This is the published version of a paper published in Environmental Management.
Citation for the original published paper (version of record):
Hornborg, S., Främberg, A. (2019)
Carp (Cyprinidae) Fisheries in Swedish Lakes: A Combined Environmental Assessment
Approach to Evaluate Data-limited Freshwater Fish Resources as Food
Environmental Management, 65(2): 232-242
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Carp (Cyprinidae) Fisheries in Swedish Lakes: A Combined
Environmental Assessment Approach to Evaluate Data-limited
Freshwater Fish Resources as Food
Sara Hornborg 1●Anton Främberg2
Received: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 December 2019 / Published online: 19 December 2019 © The Author(s) 2020
The role of aquatic resources to food security is both promising and constrained since the global seafood consumption is increasing while marineﬁsheries approach the limit of what it can produce. In Sweden, the seafood consumption per capita is higher than the European and world average but the current dietary advice is to increase consumption. Freshwaterﬁsheries have in general been paid less attention in food security discussions. Carpﬁshes (Cyprinidae) in Sweden have lost their historical value and are currently, both understudied and underutilized. Here we use a combined environmental assessment approach to examine the environmental sustainability of current and potential cyprinid ﬁsheries. We found that current commercialﬁsheries for Swedish cyprinids in lakes have an average carbon footprint of 0.77 kg CO2e per kg of edible
product, substantially smaller than most of the popular marine and terrestrial protein sources consumed in Sweden today. This could be even lower if cyprinid resources were better utilized than currently. The cyprinids however exhibited different vulnerability toﬁshing pressure and are today associated with data deﬁciencies. Hence, it is currently uncertain how much food for human consumption they can contribute to. Improved consumer interest and management attention is needed, but to the Swedish diet, cyprinids offer a promising opportunity for future more sustainable and nutritious food systems. Keywords Environmental assessment● Life cycle assessment● Productivity susceptibility analysis●Freshwaterﬁsheries●
Cyprinidae● Food security
The need to shift towards more sustainable food systems advocate for new and innovative approaches (Gordon et al. 2017). Examples include improving resource use efﬁciency and ﬁnding solutions to the current distance between con-sumers and producers from globalized markets. Aquatic resources could play an important role to future food and
nutrition security (Godfray et al. 2010; Tacon and Metian 2013). However, current supply has high demand and is extensively traded, affecting e.g. affordability (FAO2018). Growth of aquaculture has been vital, considering that marine capture ﬁsheries has not increased since the 1980s; on the other hand, further increase in production may lead to competition of feed resources (Troell et al.2014). Even so, seafood consumption is often recommended to increase due to important nutritional characteristics—but it is unclear how this could be done sustainably (Thurstan and Roberts2014).
Freshwater ﬁsheries production is one component of aquatic resources that has traditionally been paid less attention to in terms of contribution to food security (McIntyre et al.2016; Deines et al.2017; Lynch et al.2017) and could potentially add to resource availability. In parti-cular in industrialized countries, that often import the majority of seafood consumed from countries with under-nourishment (Smith et al. 2010), freshwater resources are not given adequate consideration as a food resource in terms * Sara Hornborg
1 RISE- Research Institutes of Sweden, PO Box 5401, 402 29
2 Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University
of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Supplementary information The online version of this article (https:// doi.org/10.1007/s00267-019-01241-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
of management systems needed (Arlinghaus et al. 2002; Dudgeon et al. 2006). There is thus little information available to quantitatively determine sustainable exploita-tion levels (Lorenzen et al. 2016), and risk-based assess-ments such as productivity susceptibility analysis have almost exclusively been applied in a marine context (Hor-dyk and Carruthers2018). Small-scale ﬁsheries with pas-sive gears, such as those often used in freshwaters, are also understudied in terms of energy use per kilo landing, while the data available exhibit large variability (Parker and Tyedmers2015). Fuel use during ﬁshing is the key driver behind the carbon footprint of products from capture ﬁsh-eries (Ziegler et al.2016; Avadí and Fréon 2013). There-fore, including freshwater products in assessments of healthy and sustainable diets is overall compromised (e.g., Hallström et al.2019; Tilman and Clark 2014).
Sweden represents an interesting case study related to addressing the role of freshwater ﬁsheries in future food systems. Swedish consumption of seafood is higher than the global and European average (Borthwick et al.2019), but below the dietary advice of two to three portions per week recommended by the National Food Agency (NFA) in Sweden (NFA Sweden2019). To reach the recommended level (2.5 portions a week), an increase of 3.75 kg per person and year is required (assuming a portion size of 125 g). However, around 78% of products consumed in Sweden today is imported, most from marineﬁsheries and aquaculture from around the globe, even if the Swedish government has a food strategy to increase level of self-sufﬁciency (Borthwick et al. 2019; GoV 2016). Swedish aquaculture production is marginal and has today chal-lenges with strict environmental legislation and high pro-duction costs, with only a few commercial actors. However, over 40,000 km2 is covered by freshwater (SCB 2019a) while freshwater ﬁsheries represented only 0.7% of Swe-den’s reported commercial landings in 2018 (SwAM 2018, 2019a). What role could increased utilization of freshwaterﬁsheries in Sweden play for improved food and nutrition security?
