.​ ​I​ ​promise​ ​I​ ​did​ ​not​ ​look​ ​at​ ​what​ ​you​ ​were​ ​doing​ ​online!   



1.0​ ​Introduction   

Computers​ ​are​ ​rapidly​ ​moving​ ​from​ ​being​ ​screen-based​ ​tools​ ​for​ ​productivity​ ​into​ ​the  realm​ ​of​ ​everyday​ ​life.​ ​From​ ​using​ ​biometrics​ ​to​ ​unlock​ ​our​ ​phones​ ​to​ ​having​ ​intelligent  thermostats​ ​that​ ​regulate​ ​the​ ​heat​ ​in​ ​our​ ​houses​ ​and​ ​asking​ ​our​ ​digital​ ​home​ ​assistants​ ​to  note​ ​down​ ​our​ ​grocery​ ​list,​ ​we​ ​invite​ ​computers​ ​to​ ​enter​ ​the​ ​more​ ​private​ ​and​ ​intimate  parts​ ​of​ ​our​ ​lives,​ ​which​ ​were​ ​previously​ ​reserved​ ​for​ ​a​ ​select​ ​few.​ ​Networked​ ​sensors​ ​and  artificial​ ​intelligence​ ​is​ ​put​ ​in​ ​everything​ ​from​ ​pillows,​ ​juice​ ​machines​ ​and​ ​ovens,​ ​to 

menstrual​ ​cups​ ​and​ ​toothbrushes.​ ​Astonishing​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​data​ ​is​ ​collected​ ​and​ ​this​ ​data​ ​is  becoming​ ​more​ ​detailed,​ ​more​ ​sensitive​ ​and​ ​more​ ​valuable.​ ​The​ ​trade-off​ ​between 

services,​ ​conveniences​ ​and​ ​benefits​ ​in​ ​exchange​ ​for​ ​data​ ​becomes​ ​increasingly​ ​complex,  and​ ​as​ ​more​ ​personal​ ​data​ ​is​ ​at​ ​stake,​ ​privacy​ ​concerns​ ​become​ ​more​ ​severe.​ ​However,  while​ ​people​ ​are​ ​increasingly​ ​worried​ ​about​ ​their​ ​privacy,​ ​opinion​ ​and​ ​behavior​ ​does​ ​not  necessarily​ ​go​ ​hand​ ​in​ ​hand.​ ​We​ ​gladly​ ​invite​ ​data-collecting​ ​devices​ ​into​ ​our​ ​lives​ ​and  enjoy​ ​their​ ​services,​ ​while​ ​at​ ​the​ ​same​ ​time​ ​fearing​ ​what​ ​consequences​ ​they​ ​might​ ​have  on​ ​our​ ​lives.​ ​At​ ​the​ ​same​ ​time,​ ​the​ ​rise​ ​in​ ​Big​ ​Data​ ​has​ ​provided​ ​us​ ​with​ ​increasingly  sophisticated​ ​methods​ ​of​ ​analyzing​ ​and​ ​extracting​ ​information​ ​from​ ​these​ ​growing  datasets.​ ​Artificial​ ​Intelligence​ ​driven​ ​by​ ​these​ ​data​ ​sets​ ​give​ ​rise​ ​to​ ​new​ ​discoveries,  improved​ ​services,​ ​greater​ ​efficiency.​ ​As​ ​this​ ​paper​ ​will​ ​show,​ ​some​ ​argue​ ​that​ ​these​ ​new  data-driven​ ​technologies​ ​will​ ​be​ ​what​ ​solves​ ​food​ ​security​ ​and​ ​climate​ ​change.​ ​And​ ​others  argue​ ​that​ ​the​ ​surveillance​ ​society​ ​has​ ​effectively​ ​materialized​ ​and​ ​that​ ​it​ ​will​ ​bring 

discrimination​ ​and​ ​abuse​ ​of​ ​power.    

This​ ​project​ ​takes​ ​a​ ​​research​ ​through​ ​design​​ ​approach​ ​to​ ​exploring​ ​the​ ​above​ ​mentioned  problem​ ​space,​ ​and​ ​results​ ​in​ ​a​ ​final​ ​prototype,​ ​Tomo. 


1.1​ ​Research​ ​area​ ​and​ ​scope 

This​ ​project​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​implications​ ​that​ ​arise​ ​when​ ​the​ ​objects​ ​we  surround​ ​ourselves​ ​with​ ​start​ ​gathering​ ​data​ ​about​ ​us.​ ​The​ ​project​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​illuminate​ ​the  topic​ ​from​ ​multiple​ ​angles​ ​and​ ​discourses,​ ​covering​ ​issues​ ​such​ ​as​ ​privacy​ ​and​ ​Big​ ​Data.  The​ ​project​ ​focuses​ ​on​ ​data​ ​submission​ ​from​ ​everyday​ ​objects​ ​in​ ​a​ ​domestic​ ​setting,​ ​in  order​ ​to​ ​focus​ ​on​ ​a​ ​novel​ ​problem,​ ​but​ ​also​ ​limit​ ​the​ ​scope.​ ​The​ ​problem​ ​sought​ ​to​ ​explore  then​ ​becomes: 


What​ ​are​ ​the​ ​implications​ ​surrounding​ ​data​ ​collection​ ​in​ ​a​ ​domestic​ ​setting​ ​and​ ​how​ ​can 

these​ ​be​ ​embodied​ ​in​ ​an​ ​interactive​ ​artefact?   


Being​ ​placed​ ​within​ ​interaction​ ​design,​ ​the​ ​project​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​employ​ ​a​ ​​research​ ​through 

design​​ ​approach,​ ​using​ ​prototypes​ ​as​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​materialize​ ​ideas​ ​and​ ​the​ ​knowledge  gained.​ ​The​ ​project​ ​does​ ​not​ ​seek​ ​to​ ​find​ ​solutions​ ​to​ ​problems​ ​or​ ​answers​ ​to​ ​questions,  but​ ​rather​ ​to​ ​ask​ ​questions​ ​and​ ​challenge​ ​values. 

The​ ​project’s​ ​aim​ ​is​ ​to​ ​result​ ​in​ ​an​ ​artefact​ ​designed​ ​for​ ​a​ ​possible​ ​future,​ ​seeking​ ​to  illustrate​ ​the​ ​problem​ ​of​ ​data​ ​collection​ ​in​ ​a​ ​domestic​ ​setting​ ​from​ ​multiple​ ​dimensions.  However,​ ​the​ ​goal​ ​is​ ​not​ ​to​ ​create​ ​a​ ​fully-functional​ ​final​ ​product​ ​or​ ​prototype.​ ​The  prototypes​ ​created​ ​are​ ​intended​ ​as​ ​design​ ​tools​ ​and​ ​as​ ​means​ ​of​ ​inquiry​ ​and​ ​exploration.   


1.2​ ​Introducing​ ​Tomo 

In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​illuminate​ ​the​ ​implications​ ​regarding​ ​data​ ​gathering​ ​in​ ​a​ ​domestic​ ​setting,​ ​I​ ​have  created​ ​a​ ​series​ ​of​ ​conceptual​ ​design​ ​experiments​ ​and​ ​prototypes.​ ​These​ ​have​ ​resulted​ ​in  a​ ​final​ ​prototype,​ ​a​ ​critical​ ​design​ ​artefact,​ ​named​ ​Tomo.​ ​Tomo​ ​is​ ​a​ ​creature​ ​that​ ​lives​ ​in  one’s​ ​home​ ​and​ ​feeds​ ​on​ ​data.​ ​The​ ​more​ ​data​ ​there​ ​is​ ​produced​ ​and​ ​captured​ ​in​ ​the  home,​ ​the​ ​happier​ ​and​ ​healthier​ ​Tomo​ ​is,​ ​illustrated​ ​through​ ​calm,​ ​rhythmic​ ​breathing​ ​(the  artefact​ ​moving​ ​up​ ​and​ ​down).​ ​If​ ​undernourished,​ ​Tomo​ ​will​ ​start​ ​gasping,​ ​and​ ​eventually  decrease​ ​in​ ​size​ ​and​ ​die.  


  Figure​ ​1,​ ​Tomo 



Tomo​ ​is​ ​designed​ ​to​ ​facilitate​ ​a​ ​relationship​ ​between​ ​the​ ​human​ ​user​ ​and​ ​itself,​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to  illustrate​ ​the​ ​complex​ ​relationship​ ​we​ ​have​ ​with​ ​data​ ​submission.​ ​By​ ​giving​ ​away​ ​our​ ​data,  we​ ​are​ ​in​ ​return​ ​given​ ​better​ ​services,​ ​personalized​ ​experiences​ ​and​ ​convenience.  Furthermore,​ ​we​ ​are​ ​contributing​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Big​ ​Data​ ​pool​ ​and​ ​Artificial​ ​Intelligence​ ​systems,  promised​ ​by​ ​some​ ​to​ ​solve​ ​the​ ​world’s​ ​problems.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​illustrated​ ​by​ ​the​ ​happy,​ ​cute  creature​ ​living​ ​with​ ​you,​ ​which​ ​depends​ ​​ ​on​ ​you​ ​for​ ​its​ ​survival.​ ​At​ ​the​ ​same​ ​time,​ ​it​ ​feels  forced;​ ​data​ ​is​ ​largely​ ​collected​ ​without​ ​our​ ​informed​ ​consent​ ​and​ ​knowledge,​ ​and​ ​though  most​ ​of​ ​us​ ​feel​ ​invaded​ ​on​ ​our​ ​privacy,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​too​ ​complicated,​ ​inconvenient​ ​or​ ​downright  impossible​ ​to​ ​opt-out.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​illustrated​ ​by​ ​the​ ​pressure​ ​Tomo​ ​puts​ ​on​ ​you​ ​to​ ​keep​ ​it​ ​alive,  keep​ ​it​ ​happy​ ​-​ ​because​ ​who​ ​would​ ​want​ ​to​ ​kill​ ​such​ ​a​ ​cute​ ​little​ ​thing? 


1.3​ ​Research​ ​approach​ ​and​ ​method 

My​ ​methodological​ ​approach​ ​has​ ​relied​ ​mainly​ ​on​ ​applying​ ​​research​ ​through​ ​design​ ​​(RtD),  a​ ​method​ ​which​ ​draws​ ​on​ ​design​ ​practice​ ​and​ ​processes​ ​as​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​conduct​ ​research.  RtD​ ​seems​ ​appropriate​ ​for​ ​the​ ​research​ ​problem,​ ​as​ ​it​ ​“​allows​ ​researchers​ ​to​ ​rely​ ​on 

designerly​ ​activities​ ​as​ ​a​ ​way​ ​of​ ​approaching​ ​messy​ ​situations​ ​with​ ​unclear​ ​or​ ​even 

conflicting​ ​agendas​”​ ​(Zimmerman,​ ​Stolterman,​ ​&​ ​Forlizzi,​ ​2010,​ ​p.​ ​310).​ ​When​ ​applying​ ​RtD,  the​ ​focus​ ​lies​ ​not​ ​on​ ​designing​ ​for​ ​the​ ​present​ ​or​ ​past,​ ​but​ ​using​ ​prototypes​ ​and 

materialized​ ​ideas​ ​to​ ​reflect​ ​on​ ​potential​ ​and/or​ ​desirable​ ​futures.​ ​Zimmerman​ ​et​ ​al.​ ​(2010)  describes​ ​RtD​ ​as​ ​a​ ​non-formalized​ ​approach​ ​without​ ​a​ ​specific​ ​way​ ​of​ ​documenting​ ​the  knowledge​ ​gained.​ ​Rather,​ ​it​ ​revolves​ ​around​ ​applying​ ​an​ ​iterative​ ​approach​ ​to​ ​make​ ​a  concrete​ ​design​ ​artefact,​ ​which​ ​then​ ​becomes​ ​the​ ​carrier​ ​of​ ​the​ ​knowledge​ ​gained;​ ​an  implicit​ ​theoretical​ ​contribution.​ ​Additionally,​ ​RtD​ ​can​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​​theory​ ​for​ ​design​,​ ​theory​ ​that  is​ ​developed​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​improve​ ​design​ ​practice.​ ​This​ ​can​ ​take​ ​the​ ​form​ ​of​ ​conceptual  frameworks,​ ​guiding​ ​philosophies,​ ​implications​ ​for​ ​design​ ​or​ ​design​ ​implications  (Zimmerman​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2010). 


In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​apply​ ​research​ ​through​ ​design,​ ​my​ ​project​ ​has​ ​taken​ ​an​ ​iterative​ ​approach,  using​ ​design​ ​experiments​ ​and​ ​prototypes​ ​as​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​reframe​ ​and​ ​reflect​ ​on​ ​the​ ​problem  at​ ​hand.​ ​Using​ ​practices​ ​and​ ​processes​ ​from​ ​the​ ​field​ ​of​ ​design,​ ​I​ ​have​ ​used​ ​sketching​ ​and  various​ ​levels​ ​of​ ​prototyping​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​drive​ ​my​ ​project​ ​forward​ ​and​ ​gain​ ​new​ ​insights.  



2.0​ ​Background  

This​ ​chapter​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​uncover​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​underlying​ ​motivations​ ​for​ ​this​ ​project.​ ​The​ ​first  section​ ​is​ ​a​ ​review​ ​of​ ​the​ ​current​ ​state​ ​of​ ​smart​ ​home​ ​products​ ​-​ ​that​ ​is,​ ​data​ ​collecting  artefacts​ ​designed​ ​for​ ​a​ ​domestic​ ​settings. 

Following​ ​that,​ ​a​ ​short​ ​overview​ ​of​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​explorations,​ ​inquiries​ ​and​ ​ideas​ ​which  formed​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​of​ ​this​ ​project​ ​is​ ​presented.​ ​While​ ​these​ ​are​ ​not​ ​directly​ ​relevant​ ​to  the​ ​final​ ​problem​ ​space​ ​and​ ​resulting​ ​design,​ ​they​ ​laid​ ​the​ ​foundation​ ​for​ ​my​ ​further​ ​work,  and​ ​I​ ​have​ ​therefore​ ​chosen​ ​to​ ​include​ ​them. 

Finally,​ ​I​ ​will​ ​present​ ​two​ ​inspirational​ ​interaction​ ​design​ ​projects,​ ​which​​ ​​have​ ​made​ ​an  impression​ ​and​ ​inspired​ ​my​ ​project. 


2.1​ ​Smart,​ ​connected,​ ​everything 

Throughout​ ​the​ ​project​ ​I​ ​continuously​ ​explored​ ​existing​ ​data​ ​collecting​ ​products​ ​for​ ​the  home.​ ​A​ ​deep​ ​understanding​ ​of​ ​the​ ​context​ ​and​ ​current​ ​state​ ​of​ ​your​ ​design​ ​field​ ​is  important;​ ​knowing​ ​the​ ​newest​ ​developments​ ​and​ ​the​ ​extend​ ​of​ ​the​ ​situation,​ ​enables​ ​a  designer​ ​to​ ​create​ ​something​ ​meaningful​ ​and​ ​insightful. 


While​ ​most​ ​products​ ​mentioned​ ​in​ ​this​ ​section​ ​are​ ​re-designs​ ​of​ ​existing​ ​products,​ ​“home  assistants”​ ​(smart​ ​speakers​ ​embedded​ ​with​ ​microphones​ ​and​ ​intelligent​ ​virtual​ ​assistants)  on​ ​the​ ​other​ ​hand​ ​is​ ​a​ ​new​ ​category​ ​of​ ​connected​ ​devices.​ ​These​ ​include​ ​the​ ​Google  Home1​ ​and​ ​the​ ​Amazon​ ​Echo .​ ​While​ ​these​ ​device’s​ ​always-listening​ ​microphones​ ​have 2

caused​ ​debate,​ ​the​ ​announcement​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Amazon​ ​Echo​ ​Look​ ​was​ ​even​ ​more 

controversial.​ ​The​ ​Echo​ ​Look​ ​is​ ​described​ ​by​ ​Amazon​ ​as​ ​a​ ​“Hands-Free​ ​Camera​ ​and​ ​Style  Assistant” ,3​ ​but​ ​has​ ​received​ ​much​ ​criticism​ ​for​ ​being​ ​a​ ​way​ ​for​ ​Amazon​ ​to​ ​embed​ ​a  camera​ ​in​ ​your​ ​most​ ​private​ ​sphere,​ ​gathering​ ​very​ ​vulnerable​ ​data,​ ​on​ ​a​ ​doubtful  foundation​ ​(Barrett,​ ​2017;​ ​Vincent,​ ​2017).  

From​ ​intelligent​ ​home​ ​assistants,​ ​let​ ​us​ ​move​ ​into​ ​the​ ​realm​ ​of​ ​pre-existing​ ​products,  redesigned​ ​to​ ​be​ ​connected​ ​and​ ​smart​ ​or​ ​intelligent.​ ​While​ ​I​ ​had​ ​the​ ​impression​ ​that​ ​a  large​ ​number​ ​of​ ​smart​ ​home​ ​products​ ​were​ ​already​ ​in​ ​development​ ​or​ ​on​ ​the​ ​market,​ ​I  was​ ​surprised​ ​to​ ​learn​ ​just​ ​how​ ​many​ ​things​ ​has​ ​been​ ​re-invented​ ​into​ ​a​ ​smart​ ​version.  Surveying​ ​technology​ ​news​ ​sites,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​Wired,​ ​The​ ​Verge​ ​and​ ​Forbes,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as  crowd-funding​ ​pages​ ​like​ ​Kickstarter​ ​and​ ​Indiegogo,​ ​numerous​ ​examples​ ​of​ ​relevant  1​ ​​Google​ ​Home​ ​website 

2​ ​​Amazon​ ​Echo​ ​on​ ​amazon.com  3​ ​​Echo​ ​Look​ ​on​ ​amazon.com 


products​ ​were​ ​found,​ ​all​ ​placed​ ​in​ ​the​ ​home,​ ​and​ ​all​ ​gathering​ ​huge​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​data​ ​about  their​ ​users.  

Starting​ ​in​ ​the​ ​bedroom,​ ​along​ ​with​ ​the​ ​Echo​ ​Look,​ ​several​ ​smart​ ​pillows​ ​are​ ​in 

development​ ​and​ ​production,​ ​such​ ​as​ ​the​ ​Zeeq​ ​Smart​ ​Pillow ​ ​and​ ​Sunrise​ ​Smart​ ​Pillow .​ ​In 4 5

addition​ ​to​ ​playing​ ​music​ ​and​ ​waking​ ​you​ ​up,​ ​these​ ​pillows​ ​are​ ​able​ ​to​ ​monitor​ ​your​ ​sleep  patterns,​ ​using​ ​technology​ ​such​ ​as​ ​microphones,​ ​gyroscopes​ ​and​ ​accelerometers.  

​ ​  

Figure​ ​2,​ ​the​ ​Zeeq​ ​Smart​ ​Pillow​ ​&​ ​the​ ​Toasteroid   

Moving​ ​on​ ​to​ ​the​ ​bathroom,​ ​after​ ​being​ ​woken​ ​by​ ​a​ ​smart​ ​pillow,​ ​one​ ​could​ ​clean​ ​their  teeth​ ​using​ ​the​ ​Ara​ ​toothbrush,​ ​which​ ​is​ ​claimed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​“the​ ​first​ ​toothbrush​ ​with​ ​Artificial  Intelligence” ,6​ ​using​ ​deep​ ​learning​ ​algorithms​ ​to​ ​analyze​ ​your​ ​brushing​ ​data.​ ​Or​ ​if​ ​that’s​ ​not  sufficient,​ ​there​ ​is​ ​the​ ​Prophix ​ ​which,​ ​in​ ​addition​ ​to​ ​tracking​ ​your​ ​dental​ ​care​ ​like​ ​the​ ​Ara, 7

also​ ​live​ ​streams​ ​video​ ​of​ ​your​ ​brushing​ ​to​ ​your​ ​phone.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​the​ ​Nokia​ ​Hair​ ​Coach ​ ​smart​ ​hairbrush​ ​will​ ​use​ ​various​ ​sensors​ ​to​ ​analyse​ ​your​ ​hair​ ​and​ ​send​ ​you​ ​the​ ​results​ ​via 


Bluetooth​ ​or​ ​Wi-Fi. 