Current freshwater landings in Sweden mainly comprise of a few popular freshwater ﬁshes, such as salmonids (Salmonidae), pikeperch Sander lucioperca, perch Perca ﬂuviatilis and pike Esox lucius, which are fully utilized or even in need of recovery according to the yearly account of status of Swedish ﬁsheries resources (SwAM 2019b). However, there are also populations of virtually unutilized carp species (Cyprinidae). Latest advice recommends an increase inﬁshing for bream Abramis brama, the only only carp species included in the yearly resource assessment, but with caution. Several species of carp were consumed in Sweden up until the middle of the 20th century but have over time been more or less abandoned in the process of industrialization, urbanization and expansion of marine
ﬁsheries (Bonow et al. 2013). They are still an important resource in many other countries, including neighboring countries. Today, they are in Sweden mainly being ﬁshed for other reasons than for human consumption, such as bait ﬁsh and reduction ﬁsheries in lakes to remove nutrients as a remedy against eutrophication (Bonow et al.2013; Hansson et al. 1998). This implies that there is very limited data available to inform on stock status and sensitivity toﬁshing pressure (Östman et al.2016).
To fully identify the net effect of different options for future sustainable diets, or‘rewiring the food system’ (sensu Gordon et al. 2017), an integration of environmental assessments is needed that is capable of including both potential local ecological risks and offstage effects (Pascual et al. 2017). As an example, while carbon footprints (esti-mates of greenhouse gas emissions through life cycle assessment (LCA)) are commonly used as proxies for sus-tainability (e.g. Tilman and Clark 2014), other tools are needed to address local ecological risks ofﬁshing (Ziegler et al. 2016), such as ecological risk assessments (Hobday et al.2011). The two tools may be seen as complementary to each other in assessing pressures from captureﬁsheries. This has been demonstrated for the Australianﬁsheries for Patagonian toothﬁsh Dissostichus eleginoides, where local ecological risks were assessed as low whereas the carbon footprint was comparatively high (Hornborg et al. 2018); more case studies may be useful to map potential conﬂicts between different aspects of sustainability and contribute to discussions on sustainable diets.
The objective of this study is to evaluate Swedish ﬁsh-eries of cyprinids as a food resource compared to other more popular food items consumed in Sweden today. This is done by assessing the carbon footprint combined with the potential risks posed for the different carp species based on vulnerability toﬁshing pressure, i.e., a combined approach to environmental assessment. The overall aim is to form a basis for discussing the potential of cyprinids in sustainable food systems.
Materials and Methods
Life Cycle Assessment
The carbon footprint was quantiﬁed through a LCA approach, a tool commonly used to quantify the environ-mental pressures and resource use of different products throughout its lifecycle (Ness et al.2007). The goal was to assess the carbon footprint of the current and potential (deﬁned as 100% retainment of discarded cyprinids) Swedish freshwater cyprinid ﬁshing to enable comparison with (1) other ﬁsheries, based on Parker et al. (2018); (2) other top seafood items consumed in Sweden (Borthwick
et al.2019); and (3) Swedish beef, pork, chicken and brown beans based on RISE Climate Database (2018). The func-tional unit (FU), i.e., the unit to which all of the inputs and outputs are related to, was deﬁned as 1 kg of edible carp ﬁsh meat to be comparable with RISE (2018). The edible yield was collected from FAO (FAO1989) which states the same yield for all cyprinids (54% of live-weight, based on that of common carp Cyprinus carpio).
The system boundaries, i.e., the processes included in the study, covered the production and combustion of fuel for current commercial and recent reduction ﬁsheries in Swedish lakes, up to the point of landing. Transport of the ﬁsh to market is excluded. This may add more to emissions than what is generally seen (low contribution of the trans-ports) because the supply chain is today not optimized due to the small-scale nature of the current ﬁsheries. On the other hand, theﬁshery in at least one of the lakes (Bolmen) has no addition from the supply chain since it is locally prepared and consumed. Only emissions from fuel pro-duction and combustion during ﬁshing were considered, while production of boats,ﬁshing gear and packaging was excluded. This was motivated from that the fuel used during theﬁshing phase generally dominates the carbon footprint of seafood from capture ﬁsheries (Ziegler et al. 2016). Allocation of emissions between species in landings was based on mass; alternative allocation such as economy-based is difﬁcult since the market for cyprinids to a large extent is potential rather than existing. Results will also be less inﬂuenced by markets over time. In processing, all emissions are allocated to the edible part of the ﬁsh (no utilizations of by-products are known). Cleaning and ﬁl-leting of theﬁsh were assumed to be done by hand due to the small scale of the freshwater ﬁsheries, and hence no additional resource use and emissions was assigned to this stage.