Continuing​ ​to​ ​the​ ​kitchen,​ ​most​ ​appliances​ ​seem​ ​to​ ​exist​ ​in​ ​a​ ​smart​ ​version.​ ​Examples  includes​ ​SMALT ,​ ​a​ ​smart​ ​salt​ ​shaker,​ ​Samsung’s​ ​range​ ​of​ ​Wi-Fi​ ​connected​ ​stoves ​ ​which 9 10

enables​ ​the​ ​user​ ​to​ ​monitor​ ​their​ ​stoves​ ​remotely​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​turn​ ​the​ ​oven​ ​on.​ ​And​ ​the  Toasteroid ,11​ ​a​ ​toaster​ ​that​ ​will​ ​remind​ ​you​ ​to​ ​pay​ ​bills​ ​or​ ​have​ ​loved​ ​ones​ ​remotely​ ​send  you​ ​messages,​ ​burned​ ​into​ ​your​ ​morning​ ​toast.​ ​And​ ​last​ ​in​ ​the​ ​kitchen:​ ​The​ ​often​ ​ridiculed  Juicero,​ ​a​ ​$400​ ​juice​ ​presser,​ ​which​ ​only​ ​works​ ​when​ ​connected​ ​to​ ​Wi-Fi​ ​(see​ ​figure​ ​3).   

4​ ​​Zeeq​ ​Smart​ ​Pillow​ ​on​ ​kickstarter   5​ ​​Sunrise​ ​Smart​ ​Pillow​ ​on​ ​kickstarter  6​ ​​Ara​ ​website  

7​ ​​Prophix​ ​website   8​ ​​Hair​ ​Coach​ ​website   9​ ​​SMALT​ ​website  

10​ ​​Samsung​ ​smart​ ​stove​ ​announcement   11​ ​​Toasteroid​ ​website  



Figure​ ​3.​ ​Retrieved​ ​from​ ​​Twitter​​ ​on​ ​August​ ​17​ ​2017   

Furthermore,​ ​one​ ​might​ ​use​ ​one​ ​of​ ​several​ ​smart​ ​water​ ​bottles​ ​and​ ​cups ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​to​ ​track​ ​fluid 12 13 14

consumption,​ ​or​ ​keep​ ​an​ ​eye​ ​on​ ​ones​ ​pets​ ​with​ ​Furbo ,​ ​a​ ​digital​ ​“dog​ ​sitter”,​ ​featuring​ ​a 15

HD​ ​camera​ ​and​ ​microphone,​ ​able​ ​to​ ​notify​ ​you​ ​when​ ​your​ ​dog​ ​is​ ​barking,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​a​ ​treat  dispenser.​ ​And​ ​then​ ​there’s​ ​LOONCUP ,​ ​a​ ​bluetooth​ ​enabled​ ​menstrual​ ​cup,​ ​which​ ​comes 16

with​ ​an​ ​app​ ​for​ ​tracking​ ​one’s​ ​cycle,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​color​ ​and​ ​volume​ ​of​ ​the​ ​blood.  While​ ​some​ ​of​ ​these​ ​products​ ​might​ ​seem​ ​silly​ ​or​ ​harmless,​ ​we​ ​can​ ​not​ ​deny​ ​that 

introducing​ ​them​ ​to​ ​your​ ​home​ ​will​ ​result​ ​in​ ​massive​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​data​ ​gathering​ ​about​ ​your  daily​ ​activities. 

And​ ​while​ ​having​ ​these​ ​artefacts​ ​in​ ​your​ ​possession​ ​might​ ​not​ ​be​ ​a​ ​commonplace​ ​thing  (and​ ​some​ ​of​ ​them​ ​are​ ​not​ ​even​ ​available​ ​on​ ​the​ ​market​ ​yet),​ ​their​ ​existence​ ​is​ ​a​ ​reality,  which​ ​invites​ ​for​ ​a​ ​discussion​ ​on​ ​the​ ​implications​ ​of​ ​such​ ​artefacts. 


2.2​ ​Early​ ​explorations:​ ​Creating​ ​a​ ​critical​ ​smart​ ​artefact  for​ ​the​ ​home 

This​ ​section​ ​will​ ​cover​ ​some​ ​of​ ​this​ ​project’s​ ​early​ ​research​ ​and​ ​ideas.​ ​While​ ​the​ ​research  was​ ​eventually​ ​largely​ ​irrelevant​ ​and​ ​the​ ​ideas​ ​abandoned,​ ​they​ ​laid​ ​the​ ​foundation​ ​for​ ​the  further​ ​work,​ ​and​ ​I​ ​have​ ​therefore​ ​chosen​ ​to​ ​include​ ​them. 

12​ ​​Hidrate​ ​Spark​ ​on​ ​kickstarter    13​ ​​Vessyl​ ​website  

14​ ​​Ozmo​ ​Smart​ ​Bottle​ ​website   15​ ​​Furbo​ ​on​ ​Indiegogo   16​ ​​LOONCUP​ ​on​ ​kickstarter  



For​ ​quite​ ​some​ ​time,​ ​the​ ​project​ ​was​ ​focused​ ​on​ ​redesigning​ ​everyday​ ​objects​ ​in​ ​the  home,​ ​making​ ​them​ ​smart,​ ​but​ ​from​ ​a​ ​critical​ ​design​ ​(see​ ​section​ ​3.1)​ ​point​ ​of​ ​view.​ ​I​ ​sought  to​ ​create​ ​artefacts​ ​so​ ​obscure​ ​that​ ​they​ ​would​ ​surely​ ​provoke​ ​reflection​ ​on​ ​the​ ​need​ ​for  embodying​ ​the​ ​objects​ ​surrounding​ ​us​ ​with​ ​technology.  


2.2.1​ ​Field​ ​Research​ ​DONE 

In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​find​ ​design​ ​openings​ ​for​ ​designing​ ​an​ ​obscure​ ​smart​ ​artefact​ ​for​ ​the​ ​home,​ ​I  conducted​ ​two​ ​types​ ​of​ ​field​ ​studies;​ ​a​ ​personal​ ​inquiry​ ​into​ ​my​ ​own​ ​home,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​two  field​ ​inquiries​ ​in​ ​the​ ​homes​ ​of​ ​friends.  

The​ ​first​ ​study​ ​into​ ​possible​ ​objects​ ​of​ ​interest,​ ​was​ ​done​ ​from​ ​a​ ​very​ ​personal​ ​point​ ​of  view,​ ​by​ ​exploring​ ​and​ ​pondering​ ​about​ ​which​ ​objects​ ​I​ ​myself​ ​surround​ ​myself​ ​with,​ ​and  which​ ​would​ ​be​ ​interesting​ ​design​ ​openings.​ ​For​ ​three​ ​days,​ ​I​ ​went​ ​through​ ​my​ ​daily  routines,​ ​noting​ ​which​ ​objects​ ​I​ ​interacted​ ​with​ ​and​ ​my​ ​experience​ ​with​ ​them,​ ​e.g.​ ​how  useful,​ ​interesting​ ​and​ ​pleasant​ ​the​ ​object​ ​felt.​ ​These​ ​observations​ ​were​ ​then​ ​collected,  and​ ​the​ ​ones​ ​that​ ​stood​ ​out​ ​as​ ​notable​ ​were​ ​chosen​ ​for​ ​further​ ​considerations. 


The​ ​objects​ ​that​ ​people​ ​chose​ ​to​ ​surround​ ​themselves​ ​with​ ​and​ ​interact​ ​with​ ​daily  undoubtedly​ ​varies​ ​greatly,​ ​so​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​gain​ ​more​ ​perspectives​ ​and​ ​insights,​ ​I​ ​chose​ ​to  conduct​ ​field​ ​studies.​ ​Due​ ​to​ ​time​ ​restrictions,​ ​I​ ​ended​ ​up​ ​doing​ ​two​ ​inquiries,​ ​in​ ​the​ ​homes  of​ ​friends.​ ​The​ ​two​ ​friends,​ ​however,​ ​were​ ​chosen​ ​because​ ​of​ ​their​ ​very​ ​contrasting  relationships​ ​to​ ​technology;​ ​one​ ​is​ ​an​ ​avid​ ​user​ ​and​ ​developer,​ ​the​ ​other​ ​just​ ​recently  acquired​ ​a​ ​smartphone. 

From​ ​this​ ​research,​ ​I​ ​gained​ ​several​ ​interesting​ ​insights.​ ​Firstly,​ ​I​ ​found​ ​that​ ​although​ ​the  market​ ​for​ ​everyday​ ​objects​ ​embedded​ ​with​ ​technology​ ​is​ ​huge​ ​and​ ​growing,​ ​neither  myself​ ​nor​ ​my​ ​friends​ ​had​ ​many​ ​online​ ​objects​ ​in​ ​the​ ​home.​ ​One​ ​respondent​ ​and​ ​myself  have​ ​a​ ​“smart​ ​TV”,​ ​but​ ​besides​ ​that,​ ​computers​ ​and​ ​smartphones​ ​were​ ​the​ ​only​ ​connected  objects​ ​to​ ​be​ ​found.​ ​This​ ​suggest​ ​that​ ​the​ ​prevalence​ ​of​ ​smart,​ ​connected​ ​objects​ ​might  not​ ​be​ ​as​ ​common​ ​as​ ​I​ ​had​ ​anticipated.  