Emission factors from fuel combustion was collected from the Swedish fuel and biofuel institute (SPBI2010). It is assumed that all motors fueled by petrol use “Engine petrol without ethanol” (emission factor 2.36 kg CO2e/L)
whereas by diesel“Diesel – Mk1” (emission factor 2.54 kg CO2e/L). Emissions from upstream production of the fuel
came from the Ecoinvent database in the LCA software tool SimaPro. This background data accounts for emissions from production of fuel, such as oilﬁeld exploration, crude oil production, long distance transportation, oil reﬁning and regional distribution. Emissions were converted from being stated per kg to liters using densities corresponding to fuels at SPBI (2010).
To compare the carbon footprints to globalﬁsheries, the data collected had to be treated according to the method used by Parker et al. (2018). Non-fuel related inputs (such as production of boats and gear) were added as a theoretical estimate based on earlier studies (25% of the total
GHG-emissions up to landing of the ﬁsh). Fuel use per kg live weight was used, thus making the carbon footprint calcu-lated corresponding to all freshwaterﬁshes landed using the evaluatedﬁshing method.
Data on the current commercial pond net ﬁshery (the ﬁshing method contributing to 88% of cyprinid landings of mainly bream; SwAM 2019a) was collected through semi-structured interviews. A ﬁrst suggestion of ﬁshers was obtained from the Swedish Lake Fishery Association, adding further ﬁshers through “snow-balling technique” where respondents were asked to suggest others to inter-view. Two of the Swedish big lakes were included, Vänern and Mälaren, and one smaller lake, Bolmen. In the two larger lakes efforts were made to obtain answers from ﬁshers distributed throughout the lakes’ areas. Two large lakes were excluded, namely Vättern and Hjälmaren. Vät-tern was originally considered as a potential candidate but was excluded since the nutrient poor lake holds a relatively small cyprinid population, with all the commercial catches already being used in the lakes’ crayﬁsh ﬁshery (J. Fogel, County Administrative Board Stockholm, Pers. Comm.). A total of 14 commercialﬁshers provided data for one year of ﬁshing (2018). Furthermore, data from ﬁve reduction ﬁsh-ing occasions in two lakes was extracted from published reports (Sandström 2011; Annadotter et al. 2013). Addi-tional data on reductionﬁsheries was obtained from inter-views with three reductionﬁshers from 20 ﬁshing occasions in eight different lakes (between 2010 and 2018). The lakes included were located in the southern part of Sweden, more speciﬁcally the regions Skåne (Finjasjön, Häckebergasjön, Oppmannsjön, Ringsjön and Sövdesjön), Småland (Södra Bergundasjön, Trummen and Växjösjön) and Uppland (Vallentunasjön and Östhammarfjärdarna). The samples are seen as representative for the ﬁshing practices since the percentage of cyprinids in landings in the commercial ﬁsheries were approximately the same in the sample and the wholeﬂeet, and data on reduction ﬁsheries covered 40% of all the recent reductionﬁsheries granted funds from SwAM as Local Water Management Projects (SwAM 2019c). A Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance (Kruskal and Wallis 1952) was done to determine if there were any sig-niﬁcant differences between the carbon footprint of ﬁsh from different lakes orﬁshing methods.
Productivity Susceptibility Analysis
Productivity-susceptibility analysis (PSA) is a screening analysis to assess the potential and relative vulnerability of a species to aﬁshery based on a set of attributes related to its productivity (based on life history parameters such as life span) and susceptibility to impacts from ﬁshing activities (based on parameters such as overlap ofﬁshing effort and species distribution), with different approaches used today
around the world (Hordyk and Carruthers 2018). The assessment is performed by categorizing a number of attributes of the species andﬁshery into low/medium/high through a score from 1 to 3. The two average values for the species productivity and susceptibility to theﬁshery are then combined to form an overall vulnerability V by calculating the Euclidean distance from the origin of the two numbers: V ¼pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃP2þ S2 ð1Þ
where productivity P is the average risk score for all productivity attributes and susceptibility S is the average of the multiplicative risk scores for all susceptibility S attributes (ranging between 1.41 and 4.24, where V < 2.64 equals to low risk and V > 3.18 high respectively). The method does not provide insights on the actual status of a species but gives an idea of how potentially vulnerable it is toﬁshing relative to other species based on its biological properties, useful to determine which ones should be prioritized to be investigated further.