Furthermore,​ ​I​ ​learned​ ​that​ ​the​ ​scope​ ​of​ ​objects​ ​in​ ​the​ ​home​ ​one​ ​might​ ​interact​ ​with​ ​on​ ​a  daily​ ​basis​ ​is​ ​lower​ ​than​ ​expected.​ ​When​ ​asked​ ​about​ ​what​ ​objects​ ​my​ ​respondents​ ​would  use​ ​throughout​ ​their​ ​day,​ ​the​ ​number​ ​was​ ​small;​ ​mostly​ ​objects​ ​residing​ ​in​ ​the​ ​kitchen​ ​and  bathroom​ ​were​ ​mentioned.​ ​However,​ ​to​ ​both​ ​of​ ​my​ ​respondents,​ ​the​ ​usefulness​ ​of​ ​an  object​ ​did​ ​not​ ​correlate​ ​with​ ​its​ ​value.​ ​Sentimental​ ​value,​ ​aesthetics​ ​and​ ​politics​​ ​​(e.g.​ ​being  environmentally​ ​friendly)​ ​counted​ ​much​ ​beyond​ ​usefulness​ ​and​ ​often​ ​of​ ​use,​ ​in​ ​regards​ ​to  what​ ​objects​ ​they​ ​cherished​ ​the​ ​most.​ ​While​ ​not​ ​inherently​ ​groundbreaking,​ ​this​ ​insight  pointed​ ​me​ ​towards​ ​designing​ ​an​ ​object​ ​that​ ​is​ ​not​ ​necessarily​ ​useful,​ ​but​ ​can​ ​be  appreciated​ ​(or​ ​resented)​ ​for​ ​its​ ​embedded​ ​values​ ​or​ ​story. 



These​ ​insights,​ ​of​ ​course,​ ​cannot​ ​be​ ​generalized,​ ​as​ ​they​ ​are​ ​drawn​ ​from​ ​a​ ​very​ ​narrow​ ​set  of​ ​data.​ ​Both​ ​in​ ​quantity​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​diversity​ ​(everyone​ ​belonging​ ​to​ ​the​ ​same​ ​social​ ​group)  the​ ​scope​ ​of​ ​the​ ​research​ ​is​ ​very​ ​limited.​ ​The​ ​intentions​ ​behind​ ​the​ ​inquiries​ ​however,​ ​was  not​ ​to​ ​gain​ ​representative​ ​insights​ ​and​ ​knowledge,​ ​but​ ​rather​ ​to​ ​get​ ​a​ ​more​ ​personal  perspective​ ​on​ ​the​ ​state​ ​of​ ​smart​ ​homes,​ ​than​ ​what​ ​is​ ​presented​ ​by​ ​the​ ​media​ ​and  especially​ ​the​ ​manufacturers​ ​of​ ​smart​ ​home​ ​products. 


2.2.2​ ​Conceptual​ ​ideas 

Following​ ​this​ ​research,​ ​concepts​ ​for​ ​a​ ​number​ ​of​ ​obscure,​ ​critical​ ​smart-home​ ​products,  were​ ​sketched​ ​and​ ​explored.​ ​The​ ​electric​ ​kettle​ ​was​ ​chosen​ ​as​ ​the​ ​object​ ​of​ ​interest,​ ​as​ ​it  was​ ​mentioned​ ​by​ ​both​ ​field​ ​study​ ​subjects​ ​as​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​their​ ​daily​ ​routine;​ ​redesigning​ ​an  object​ ​which​ ​everyone​ ​can​ ​expected​ ​to​ ​be​ ​familiar​ ​with​ ​and​ ​have​ ​a​ ​conceptual​ ​model​ ​for  was​ ​intriguing).​ ​Furthermore​ ​it​ ​was​ ​interesting​ ​to​ ​me​ ​because​ ​of​ ​its​ ​single-purposeness​ ​(to  boil​ ​water). 

The​ ​idea​ ​of​ ​​The​ ​Vitamin​ ​Kettle​ ​​was​ ​conceptualized​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​play​ ​on​ ​a​ ​prevalent​ ​societal  trend;​ ​the​ ​pursuit​ ​to​ ​stay​ ​extremely​ ​healthy.​ ​Juice​ ​detoxes,​ ​speciality​ ​diets​ ​and,​ ​on​ ​a  technological​ ​level,​ ​fitness​ ​tracking​ ​as​ ​a​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​quantified​ ​self​ ​movement,​ ​all​ ​play​ ​into  this.​ ​The​ ​Vitamin​ ​Kettle​ ​was​ ​thought​ ​as​ ​a​ ​critical​ ​design​ ​piece,​ ​appropriating​ ​such​ ​trends​ ​in  order​ ​to​ ​become​ ​an​ ​object​ ​of​ ​desire,​ ​while​ ​collecting​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​intimate​ ​and  vulnerable​ ​personal​ ​data​ ​-​ ​blood​ ​samples. 


  Figure​ ​4,​ ​Mapping​ ​of​ ​the​ ​features​ ​of​ ​a​ ​kettle   

With​ ​The​ ​Vitamin​ ​Kettle,​ ​the​ ​user​ ​would​ ​experience​ ​a​ ​small​ ​needle​ ​prick​ ​on​ ​the​ ​finger​ ​as  they​ ​turn​ ​on​ ​the​ ​kettle.​ ​From​ ​the​ ​resulting​ ​blood​ ​sample,​ ​the​ ​user’s​ ​nutrition​ ​levels​ ​would  be​ ​analysed​ ​and​ ​appropriate​ ​vitamins​ ​and​ ​minerals​ ​would​ ​be​ ​added​ ​to​ ​the​ ​boiling​ ​water.  Thus,​ ​making​ ​sure​ ​the​ ​user​ ​would​ ​always​ ​be​ ​the​ ​healthiest​ ​version​ ​of​ ​themselves,​ ​while  simply​ ​consuming​ ​their​ ​morning​ ​coffee​ ​or​ ​tea.  


After​ ​conceptualizing​ ​The​ ​Vitamin​ ​Kettle,​ ​however,​ ​the​ ​survey​ ​of​ ​the​ ​existent​ ​smart-home  market​ ​covered​ ​in​ ​section​ ​2.1​ ​was​ ​conducted,​ ​which​ ​eventually​ ​led​ ​to​ ​the​ ​abandonment​ ​of  the​ ​concept. 


2.2.1​ ​A​ ​fresh​ ​focus 

While​ ​this​ ​project​ ​should​ ​not​ ​deal​ ​with​ ​my​ ​personal​ ​experiences,​ ​it​ ​would​ ​be​ ​neglectant  not​ ​to​ ​mention​ ​the​ ​eerie​ ​feeling​ ​that​ ​crept​ ​over​ ​me,​ ​as​ ​I​ ​wrote​ ​section​ ​2.1.​ ​Up​ ​until​ ​that  point,​ ​this​ ​project​ ​sought​ ​to​ ​create​ ​a​ ​critical,​ ​satirical​ ​artefact,​ ​which​ ​would​ ​surely​ ​question  the​ ​need​ ​and​ ​usefulness​ ​of​ ​data-collecting,​ ​connected,​ ​smart​ ​artefacts.​ ​However,​ ​after  researching​ ​the​ ​current​ ​state​ ​of​ ​these​ ​products​ ​and​ ​continuously​ ​sketching​ ​on​ ​The​ ​Vitamin  Kettle​ ​and​ ​similar​ ​concepts,​ ​I​ ​came​ ​to​ ​a​ ​realization:​ ​I​ ​would​ ​not​ ​be​ ​able​ ​to​ ​create 

something​ ​adequately​ ​extreme​ ​for​ ​a​ ​critical​ ​design​ ​piece​ ​on​ ​the​ ​topic.​ ​While​ ​the 

shock-factor​ ​greatly​ ​resides​ ​in​ ​the​ ​sum​ ​of​ ​the​ ​connected​ ​products,​ ​some​ ​of​ ​them​ ​stand​ ​out  individually​ ​as​ ​very​ ​provoking​ ​to​ ​me,​ ​not​ ​far​ ​from​ ​the​ ​reality​ ​of​ ​The​ ​Vitamin​ ​Kettle.​ ​The  pillows​ ​collecting​ ​data​ ​in​ ​your​ ​bed,​ ​undoubtedly​ ​making​ ​the​ ​receivers​ ​able​ ​to​ ​interpret​ ​the  users’​ ​sexual​ ​lives.​ ​The​ ​menstrual​ ​cup,​ ​residing​ ​in​ ​one​ ​of​ ​the​ ​most​ ​private​ ​of​ ​all​ ​places,  collecting​ ​data​ ​which​ ​will​ ​inform​ ​the​ ​analyst​ ​of​ ​not​ ​only​ ​the​ ​user’s​ ​reproductive​ ​health,​ ​but  her​ ​whole​ ​body.  


While​ ​these​ ​devices​ ​might​ ​not​ ​be​ ​extreme​ ​on​ ​their​ ​own,​ ​or​ ​as​ ​merely​ ​collectors​ ​of​ ​data,​ ​it  is​ ​the​ ​opportunities​ ​they​ ​foster​ ​that​ ​can​ ​seem​ ​eerie,​ ​both​ ​in​ ​the​ ​wake​ ​of​ ​the​ ​data​ ​being  analysed,​ ​and​ ​especially​ ​when​ ​they​ ​exist​ ​in​ ​unison.​ ​As​ ​I​ ​will​ ​cover​ ​in​ ​subsequent​ ​section,  the​ ​large​ ​amounts​ ​of​ ​data​ ​we​ ​submit​ ​about​ ​our​ ​online​ ​activities​ ​have​ ​great​ ​value​ ​for​ ​a  number​ ​of​ ​parties.​ ​And​ ​as​ ​this​ ​data​ ​collection​ ​is​ ​literally​ ​moving​ ​into​ ​our​ ​homes,​ ​and​ ​the  data​ ​becomes​ ​increasingly​ ​personal,​ ​how​ ​will​ ​that​ ​challenge​ ​our​ ​values​ ​and​ ​ideas​ ​about  privacy?  