The PSA method used here was based on Hobday et al. (2007, 2011). This method utilizes a precautionary approach to data-deﬁciency in the scoring of attributes, where an attribute is associated to high-risk if data is lacking or of poor quality. Species included were all native Swedish cyprinid species based on the Encyclopedia of the Swedish Flora and Fauna (Kullander et al.2012), i.e., excludingﬁve introduced species. This was motivated from that they do not belong to the native fauna and is thus of less con-servation concern; in total 16 species were included. Three main target species of the current commercial pound net ﬁsheries were also included in the analysis for comparison: pike Esox lucius, perch Perca ﬂuviatilis and pikeperch Sander lucioperca. The same set of productivity attributes were used as in Hobday et al. (2011; Table1). Cut-offs for low-medium-high productivity was based on the distribu-tion of all native freshwater species registered in Swedish lakes (37 species found at the Swedish Species Initiative 2019, excluding sub-species), following the recommended approach. The productivity attributes were primarily
collected from the Encyclopedia of the Swedish Flora and Fauna (Kullander et al.2012). When data was lacking (on for example trophic level, maturity size) FishBase (2019) was used. When ranges were provided, the value resulting in the lowest productivity score (i.e., highest risk) was used in order to be precautionary. For details on all life history parameters and risk levels used see Online resource 1. The total productivity score for each cyprinid was calculated as the average risk value for all attributes.
Susceptibility scores were based on the data collected from ﬁshers during the interviews (ﬁshing depths, post capture mortality), together with information found on FishBase (2019) on species depth range and ﬁshing reg-ulations by SwAM (HVMFS2014:22) on mesh sizes (Table 2). In a few cases, data was extracted from reports published after ﬁnished reduction ﬁshery efforts (Sandström 2011; Annadotter et al. 2013). Further information on the ﬁsh-eries, such as additional methods utilized only in reduction ﬁsheries, was collected from interviews with ﬁshers. Since freshwaterﬁsh is restricted by geographic barriers (different lakes) there is a high chance of occurrence of local stocks. The use of a stock structure proxy (as presented by Hobday et al. (2007) was thus deemed most appropriate for the Availability score (set to 3, or high risk). There was no information found on depth ranges for the cyprinids, nor habitat overlap of species and ﬁsheries, thus giving the attribute Encounterability a value of 3 (high risk). Cut-off values for selectivity was following the approach for gillnet, i.e., based on mesh size relative to size for maturity/total size (e.g. high risk equals to sizes >2 × mesh size). The mesh size of the pound nets is generally very small, but passive entrapment gear is by law required to have escape openings with a diameter of 60 mm (HVMFS 2014:22). This diameter was considered the mesh size of the com-mercial pound nets. Post capture mortality cut-off attribute was set to 3 (high risk) in the currentﬁsheries if the species represented a considerable part (more than 10%) of the total pound net landings (SwAM 2018). Other species were given a score of 2 (medium risk) since they are discarded alive and have a high chance for survival based onﬁshing Table 1 Life history attributes
and productivity cut-offs used based on Swedish
Productivity attribute Low productivity (high risk)
Medium productivity (medium risk)
High productivity (low risk)
Age at maturity (years) >6 4–5 <4
Maximum age (years) >21 12–20 <10
Fecundity (eggs per year) <8000 8000–80,000 >100,000 Maximum size (cm) >60 30–60 <30 Size at maturity (cm) >30 14–30 <14 Trophic level >3.7 3.2–3.7 <3.2
method. A multiplicative approach was used for calculating the average susceptibility score following Hobday et al. (2011), except for the reduction ﬁshery where the overall susceptibility score for the cyprinids to was assumed to be 3 (high) since theﬁshing aims at removing as much cyprinid biomass as possible.
Evaluation of a Potential Future Carp FisheryFor environmental assessment of a potential increased uti-lization of cyprinids within the currentﬁshery operations in terms of carbon footprint, ecological risks and available volumes it was assumed that:
(1) landing the today discarded cyprinids would not require moreﬁshing trips or more fuel per trip; (2) there are no re-catches of the released cyprinids; and (3) all are of sizes of commercial interest.
The risk score for post capture mortality was adjusted to 3 (high risk) for all cyprinid species in the PSA, and the current fuel use was attributed to higher landing volumes than current (100% retainment of today discarded cyprinids) for the carbon footprint assessment.
To scale up to estimate the potential biomass of cyprinids available to futureﬁsheries from all lakes, cyprinid catches was collected from the Swedish lake monitoring database (NORS2019) and converted to g of cyprinids per m2of net. The largest nets, Bss (‘översiktsnät typ Stora Sjöarna’), were excluded from the estimate, since these were only used in lake Vänern and are disproportionally ineffective in catching cyprinids compared to smaller nets. The abun-dance from the geographically closest monitoring ﬁshery site was assumed to be the same as on the stated ﬁshing location. Abundance data from 2015 to 2017 was used for the commercial ﬁsheries, whereas for the reduction ﬁsh-eries, data from the year before the reductionﬁshing took place was used if available. When not available, the data
from the year closest to theﬁshing occasion was used (two cases dating back to 1997).
Current commercial use was also collected from Fish-Base (2019) to map commercial interest, as well as status on the 2015 Swedish IUCN Red List assessment (Swedish Species Initiative2019) as an additional source on potential vulnerability.
All cyprinids are categorized as least concern (LC) on the Swedish IUCN Red List except for two which are red-listed (near threatened, NT): asp Aspius aspius and vimba bream Vimba vimba (Table 3). The global commercial use of the cyprinid species varies considerably, with bream Abramis brama and crucian carp Carassius carassius being highly commercial, while belica Leucaspius delineatus, common dace Leuciscus leuciscus and gudgeon Gobio gobio being of no commercial interest today (FishBase2019).
Cyprinid landing ratio relative to other species was found to vary considerably between the different lakes, from 0.8% in Mälaren to 57.5% in Bolmen (Table4), but also between ﬁshers within the lakes. The annual total landings of all ﬁsh and total fuel consumption does however not vary as much between lakes. This results in a relatively homogenous average fuel consumption per kgﬁsh landed, between 0.06 and 0.18 liter of fuel per kg live weight (Table4). Based on current discard rates, cyprinid landings have the potential to increase substantially, which in turn would lead to improved fuel efﬁciency per kilo landed.
The reduction ﬁsheries all target primarily cyprinids (Table 5). Small perch were occasionally included in the landings from pound nets and seines, making up the missing few percent. The seine and pound net reduction ﬁsheries were all conducted with petrol driven engines, but the trawlers utilized diesel. The carbon footprint of the current commercial ﬁshery in Swedish lakes up to the point of Table 2 Susceptibility attributes and cut-offs for low-medium-high-risk based on Hobday et al. (2011) and assumptions made in this study
Attribute Options This study
High susceptibility Medium susceptibility
Availability Two alternatives, (1) overlap of species range with
ﬁshery (in %) or (2) global distribution Endemic/sub-population North hemisphere Global Encounterability Two alternatives, (1) habitat- or (2) depth overlap
High overlap with
ﬁshing gear Medium overlapwithﬁshing gear
Low overlap with ﬁshing gear Selectivity Vary by gear type, based on size (at maturity/
Species > 2 times mesh size Species 1–2 times mesh size
Species < mesh size
Vary by gear and species Retained species, or majority dead when released
Released alive Evidence of post-capture release and survival
landing was on average 0.77 kg CO2e/kg edible, which may
decrease by 32% in a futureﬁshery by landing all cyprinids that are discarded today (Fig. 1). The carbon footprint varied between the lakes in the commercialﬁshery but was
not statistically signiﬁcant (Kruskal–Wallis H = 3.51, p = 0.17, df= 2). Emissions from reduction ﬁsheries vary sig-niﬁcantly depending on gears (Kruskal–Wallis H = 18.28, p= 0.0001, df = 2), where trawl is similar to commercial pound netﬁsheries (0.71 kg CO2e/kg edible), but seine and
pound nets have considerably lower emissions (0.03 kg and 0.10 kg CO2e/kg edible respectively).
The carbon footprint of the cyprinids is substantially lower than that of most popular seafoods consumed in Sweden today. Cyprinids caught in the current commercial ﬁsheries contribute to only about a third of the greenhouse gas emissions compared to popular seafood products like Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, Saithe Pollachius virens, and farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Fig.2). Herring Clu-pea harengus products are the only ones with a smaller Table 3 Native cyprinids in
Sweden, IUCN Red List status and commercial utilization globally
Common name Species Maximum size IUCN status Commercial use
Asp Aspius aspius 120 cm NT Yes
Belica Leucaspius delineatus 12 cm LC No
Bleak Alburnus alburnus 16 cm LC Minor
Bream Abramis brama 80 cm LC Highly
Chub Squalius cephalus 45 cm LC Minor
Common dace Leuciscus leuciscus 35 cm LC No
Crucian carp Carassius carassius 64 cm LC Highly
Eurasian minnow Phoxinus phoxinus 12 cm LC Minor
Gudeon Gobio gobio 13 cm LC No
Ide Leuciscus idus 24 cm LC Yes
Roach Rutilus rutilus 50 cm LC Yes
Rudd Scardinius erythrophtalmus 35 cm LC Minor
Tench Tinca tinca 60 cm LC Yes
Vimba bream Vimba vimba 50 cm NT Minor
White bream Blicca bjoerkna 45 cm LC Minor
Zope Ballerus ballerus 45 cm LC Minor
Table 4 Inventory results from the commercialﬁshery with standard deviation, separated by lake Lake % Cyprinids in
Total landing per ﬁsher (tonnes)
Cyprinid landing per ﬁsher (tonnes)