I​ ​therefore​ ​made​ ​the​ ​decision​ ​to​ ​shift​ ​focus​ ​and​ ​abandon​ ​the​ ​Vitamin​ ​Kettle.​ ​Undoubtedly,  there​ ​is​ ​room​ ​for​ ​making​ ​critical​ ​smart​ ​home​ ​design​ ​pieces,​ ​however,​ ​for​ ​me​ ​personally,  the​ ​data​ ​resulting​ ​from​ ​these​ ​artefact​ ​and​ ​the​ ​implications​ ​surrounding​ ​this,​ ​became​ ​more  interesting​ ​than​ ​the​ ​objects​ ​themselves.  


2.3​ ​Inspirational​ ​projects 

Throughout​ ​the​ ​process,​ ​I​ ​have​ ​looked​ ​to​ ​existing​ ​interaction​ ​design​ ​projects​ ​for 

inspiration,​ ​teachings​ ​on​ ​method​ ​and​ ​fresh​ ​perspectives.​ ​In​ ​the​ ​following,​ ​I​ ​will​ ​go​ ​over​ ​a  selected​ ​few​ ​of​ ​those​ ​who​ ​have​ ​made​ ​an​ ​impression​ ​and​ ​inspired​ ​my​ ​design. 



2.3.1​ ​Erratic​ ​Appliances 

Erratic​ ​Appliances​ ​is​ ​a​ ​series​ ​of​ ​critical​ ​interaction​ ​design​ ​objects​ ​by​ ​Anders​ ​Ernevi,​ ​Samuel  Palm​ ​&​ ​Johan​ ​Redström​ ​(2005),​ ​addressing​ ​issues​ ​related​ ​to​ ​energy​ ​consumption.​ ​By  re-designing​ ​everyday​ ​objects,​ ​the​ ​designers​ ​sought​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​energy​ ​as​ ​a​ ​design  material,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​making​ ​the​ ​users​ ​aware​ ​of​ ​their​ ​energy​ ​consumption​ ​when​ ​using​ ​the  objects. 

While​ ​the​ ​issues​ ​at​ ​hand​ ​differs​ ​(energy​ ​consumption​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​data​ ​collection),​ ​the  approach​ ​taken​ ​by​ ​the​ ​designers​ ​is​ ​very​ ​similar​ ​to​ ​the​ ​one​ ​adapted​ ​in​ ​this​ ​project.​ ​The  following​ ​quote​ ​from​ ​their​ ​paper​ ​“Erratic​ ​Appliances​ ​and​ ​Energy​ ​Awareness”​ ​(2005)​ ​could  apply​ ​to​ ​this​ ​project​ ​just​ ​as​ ​well:​ ​​“If​ ​we​ ​consider​ ​a​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​energy​ ​awareness​ ​to​ ​be,​ ​at​ ​least 

in​ ​part,​ ​related​ ​to​ ​the​ ​design​ ​of​ ​our​ ​electronic​ ​appliances​ ​then​ ​the​ ​obvious​ ​question​ ​is​ ​to 

what​ ​extent​ ​we​ ​could​ ​use​ ​design​ ​to​ ​promote​ ​reflection​ ​and​ ​critical​ ​questioning​”​ ​(Enervi​ ​et  al.,​ ​2005,​ ​Energy​ ​Awareness​ ​and​ ​Interaction​ ​Design​ ​section,​ ​para.​ ​1).​ ​While​ ​some​ ​products  make​ ​attempts​ ​to​ ​inform​ ​their​ ​users​ ​of​ ​the​ ​data​ ​collection​ ​happening​ ​(e.g.​ ​Android​ ​users  being​ ​asked​ ​for​ ​permission​ ​the​ ​first​ ​time​ ​an​ ​app​ ​will​ ​try​ ​to​ ​access​ ​some​ ​information),  claiming​ ​that​ ​most​ ​data​ ​collection​ ​exists​ ​hidden​ ​in​ ​the​ ​background​ ​of​ ​the​ ​design​ ​is​ ​surely  not​ ​controversial.​ ​Enervi​ ​et​ ​al.​ ​​ ​(2005)​ ​make​ ​the​ ​same​ ​claim​ ​for​ ​energy​ ​use,​ ​and​ ​their  response​ ​is​ ​to​ ​make​ ​designs​ ​where​ ​energy​ ​is​ ​taken​ ​from​ ​being​ ​some​ ​abstract​ ​concept  “​hidden​ ​under​ ​increasing​ ​technical​ ​perfection​”​ ​(Enervi​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2005,​ ​Discussion​ ​section,  para.​ ​1)​ ​to​ ​making​ ​it​ ​a​ ​central​ ​part​ ​of​ ​the​ ​design.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​by​ ​making​ ​it​ ​more 

immediate,​ ​embedded​ ​in​ ​everyday​ ​objects,​ ​and​ ​less​ ​user​ ​friendly,​ ​the​ ​user​ ​is​ ​prompted​ ​to  reflect​ ​on​ ​something​ ​that​ ​is​ ​usually​ ​hard​ ​to​ ​comprehend.​ ​As​ ​the​ ​authors​ ​write,​ ​energy  systems,​ ​just​ ​like​ ​big​ ​data,​ ​are​ ​“e​normous,​ ​intangible​ ​structures​ ​that​ ​are​ ​hard​ ​to​ ​grasp,​ ​and 

although​ ​aware​ ​that​ ​our​ ​actions​ ​might​ ​have​ ​effects​ ​also​ ​at​ ​a​ ​global​ ​scale​ ​such​ ​issues​ ​are 

often​ ​remote​ ​from​ ​our​ ​local​ ​experiences.​ ​To​ ​close​ ​this​ ​distance,​ ​or​ ​at​ ​least​ ​remind​ ​us​ ​of​ ​it, 

we​ ​have​ ​created​ ​things​ ​that​ ​respond​ ​more​ ​directly​ ​to​ ​local​ ​conditions​”​ ​(Ernevi​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2005,  Concluding​ ​remarks​ ​section,​ ​para.​ ​1). 


2.3.2​ ​FeltRadio 

The​ ​FeltRadio​ ​by​ ​Erik​ ​Grönvall,​ ​Jonas​ ​Fritsch​ ​and​ ​Anna​ ​Vallgårda​ ​(2016)​ ​is​ ​a​ ​project​ ​that  seeks​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​and​ ​make​ ​people​ ​reflect​ ​upon​ ​what​ ​it​ ​would​ ​be​ ​like​ ​to​ ​sense​ ​and​ ​feel  wireless​ ​traffic.​ ​The​ ​project​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​the​ ​hidden​ ​world​ ​of​ ​the​ ​wireless​ ​technology  we​ ​are​ ​surrounded​ ​by,​ ​the​ ​Hertzian​ ​Space,​ ​as​ ​named​ ​by​ ​Anthony​ ​Dunne.​ ​As​ ​such, 

Grönvall,​ ​Fritsch​ ​and​ ​Vallgårda’s​ ​(2016)​ ​project​ ​bears​ ​much​ ​resemblance​ ​to​ ​mine,​ ​as​ ​I,​ ​too,  seek​ ​to​ ​work​ ​with​ ​the​ ​invisible​ ​signals​ ​continuously​ ​flowing​ ​through​ ​the​ ​air​ ​and​ ​render  them​ ​perceivable.  


  Figure​ ​5,​ ​the​ ​FeltRadio 


In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​this​ ​topic,​ ​the​ ​authors​ ​created​ ​the​ ​FeltRadio​ ​(see​ ​Figure​ ​5),​ ​a​ ​portable  device​ ​that​ ​“​renders​ ​Wi-Fi​ ​perceivable​ ​to​ ​the​ ​human​ ​senses​”​ ​(Grönvall,​ ​Fritsch,​ ​& 

Vallgårda,​ ​2016,​ ​Perceiving​ ​and​ ​exploring​ ​radio​ ​and​ ​Wi-Fi​ ​sectio,​ ​para.​ ​5).​ ​The​ ​device  detects​ ​signals​ ​on​ ​the​ ​2.4GHz​ ​band,​ ​which​ ​is​ ​often​ ​used​ ​for​ ​Wi-Fi​ ​traffic.​ ​This​ ​signal​ ​is​ ​then  translated​ ​into​ ​visualisations​ ​on​ ​an​ ​LED​ ​display,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​a​ ​wearable​ ​electronic​ ​muscle  stimuli​ ​(EMS)​ ​device.​ ​With​ ​the​ ​EMS​ ​device,​ ​the​ ​user’s​ ​sensorial​ ​apparatus​ ​is​ ​augmented,  allowing​ ​them​ ​to​ ​feel​ ​the​ ​invisible​ ​signals​ ​surrounding​ ​them.​ ​The​ ​device​ ​is​ ​calibrated​ ​in  such​ ​a​ ​way,​ ​that​ ​only​ ​strong​ ​signal​ ​presence​ ​is​ ​expressed.  



3.0​ ​Theory​ ​DONE 

In​ ​this​ ​section,​ ​I​ ​seek​ ​to​ ​outline​ ​the​ ​theory​ ​and​ ​knowledge​ ​which​ ​lies​ ​as​ ​a​ ​foundation​ ​for  the​ ​project. 

The​ ​first​ ​section​ ​covers​ ​Speculative​ ​Design​ ​and​ ​Critical​ ​Design,​ ​which​ ​builds​ ​upon​ ​my 

research​ ​through​ ​design​​ ​approach​ ​to​ ​this​ ​project. 