Potential cyprinid landing perﬁsher (tonnes)
Fuel use per ﬁsher (m3)
Fuel efﬁciency (liter/ live-weight)
Vänern 19.0 18.2 ± 12.6 3.5 ± 6.0 18.8 ± 14.6 2.2 ± 1.2 0.13 ± 0.07
Mälaren 0.8 20.7 ± 6.7 0.2 ± 0.4 8.0 ± 6.2 3.5 ± 1. 4 0.18 ± 0.06
Bolmen 57.5 40 23 32 2.2 0.06
Average 14.1 21.2 ± 10.2 3.0 ± 6.9 13.5 ± 11.9 3.0 ± 1. 4 0.15 ± 0.07
Table 5 Inventory results from the reductionﬁsheries with standard deviations, divided into groups based on gear type
Gear % Cyprinids in landings
Total landing per lake (tonnes)
Cyprinid landing per lake (tonnes)
Fuel use per lake (m3) Fuel efﬁciency (liter/live-weight) Pound nets 98% 16.3 ± 15.6 15.9 ± 15.4 0.22 ± 0.14 0.02 ± 0.01 Seine 99% 23.7 ± 19.1 23.4 ± 19.2 0.10 ± 0.06 0.005 ± 0.004 Trawl 100% 65.5 ± 22.3 65.5 ± 22.3 7.58 ± 3.01 0.12 ± 0.05 Average 99% 28.8 ± 25.9 28.5 ± 25.9 1.65 ± 3.27 0.04 ± 0.05 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
Current Potential Pound net Seine Trawl
Commercial pound net Reduction fisheries
Fuel combustion Fuel production
Fig. 1 Average carbon footprint of commercial and reductionﬁsheries (separated by gear) with contribution of fuel combustion and pro-duction to the total calculated average carbon footprint
carbon footprint compared to the cyprinids from the current commercial ﬁshery, whereas brown beans has a similar carbon footprint to current commercial cyprinidﬁsheries.
In comparison to otherﬁsheries for which there is fuel data, Swedish freshwater pound net and reductionﬁsheries are amongst the most fuel-efﬁcient ﬁsheries (Fig. 3), with only ﬁsheries of small pelagic ﬁsh (<30 cm) being more efﬁcient.
The PSA indicated different risk levels of the species, but none had a higher vulnerability score than current target species (Table 6). Cyprinids had an average productivity score of 1.93 (SD 0.41) whereas the targeted freshwater species had an average productivity score of 2.81 (SD 0.08), i.e. higher risks than any of the individual cyprinid species. The cyprinids had an average vulnerability score of 2.95 (SD 0.48) in the currentﬁsheries, increasing to 3.40 (SD 0.52) in a potential futureﬁshery landing all cyprinids as a result of the increased susceptibility score (post-capture mortality). These estimates are however associated with a lot of uncertainties. Even if most productivity attributes were known (except for size at maturity for two cyprinid species), several susceptibility attributes were given a high-risk based on data deﬁciency. Out of the 16 considered cyprinid spe-cies, four species are considered having low vulnerability, eight medium and four high respectively to the current freshwater pound netﬁshery. In a future ﬁshery with 100% retainment of cyprinids, the vulnerability scores increase for all species in the family.
Discussion and Conclusion
The low carbon footprint of current commercial ﬁsheries catching cyprinids in Swedish lakes clearly indicates that it is a promising commodity in this sense compared to most of the commonly consumed protein sources in Sweden today— even compared to most other globalﬁsheries. An even lower carbon footprint per kilo may be achieved simply by
The carbon footprint does not however, convey infor-mation on potential local ecological risks with theﬁsheries. Jointly considering the carbon footprint results with those of the productivity susceptibility analysis (PSA) is important since the PSA indicated that the different cyprinid species may have different vulnerability to ﬁshing pressure. As a result, even if the carbon footprint of current ﬁsheries (which primarily target bream) would decrease in aﬁshery where more cyprinids are utilized, potential risks increase, advocating that expansion ofﬁshing should be accompanied by suitable monitoring. PSA is designed to have a precau-tionary approach and is only an initial screening of relative risks for species to support prioritization of further effort by management and research (Hobday et al. 2011). The assessment was associated with uncertainties and could potentially be improved by further method adaptation to freshwater conditions since life history cues for extinction risk may not be correlated for marine and freshwaterﬁshes (Reynolds et al. 2005; Olden et al. 2007). There is to our knowledge only one example of when PSA has been used to assess the vulnerability in a freshwater context (between populations of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus in Canada; Roux et al.2011). Even so, none of the species was found to have a potentially higher vulnerability than current target species in Swedish lakeﬁsheries.