The​ ​second​ ​section​ ​seeks​ ​to​ ​uncover​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​privacy​ ​implications​ ​of​ ​data​ ​gathering​ ​in  a​ ​pervasive​ ​computing​ ​society,​ ​while​ ​the​ ​third​ ​section​ ​will​ ​look​ ​at​ ​the​ ​consequences​ ​of  this,​ ​namely​ ​Big​ ​Data​ ​and​ ​Artificial​ ​Intelligence.  

The​ ​fourth​ ​and​ ​fifth​ ​sections​ ​cover​ ​some​ ​of​ ​the​ ​theory​ ​used​ ​to​ ​motivate​ ​and​ ​support​ ​my  design​ ​decisions,​ ​covering​ ​respectively​ ​data​ ​visualization​ ​and​ ​ways​ ​of​ ​facilitating  attachment​ ​between​ ​humans​ ​and​ ​computational​ ​artefacts. 



3.1​ ​Speculative​ ​design 

Seeking​ ​to​ ​question​ ​and​ ​challenge​ ​the​ ​consequences​ ​surrounding​ ​smart​ ​artefacts​ ​in​ ​a  domestic​ ​setting​ ​and​ ​the​ ​data​ ​emerging​ ​from​ ​these,​ ​this​ ​project​ ​positions​ ​itself​ ​within​ ​the  broad​ ​term​ ​of​ ​​critical​ ​design​.​ ​First​ ​introduced​ ​in​ ​1999​ ​by​ ​Anthony​ ​Dunne​ ​(and​ ​later  expanded​ ​upon​ ​by​ ​Dunne​ ​and​ ​Fiona​ ​Raby),​ ​“​Critical​ ​Design​ ​uses​ ​speculative​ ​design 

proposals​ ​to​ ​challenge​ ​narrow​ ​assumptions,​ ​preconceptions​ ​and​ ​givens​ ​about​ ​the​ ​role 

products​ ​play​ ​in​ ​everyday​ ​life​”​ ​(Dunne​ ​&​ ​Raby,​ ​2007).​ ​Rather​ ​than​ ​being​ ​affirmative​ ​and  problem-solving,​ ​critical​ ​design​ ​is​ ​questioning​ ​and​ ​dissenting,​ ​striving​ ​to​ ​provoke​ ​reflection  and​ ​debate. 


Within​ ​the​ ​large​ ​and​ ​rather​ ​fuzzy​ ​field​ ​of​ ​critical​ ​design,​ ​we​ ​find​ ​​speculative​ ​design​,​ ​also  pioneered​ ​by​ ​Dunne​ ​and​ ​Raby.​ ​As​ ​suggested​ ​by​ ​the​ ​name,​ ​speculative​ ​design​ ​uses  design​ ​to​ ​speculate​ ​about​ ​how​ ​things​ ​could​ ​be​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​“​create​ ​spaces​ ​for​ ​discussion 

and​ ​debate​ ​about​ ​alternative​ ​ways​ ​of​ ​being,​ ​and​ ​to​ ​inspire​ ​and​ ​encourage​ ​people’s 

imaginations​ ​to​ ​flow​ ​freely​”​ ​(Dunne​ ​&​ ​Raby,​ ​2013,​ ​p.​ ​2).​ ​Rather​ ​than​ ​enforcing​ ​status​ ​quo,​ ​it  asks​ ​“what​ ​if”​ ​questions,​ ​which​ ​are​ ​used​ ​to​ ​open​ ​up​ ​for​ ​discussion​ ​about​ ​desirable​ ​and  less-desirable​ ​futures.​ ​As​ ​such,​ ​it​ ​is​ ​like​ ​RtD,​ ​which​ ​according​ ​to​ ​Zimmerman​ ​et​ ​al.​ ​(2010)  forces​ ​researchers​ ​to​ ​focus​ ​on​ ​the​ ​future.​ ​The​ ​core​ ​of​ ​speculative​ ​design,​ ​however,​ ​lies​ ​on  creating​ ​an​ ​experience​ ​of​ ​a​ ​plausible​ ​future,​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​designing​ ​for​ ​the​ ​probable​ ​future.   

  Figure​ ​6.​ ​Adopted​ ​from​ ​Dunne​ ​&​ ​Raby​ ​(2013) 


Figure​ ​6​ ​illustrates​ ​the​ ​scope​ ​of​ ​different​ ​kinds​ ​of​ ​potential​ ​futures​ ​that​ ​Dunne​ ​&​ ​Raby  (2013)​ ​cover.​​ ​Possible​ ​futures​​ ​refers​ ​to​ ​things​ ​that​ ​could​ ​happen,​ ​but​ ​probably​ ​won’t.​ ​This  is​ ​a​ ​space​ ​of​ ​wild​ ​imagination,​ ​where​ ​everything​ ​that​ ​does​ ​not​ ​break​ ​the​ ​fundamental​ ​laws  of​ ​physics​ ​is​ ​possible.​ ​The​ ​next​ ​cone​ ​is​ ​the​ ​space​ ​of​​ ​plausible​ ​futures​;​ ​a​ ​space​ ​for 

exploring​ ​what​ ​could​ ​actually​ ​happen.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​not​ ​about​ ​prediction,​ ​but​ ​rather​ ​preparing​ ​for  plausible​ ​shifts​ ​in​ ​society.​ ​The​ ​innermost​ ​cone​ ​is​ ​the​ ​space​ ​of​ ​​probable​ ​futures​.​ ​This​ ​is​ ​the  prevalent​ ​space​ ​for​ ​designers​ ​to​ ​operate​ ​within,​ ​refering​ ​to​ ​the​ ​future​ ​we​ ​expect​ ​to  happen.​ ​Finally,​ ​the​ ​last​ ​cone,​ ​the​ ​​preferable​ ​future​,​ ​is​ ​what​ ​Dunne​ ​&​ ​Raby​ ​(2013)​ ​is  interested​ ​in;​ ​the​ ​intersection​ ​between​ ​the​ ​probable​ ​and​ ​the​ ​plausible.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​“​not​ ​in​ ​trying​ ​to 

predict​ ​the​ ​future​ ​but​ ​in​ ​using​ ​design​ ​to​ ​open​ ​up​ ​all​ ​sorts​ ​of​ ​possibilities​ ​that​ ​can​ ​be 

discussed,​ ​debated,​ ​and​ ​used​ ​to​ ​collectively​ ​define​ ​a​ ​preferable​ ​future​ ​for​ ​a​ ​given​ ​group 

of​ ​people:​ ​from​ ​companies,​ ​to​ ​cities,​ ​to​ ​societies​”​ ​(Dunne​ ​&​ ​Raby,​ ​2013,​ ​p.6).​ ​It​ ​is​ ​a​ ​room  for​ ​speculation​ ​and​ ​exploring​ ​scenarios​ ​alternative​ ​to​ ​the​​ ​probable​,​ ​as​ ​a​ ​way​ ​to​ ​make​ ​them  tangible​ ​and​ ​debatable​ ​before​ ​they​ ​occur.​ ​And​ ​while​ ​it​ ​is​ ​referred​ ​to​ ​as​ ​preferable​ ​futures,  it​ ​is​ ​also​ ​a​ ​space​ ​for​ ​exploring​ ​less-preferable​ ​futures,​ ​that​ ​lie​ ​within​ ​the​ ​probable​ ​and  plausible,​ ​before​ ​they​ ​happen. 


As​ ​mentioned​ ​above,​ ​speculative​ ​design​ ​is​ ​not​ ​about​ ​prediction,​ ​but​ ​about​ ​possibilities.​ ​As  a​ ​result,​ ​it​ ​relies​ ​on​ ​fiction,​ ​which​ ​“​requires​ ​viewers​ ​to​ ​suspend​ ​their​ ​disbelief​ ​and​ ​allow 

their​ ​imaginations​ ​to​ ​wander,​ ​to​ ​momentarily​ ​forget​ ​how​ ​things​ ​are​ ​now,​ ​and​ ​wonder 

about​ ​how​ ​things​ ​could​ ​be​”​ ​(Dunne​ ​&​ ​Raby,​ ​2013,​ ​p.​ ​3).​ ​By​ ​creating​ ​a​ ​fictional​ ​narrative  about​ ​the​ ​future,​ ​the​ ​designer​ ​can​ ​free​ ​themselves​ ​of​ ​current​ ​trends,​ ​predictions​ ​and  norms,​ ​and​ ​use​ ​design​ ​as​ ​a​ ​mean​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​ethical​ ​and​ ​social​ ​issues.  

Furthermore,​ ​when​ ​designing​ ​for​ ​questions,​ ​reflection​ ​and​ ​debate,​ ​we​ ​step​ ​into​ ​the​ ​realm  of​ ​​conceptual​ ​design​.​ ​Conceptual​ ​design​ ​is​ ​design​ ​about​ ​ideas,​ ​but​ ​also​ ​ideals.​ ​Dunne​ ​&  Raby​ ​come​ ​from​ ​an​ ​industrial​ ​design​ ​background,​ ​and​ ​as​ ​so,​ ​stepping​ ​away​ ​from​ ​the  marketplace​ ​and​ ​into​ ​the​ ​world​ ​of​ ​conceptual​ ​exploration​ ​is​ ​less​ ​normative​ ​than​ ​in​ ​other  fields,​ ​however,​ ​the​ ​concept​ ​can​ ​be​ ​applied​ ​to​ ​interaction​ ​design​ ​as​ ​well.​ ​Creating​ ​design  that​ ​is​ ​conceptual,​ ​rather​ ​than​ ​being​ ​inherently​ ​useful​ ​and​ ​feasible,​ ​is​ ​beneficial​ ​for​ ​all  fields​ ​of​ ​design.​ ​With​ ​conceptual​ ​design,​ ​one​ ​can​ ​speculate​ ​using​ ​“​hypothetical​ ​or,​ ​more 

accurately,​ ​fictional​ ​products​ ​to​ ​explore​ ​possible​ ​technological​ ​futures​”​ ​(Dunne​ ​&​ ​Raby,  2013,​ ​p.​ ​14).​ ​By​ ​creating​ ​fictional​ ​products,​ ​designers​ ​are​ ​able​ ​to​ ​stimulate​ ​their​ ​imagination  and​ ​open​ ​up​ ​for​ ​new​ ​possibilities​ ​in​ ​both​ ​technology,​ ​materials​ ​and​ ​manufacturing.​ ​And​ ​by  presenting​ ​consumers​ ​with​ ​these​ ​products,​ ​they​ ​can​ ​engage​ ​critically​ ​with​ ​them​ ​and  explore​ ​ethical​ ​and​ ​social​ ​issues​ ​in​ ​the​ ​context​ ​of​ ​everyday​ ​life. 


3.2​ ​Data​ ​collection​ ​and​ ​privacy​ ​in​ ​the​ ​age​ ​of​ ​pervasive  computing 

In​ ​the​ ​2005​ ​article,​ ​“Privacy​ ​in​ ​Pervasive​ ​Computing​ ​Environments​ ​–A​ ​Contradiction​ ​in  Terms?”,​ ​Johann​ ​Čas​ ​predicted​ ​that​ ​the​ ​future​ ​of​ ​computing​ ​would​ ​significantly​ ​increase  the​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​data​ ​generated​ ​and​ ​collected​ ​about​ ​people.​ ​“​Keyboards​ ​or​ ​other​ ​artificial 

input​ ​devices​ ​will​ ​be​ ​replaced​ ​by​ ​natural-language​ ​interfaces​ ​that​ ​observe​ ​spoken​ ​words, 

gestures,​ ​or​ ​mimics​ ​and​ ​interpret​ ​them​ ​as​ ​potential​ ​commands.​ ​Biometric​ ​procedures 

render​ ​it​ ​unnecessary​ ​to​ ​remember​ ​passwords​ ​or​ ​to​ ​actively​ ​prove​ ​any​ ​authorization​”  (Čas,​ ​2005,​ ​p.​ ​25).​ ​Such​ ​a​ ​rise​ ​in​ ​ubiquitous​ ​computing​ ​would​ ​have​ ​huge​ ​implications​ ​for  privacy,​ ​shaking​ ​the​ ​very​ ​pillars​ ​upon​ ​which​ ​our​ ​privacy​ ​protection​ ​stands.​ ​And​ ​merely​ ​12  years​ ​later,​ ​Čas’​ ​predictions​ ​are​ ​becoming​ ​reality.​ ​Talking​ ​to​ ​our​ ​phones​ ​and​ ​using​ ​our  fingerprints​ ​to​ ​unlock​ ​them​ ​is​ ​only​ ​a​ ​small​ ​part​ ​of​ ​our​ ​daily​ ​interactions​ ​with​ ​the 

increasingly​ ​pervasive​ ​computers,​ ​which,​ ​as​ ​shown​ ​in​ ​section​ ​2.1​ ​can​ ​reside​ ​in​ ​almost​ ​any  domestic​ ​object.​ ​Čas​ ​wrote​ ​that​ ​pervasive​ ​computing​ ​conflicts​ ​with​ ​the​ ​principles​ ​on​ ​which  our​ ​privacy​ ​protection​ ​is​ ​based,​ ​and​ ​as​ ​we​ ​venture​ ​into​ ​a​ ​society​ ​where​ ​every​ ​activity​ ​(or  inactivity)​ ​is​ ​monitored,​ ​a​ ​panoptic​ ​society​ ​is​ ​created.​ ​In​ ​their​ ​2016​ ​book,​ ​Networks​ ​of  Control,​ ​Christl​ ​&​ ​Spiekermann​ ​(2016)​ ​argue​ ​that​ ​the​ ​surveillance​ ​society​ ​has​ ​effectively  materialized,​ ​and​ ​Acquisti,​ ​Brandimarte​ ​&​ ​Lowenstein​ ​(2015)​ ​states​ ​that​ ​privacy​ ​certainly​ ​is  the​ ​issue​ ​of​ ​our​ ​time.​ ​As​ ​information​ ​technology​ ​has​ ​encroached​ ​upon​ ​increasingly​ ​every  aspect​ ​of​ ​our​ ​personal​ ​and​ ​professional​ ​lives,​ ​the​ ​issue​ ​of​ ​informational​ ​privacy​ ​(privacy  related​ ​to​ ​personal​ ​data)​ ​is​ ​becoming​ ​increasingly​ ​complex​ ​and​ ​difficult​ ​to​ ​navigate​ ​for  individuals.​ ​With​ ​every​ ​action​ ​we​ ​do​ ​whilst​ ​online​ ​there​ ​is​ ​a​ ​trade-off;​ ​privacy​ ​in​ ​exchange  of​ ​services,​ ​conveniences​ ​and​ ​benefits.​ ​And​ ​while​ ​more​ ​and​ ​more​ ​data​ ​is​ ​being​ ​collected,  the​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​aggregate,​ ​analyze,​ ​and​ ​draw​ ​sensitive​ ​inferences​ ​from​ ​individuals’​ ​data​ ​is  advancing​ ​too​ ​(Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2015;​ ​Čas,​ ​2005).​ ​Christl​ ​&​ ​Spiekermann​ ​(2016)​ ​write​ ​that  people​ ​feel​ ​a​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​powerlessness​ ​in​ ​modern​ ​data​ ​collection,​ ​which​ ​leads​ ​to​ ​frustration.   

Through​ ​an​ ​extensive​ ​review​ ​of​ ​informational​ ​privacy,​ ​Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.​ ​(2015)​ ​uncover​ ​three  themes​ ​that​ ​relates​ ​to​ ​how​ ​we,​ ​as​ ​individuals,​ ​handle​ ​our​ ​privacy​ ​whilst​ ​online;​​ ​uncertainty​, 

context-dependence,​​ ​and​ ​​malleability​ ​and​ ​influence​.  

Individuals​ ​experience​ ​considerable​ ​​uncertainty​​ ​regarding​ ​their​ ​stance​ ​on​ ​privacy.​ ​For​ ​one  thing,​ ​this​ ​arises​ ​from​ ​the​ ​fact​ ​that​ ​people​ ​are​ ​not​ ​clear​ ​on​ ​the​ ​extent​ ​of​ ​the​ ​information  other​ ​entities​ ​may​ ​possess​ ​about​ ​them,​ ​how​ ​that​ ​information​ ​is​ ​used,​ ​how​ ​it​ ​is​ ​shared​ ​and  sold,​ ​as​ ​well​ ​as​ ​the​ ​consequences​ ​of​ ​this​ ​(Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2015;​ ​Christl​ ​and​ ​Spiekermann,  2016).​ ​Collection​ ​and​ ​usage​ ​of​ ​personal​ ​data​ ​is​ ​becoming​ ​more​ ​hidden,​ ​and​ ​this 

intangibility​ ​makes​ ​it​ ​more​ ​difficult​ ​to​ ​grasp​ ​possible​ ​consequences​ ​and​ ​thus​ ​make  informed​ ​decisions​ ​about​ ​one’s​ ​informational​ ​privacy.​ ​Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.’s​ ​(2015)​ ​main​ ​focus​ ​is 


on​ ​the​ ​web,​ ​but​ ​it​ ​can​ ​be​ ​argued​ ​that​ ​this​ ​problem​ ​of​ ​uncertainty​ ​following​ ​invisibility,​ ​is  only​ ​enhanced​ ​by​ ​the​ ​rise​ ​in​ ​pervasive​ ​computing.​ ​“​As​ ​more​ ​and​ ​more​ ​devices​ ​and 

objects​ ​include​ ​sensors​ ​and​ ​network​ ​connections,​ ​data​ ​collection​ ​is​ ​happening​ ​invisibly​“  (Christl​ ​and​ ​Spiekermann,​ ​2016,​ ​p.​ ​119).​ ​Another​ ​important​ ​aspect​ ​about​ ​uncertainty​ ​is​ ​that  thought​ ​and​ ​action​ ​does​ ​not​ ​necessarily​ ​go​ ​hand-in-hand,​ ​when​ ​it​ ​comes​ ​to​ ​protection​ ​of  one’s​ ​privacy.​ ​Even​ ​when​ ​people​ ​know​ ​their​ ​privacy​ ​preferences​ ​(which​ ​people​ ​are  unlikely​ ​to,​ ​despite​ ​being​ ​aware​ ​of​ ​the​ ​consequences​ ​of​ ​their​ ​decisions),​ ​there​ ​is​ ​often​ ​a  discrepancy​ ​between​ ​attitude​ ​and​ ​behaviour.​ ​Even​ ​people​ ​who​ ​claimed​ ​to​ ​be​ ​highly  concerned​ ​with​ ​privacy,​ ​were​ ​proved​ ​to​ ​show​ ​little​ ​concern​ ​with​ ​it​ ​in​ ​their​ ​daily​ ​behavior  (Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2015). 

Related​ ​to​ ​uncertainty,​ ​is​ ​the​ ​theme​ ​of​ ​​context-dependence​.​ ​“​Applied​ ​to​ ​privacy, 

context-dependence​ ​means​ ​that​ ​individuals​ ​can,​ ​depending​ ​on​ ​the​ ​situation,​ ​exhibit 

anything​ ​ranging​ ​from​ ​extreme​ ​concern​ ​to​ ​apathy​ ​about​ ​privacy​”​ ​(Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2015,​ ​p.  511).​ ​Privacy​ ​attitude​ ​and​ ​behaviour​ ​can​ ​depend​ ​on​ ​a​ ​number​ ​of​ ​cues,​ ​amongst​ ​others,​ ​but  not​ ​limited​ ​to,​ ​other​ ​people’s​ ​behavior,​ ​government​ ​regulation,​ ​physical​ ​environment,​ ​as  well​ ​as​ ​one’s​ ​own​ ​culture.  