The combined carbon footprint and ecological risk-based approach utilized here can illustrate potential trade-offs in sustainability when evaluating new seafood resources from
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Beef Pork Chicken Brown beans Cod
Herring Saithe Shrimp
Agriculture Seafood Cyprinid
Fig. 2 Average carbon footprints for the cyprinids based on this study in relation to other more popular protein sources consumed in Sweden today (based on data from RISE Climate Database2018)
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 kg CO 2 e/kg
Fig. 3 Average carbon footprint for one kg of live-weight ﬁsh, including theoretical estimations for upstream production of boats, gear etc., for the Swedish freshwaterﬁsheries examined in this study (labeled as Freshwater ﬁsh), relative to marine seafood categories presented by Parker et al. (2018)
captureﬁsheries (e.g., freshwater resources, bycatches), and identify different improvement potentials and associated constraints. Combining elements of the two tools, which both are used to support decision making in environmental man-agement, has gained increase interest in recent years (Harder et al.2015). In a ﬁsheries context, this is the second study utilizing the combined approach, the other being a study on a vastly differentﬁshery in the form of the Australian ﬁsheries for Patagonian toothﬁsh Dissostichus eleginoides (Hornborg et al.2018). The toothﬁsh study showed a development of the ﬁshery from high to low ecological risks through management actions taken, but the opposite for carbon footprint develop-ment. The latter is not considered by management authorities but of interest to industry and other societal actors. These results are both opposite and similar to this study. Similar in the sense of being cases of exploitation of new resources, with potential ecological risks higher at start (especially the reduction ﬁsheries) but carbon footprint lower. Opposite, since the assessment indicate low carbon footprint of Swedish cyprinids but higher potential ecological risks due to data deﬁciency, the latter requiring management effort.
Cyprinids as a New Resource in the Swedish Food
Improved utilization of current cyprinid resources offers an opportunity to improve food and nutrition security, given
proper measures are taken to minimize potential risks for the species with increased exploitation. From a nutritional perspective, seafood from marine captureﬁsheries provides important contributions of micronutrients as e.g. shown recently by Hicks et al. (2019). Freshwater ﬁshes were excluded in the analysis due to data deﬁciencies, but there is no evidence for them having in general lower nutritional value. They may rather have beneﬁts compared to marine species, such as a higher ability to produce longer-chain omega 3 fatty acids out of vegetable oils when farmed (Khalili Tilami, Sampels 2018). Comparing some of the most important nutrients between the freshwater bream (based on the Swedish National Food agency (NFA)) and popular marineﬁsh species (based on Hornborg et al.2019) show that the cyprinid has higher concentration of vitamin B12, selenium, and niacin than both Atlantic cod Gadus morhua and farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in bream is lower than in Atlantic salmon, but on the other hand, sub-stantially higher than in Atlantic cod. Therefore, increased utilization of cyprinids in the Swedish seafood diet may improve nutritional security.
In a recent report on nutritional and climate aspects of Swedish seafood consumption (Hornborg et al. 2019), cyprinids were not included as they were deemed irrelevant due to the negligible consumption. In 2017, 52 tonnes of carpﬁshes were available for consumption in Swedish retail Table 6 PSA results for the sixteen Swedish cyprinids and three target species in the current commercialﬁshery and a potential land-all scenario Group Species Productivity Susceptibility,
current Vulnerability, current Risk category, current Susceptibility, potential Vulnerability, potential Risk category, potential
Carps Asp 2.43 2.33 3.36 High 3.00 3.86 High
White bream 1.86 2.33 2.98 Med 3.00 3.53 High
Eurasian minnow 1.43 1.43 2.02 Low 1.65 2.18 Low
Zope 2.00 2.33 3.07 Med 3.00 3.61 High
Chub 2.14 2.33 3.16 Med 3.00 3.69 High
Belica 1.57 2.33 2.81 Med 3.00 3.39 High
Ide 2.71 2.33 3.57 High 3.00 4.05 High
Bleak 1.29 1.88 2.27 Low 2.33 2.66 Med
Roach 2.00 2.33 3.07 Med 3.00 3.61 High
Gudeon 1.29 1.88 2.27 Low 2.33 2.66 Med
Rudd 1.71 1.88 2.54 Low 2.33 2.89 Med
Vimba bream 2.14 2.33 3.16 Med 3.00 3.69 High
Bream 2.29 3.00 3.77 High 3.00 3.77 High
Crucian carp 2.29 2.33 3.26 High 3.00 3.77 High
Common dace 1.71 2.33 2.89 Med 3.00 3.46 High
Tench 2.00 2.33 3.07 Med 3.00 3.61 High
Target Perch 2.71 3.00 4.05 High 3.00 4.05 High
Pike 2.86 3.00 4.14 High 3.00 4.14 High
(Borthwick et al.2019), or 10 grams per person and year (based on the Swedish population in 2019; SCB2019b). A future ﬁshery when all cyprinids are retained in the com-mercialﬁshery and extrapolated to all active ﬁshers in the lakes included in the study could tentatively provide almost 228 tonnes edible product. This would still only represent less than 1% of the increase in ﬁsh consumption recom-mended by the Swedish NFA. If the average current discard level of cyprinids (22%) was extrapolated to all freshwater pound netﬁshers, including other Swedish lakes, the total landing could be 350 tonnes edible product. This may cause competition between bait and food, especially in lake Vät-tern, but available volumes could also increase further by including catches from coastal ﬁsheries in the Baltic Sea (were abundance of, e.g., roach is increasing; Ådjers et al. 2006), which were not considered here. Further investiga-tions on potential biomass available and associated risks with exploitation are however required since species com-position varies between lakes (Lehtonen et al.2008), which should also include coastalﬁsheries.
The potential maximum volume available to human consumption from the reductionﬁsheries is more difﬁcult to estimate since there is no information on how many lakes that would beneﬁt from reduction ﬁsheries. It would also require more research related to product quality and suitable supply chains to ensure high-quality products. If not suited for human consumption, they should be suitable for other purposes like animal feed, resources much sought after today (Troell et al. 2014). The estimate for potential cyprinid volume available to ﬁshing have in general no information on size- and species-composition, and small individuals may not be of commercial interest. The smallest cyprinids are on the other hand not caught in today’s commercial pound netﬁsheries, due to the 60 mm escape openings, but are likely caught in reductionﬁsheries. With these aspects providing uncertainties to the estimates, and by (i) assuming that all Swedish lakes with poor or unsa-tisfying ecological status would beneﬁt from reduction ﬁshing of cyprinids, and (ii) the catch per hectare in the reduction ﬁsheries included in this study can be extra-polated to all lakes of respective ecological status, a total catch of 3050 tonnes (edible yield) could be possible. This would represent around 8% of the increase in ﬁsh con-sumption recommended by the Swedish NFA. This is however not a stable yearly catch, as reductionﬁsheries are meant to reduce the cyprinid densities considerably, but some improved utilization than current (at best used for biogas today) should be possible; higher value is also of interest toﬁshers.
Ifﬁshing effort on cyprinids were to increase, monitoring of stock status development is needed where the contribu-tion of this study has only been to identify the potential and relative risks between different species toﬁshing pressure,
i.e., not an assessment on absolute risk. The arguable most important question at this point is however how to re-gain consumer interest in Sweden. This has been lost during the past decades with globalized markets (Bonow et al.2013). Only three of the sixteen cyprinid species assessed here have no commercial interest in a global perspective, but all have today low consumer interest in Sweden. Some species that should be fully avoided include red-listed species (asp and zope), and belica, the latter on which ﬁshery is also forbidden in Sweden (FIFS 2004:37). Examination of potential occurrence of hazardous substances (such as heavy metals or toxins) in cyprinids caught in different lakes are also needed. This is especially true for the cyprinids caught in reduction ﬁsheries, since lakes with a high inﬂow of nutrients also often can potentially have a high inﬂow of other substances as well.
Lastly, seafood is today a highly traded, global com-modity (FAO 2018), with pitfalls and promises. The knowledgebase concerning freshwater resources and their vulnerability to effects from climate change differ between countries (Deines et al.2017; Lynch et al.2017), calling for increased attention by managers. This may improve by increased consumer interest. A shift back towards improved utilization of local freshwater resources in a country such as Sweden would be an opportunity for improving the current food system (sensu Gordon et al. 2017). This is perhaps especially needed for ﬁsh and shellﬁsh since consumers are today distant from the local ecosystem where it is produced and thus fail to see eco-system effects from demand (Crona et al. 2016). Building resilience in food systems in light of climate change is also urgent, since food production shocks are increasing (Cot-trell et al. 2019). Nordic countries have in a European perspective a more vulnerable seafood production sector today than in the past since they are much reliant on temperature-sensitive species—whereas species such as common carp is more tolerant to higher temperatures compared to e.g. salmonids (Blanchet et al.2019), the top consumed seafood product in Sweden today (Borthwick et al. 2019). Freshwater cyprinids offer an opportunity to Swedish consumers, at this point calling for improved management focus and supply chains.
Acknowledgements The authors want to thank the ﬁshers who pro-vided the data and Jonatan Fogel who assisted in interviewingﬁshers in lake Mälaren. SH want to acknowledge funding from the Swedish Research Council Formas in the form of two grants, SEAWIN (2016-00227) and mobility grant (2016-00455). Open access funding pro-vided by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conﬂict of Interest The authors declare that they have no conﬂict of interest.
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afﬁliations. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://crea tivecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
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