Lastly,​ ​privacy​ ​preferences​ ​seem​ ​to​ ​be​ ​​malleable​ ​and​ ​influenceable​;​ ​“​various,​ ​sometimes 

subtle,​ ​factors​ ​can​ ​be​ ​used​ ​to​ ​activate​ ​or​ ​suppress​ ​privacy​ ​concerns,​ ​which​ ​in​ ​turn​ ​affect 

behavior​”​ ​(Acquisti,​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2015,​ ​p.​ ​512).​ ​Many​ ​entities​ ​are​ ​interested​ ​in​ ​acquiring​ ​personal  and​ ​behavioral​ ​information,​ ​and​ ​will​ ​therefore​ ​seek​ ​to​ ​apply​ ​behavioral​ ​and​ ​psychological  processes​ ​to​ ​promote​ ​disclosure.​ ​This​ ​can​ ​be​ ​done​ ​in​ ​a​ ​number​ ​of​ ​ways,​ ​including​ ​using  carefully​ ​selected​ ​default​ ​settings,​ ​strategic​ ​design​ ​choices,​ ​and​ ​taking​ ​steps​ ​to​ ​appear  trustworthy​ ​and​ ​transparent.​ ​By​ ​granting​ ​the​ ​users​ ​a​ ​greater​ ​sense​ ​of​ ​control,​ ​or​ ​by  providing​ ​a​ ​privacy​ ​policy,​ ​people’s​ ​privacy​ ​concerns​ ​can​ ​be​ ​reduced.​ ​Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.​ ​(2015)  quote​ ​a​ ​survey​ ​in​ ​which​ ​62%​ ​of​ ​respondents​ ​falsely​ ​believed​ ​that​ ​the​ ​existence​ ​of​ ​a  privacy​ ​policy​ ​on​ ​a​ ​website​ ​implied​ ​that​ ​their​ ​data​ ​could​ ​not​ ​be​ ​shared​ ​without​ ​their  permission.​ ​And​ ​yet​ ​another​ ​study​ ​showed​ ​that​ ​even​ ​if​ ​people​ ​try​ ​to​ ​read​ ​privacy​ ​policies  of​ ​the​ ​services​ ​they​ ​use,​ ​they​ ​are​ ​unlikely​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​the​ ​contents.​ ​​ ​“​Ambiguous 

business​ ​practices​ ​are​ ​still​ ​the​ ​norm​ ​and​ ​even​ ​misleading​ ​rhetoric​ ​is​ ​used​ ​to​ ​trick​ ​people 

into​ ​one-sided​ ​and​ ​disadvantageous​ ​data​ ​contracts​”​ ​write​ ​Christl​ ​&​ ​Spiekermann​ ​(2016,​ ​p.  119).​ ​Furthermore,​ ​opting​ ​out​ ​of​ ​data​ ​collection​ ​is​ ​becoming​ ​nearly​ ​impossible​ ​as​ ​many  common​ ​things​ ​now​ ​requires​ ​users​ ​to​ ​sign​ ​privacy​ ​contacts​ ​(Christl​ ​&​ ​Spiekermann,​ ​2016)   


3.3​ ​Big​ ​data​ ​and​ ​AI 

However,​ ​privacy​ ​concerns​ ​are​ ​not​ ​the​ ​only​ ​outcome​ ​of​ ​the​ ​increased​ ​data​ ​collection  resulting​ ​from​ ​increasingly​ ​pervasive​ ​computing.​ ​As​ ​Acquist,​ ​et​ ​al.​ ​(2015)​ ​point​ ​out,​ ​that 


there​ ​are​ ​many​ ​benefits​ ​of​ ​the​ ​increasing​ ​interferences​ ​drawn​ ​from​ ​informational​ ​data  collected​ ​online.​ ​“​Both​ ​firms​ ​and​ ​individuals​ ​can​ ​benefit​ ​from​ ​the​ ​sharing​ ​of​ ​once​ ​hidden 

data​ ​and​ ​from​ ​the​ ​application​ ​of​ ​increasingly​ ​sophisticated​ ​analytics​ ​to​ ​larger​ ​and​ ​more 

interconnected​ ​databases​”​ ​(Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.,​ ​2015,​ ​p.​ ​509).  

These​ ​large​ ​datasets​ ​are​ ​referred​ ​to​ ​as​ ​Big​ ​Data,​ ​a​ ​phenomenon​ ​that​ ​is​ ​rapidly​ ​spreading  across​ ​fields​ ​and​ ​industries,​ ​enabled​ ​by​ ​the​ ​exponential​ ​growth​ ​in​ ​computing​ ​power  (Crawford,​ ​Miltner​ ​&​ ​Gray,​ ​2014;​ ​Christl​ ​&​ ​Spiekermann,​ ​2016). 

A​ ​common​ ​definition​ ​of​ ​Big​ ​Data​ ​by​ ​Gartner​ ​(formerly​ ​META​ ​Institute,​ ​cited​ ​in​ ​Christl​ ​&  Spiekermann,​ ​2016)​ ​cite​ ​three​ ​V’s:​ ​​Volume​​ ​(the​ ​size​ ​of​ ​the​ ​data),​ ​​velocity​​ ​(the​ ​data​ ​is​ ​being  produced​ ​and​ ​handled​ ​and​ ​high​ ​speed)​ ​and​ ​​variety​​ ​(the​ ​types​ ​and​ ​formats​ ​of​ ​the​ ​data​ ​are  highly​ ​diverse).​ ​However,​ ​an​ ​abundance​ ​of​ ​definitions​ ​exists,​ ​and​ ​according​ ​to​ ​Jennifer  Dutcher​ ​(2014)​ ​on​ ​Berkeley’s​ ​data​ ​science​ ​blog,​ ​it​ ​can​ ​be​ ​argued​ ​that​ ​“​it’s​ ​not​ ​the​ ​size​ ​of 

data​ ​that​ ​counts,​ ​but​ ​the​ ​tools​ ​being​ ​used​ ​or​ ​the​ ​insights​ ​that​ ​can​ ​be​ ​drawn​ ​from​ ​a 

dataset​”​ ​(Dutcher,​ ​2014).​ ​Dutcher​ ​then​ ​further​ ​lists​ ​40​ ​definitions​ ​from​ ​thought​ ​leaders​ ​in  different​ ​industries,​ ​illustrating​ ​the​ ​​ambiguity​​ ​of​ ​the​ ​term.​ ​Similarly,​ ​Christl​ ​&​ ​Spiekermann  (2016)​ ​write​ ​that​ ​Big​ ​Data​ ​can​ ​refer​ ​to​ ​the​ ​processing,​ ​analysis,​ ​prediction,​ ​and​ ​even  application​ ​of​ ​these​ ​large​ ​data​ ​sets.  


3.3.1​ ​Applications​ ​of​ ​Big​ ​Data 

Processing​ ​of​ ​Big​ ​Data​ ​sets​ ​can​ ​find​ ​correlations,​ ​which​ ​leads​ ​to​ ​new​ ​discoveries,​ ​business  practices​ ​and​ ​policies.​ ​As​ ​an​ ​example​ ​Acquisti​ ​et​ ​al.​ ​(2015)​ ​points​ ​to​ ​the​ ​discovery​ ​of​ ​novel  drug​ ​interactions​ ​when​ ​medical​ ​records​ ​were​ ​combined.​ ​Another​ ​example,​ ​also​ ​from​ ​the  medical​ ​industry,​ ​is​ ​an​ ​Artificial​ ​Intelligence​ ​(AI)​ ​currently​ ​helping​ ​radiologists​ ​work​ ​more  efficiently​ ​towards​ ​diagnosing​ ​cancer​ ​and​ ​other​ ​diseases.​ ​In​ ​order​ ​to​ ​train​ ​the​ ​AI,​ ​founder  Chen​ ​Kuan​ ​says​ ​that​ ​what​ ​they​ ​need​ ​“​is​ ​a​ ​lot​ ​of​ ​data​”​ ​(Kuan​ ​in​ ​Marr,​ ​2017a).​ ​Hence,  Artificial​ ​Intelligence​ ​is​ ​one​ ​field​ ​in​ ​which​ ​Big​ ​Data​ ​is​ ​being​ ​applied​ ​vigorously.​ ​“​Even 

though​ ​AI​ ​technologies​ ​have​ ​existed​ ​for​ ​several​ ​decades,​ ​it’s​ ​the​ ​explosion​ ​of​ ​data—the 

raw​ ​material​ ​of​ ​AI—that​ ​has​ ​allowed​ ​it​ ​to​ ​advance​ ​at​ ​incredible​ ​speeds​”​ ​writes​ ​Bernard  Marr​ ​(2017b)​ ​in​ ​an​ ​article​ ​on​ ​Artificial​ ​Intelligence’s​ ​reliance​ ​on​ ​Big​ ​Data.​ ​While​ ​Chen​ ​Kuan’s  AI​ ​needs​ ​radiology​ ​scans​ ​to​ ​train,​ ​other​ ​systems​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​more​ ​human​ ​data​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​grow  their​ ​intelligence​ ​and​ ​thus​ ​provide​ ​new​ ​problem-solving​ ​solutions.​ ​Marr​ ​(2017b)​ ​points​ ​to  the​ ​billions​ ​of​ ​networked​ ​sensors​ ​which​ ​are​ ​used​ ​to​ ​teach​ ​AI​ ​how​ ​humans​ ​think​ ​and​ ​feel.  As​ ​artificial​ ​intelligence​ ​is​ ​being​ ​increasingly​ ​embedded​ ​in​ ​our​ ​daily​ ​lives​ ​this​ ​data​ ​is  extremely​ ​valuable.​ ​As​ ​an​ ​example,​ ​all​ ​the​ ​products​ ​mentioned​ ​in​ ​section​ ​2.1​ ​gather​ ​data  about​ ​their​ ​users​ ​which​ ​help​ ​them​ ​incorporate​ ​various​ ​degrees​ ​of​ ​artificial​ ​intelligence​ ​into  their​ ​services.  


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