Consumer benefits of
mechano-active packagesJenny Allgulander
Production management within
With this paper I am finishing my bachelor degree in Production management within Media technology at School of Technology, Malmö University. The survey is executed for Innventia and is concerning consumer benefits of mechano-active packages. I would like to thank my supervisors at Innventia, Hjalmar Granberg and Beatrice Buzsaky Johansson along with my supervisor at Malmö University, Henriette Lucander for their guidance and support during my work. Thank you Hjalmar for your dedication and thank you Henriette for encouraging me along the way. I would also like to thank the participants of the targeting groups who made this survey possible. A special thank to my teacher in packaging design, Cattis Ahlström, who gave me valuable advice through my work with the targeting groups.
Consumer benefits of mechano-active packages
Through research Innventia has successfully invented a mechano-active (motioned) paper. The purpose of the current work was to do a survey of consumer benefits of mechano-active packages, leading to creation of 1-5 simple concepts and (or) prototypes of mechano-active packages based on consumer benefits. This survey is executed for Innventia in order to help them, in their continuing work withdeveloping mechano-active consumer based packages based on real consumer needs.
Using three targeting groups answering a questionnaire and participating in workshops have carried out the survey. The targeting groups were divided into three categories: youth of today, older with reduced mobility and parents with small children; each targeting group contained six participants. The results revealed that 89 % of the participants at sometimes find packages difficult tohandle. All of the participants believe that the packages of today can improve with mechano-active
packages.The participants in this survey were very open-minded towards the prospect of mechano-active packages and the results (helped me come to the conclusion) indicate that there might be (is) a market for mechano-active packaging solutions that fulfil real consumer needs.
Genom sin forskning har Innventia lyckats uppfinna ett mekano-aktivt (rörligt) papper. Syftet med mitt arbete var att göra en studie av konsumentfördelarna med mekano-aktiva förpackningar, vilket skulle leda till framtagning av koncept eller prototyper baserade på konsumentfördelarna. Studien är utförd åt Innventia, för att bistå dem i deras fortsatta arbete med att ta fram mekano-aktiva förpackningar baserade på verkliga konsumentbehov.
Studien genomfördes med hjälp av att tre fokusgrupper svarade på en enkät och deltog i workshops. Fokusgrupperna var indelade i följande kategorier: ungdomar, äldre med nedsatt rörelseförmåga samt småbarnsföräldrar, varje fokusgrupp bestod av sex deltagare.
Resultatet visade att 89 % av deltagarna uppgav att de någon gång upplevde sig ha svårigheter att hantera förpackningar.Samtliga deltagare tror att dagens förpackningar kan förbättras med aktiva förpackningar. Deltagarna i studien hade en väldigt positiv inställning till mekano-aktiva förpackningar och resultatet (fick mig att dra slutsatsen) indikerade att det kan finnas (finns) en marknad för mekano-aktiva förpackningslösningar som uppfyller verkliga konsumentbehov.
Förpackningar, innovation, interaktiva material, konsumentfördelar, mekano-aktiva material, papper.
Table of Contents
1.1 Presentation and background...6
1.2 Purpose ...6 1.2.1 Framing of questions ...7 1.2.2 Target group ...7 1.3 Demarcation...7 2 Method ...8 2.1 Selection ...8 2.1.1 Exclusion ...9
2.2 Workshop planning and questionnaire ...9
2.2.1 Collecting data...9
2.2.2 Use and analysis of data ...10
2.2.3 Publication ...10
2.3 References criticism ...10
3 Theory ...11
3.1 Intelligent packaging ...11
3.1.1 Mechano-active materials...12
3.2 Introduction of a new consumer product...13
3.2.1 Consumer benefits and convenience aspects...14
3.2.2 Improving open-ability ...14
3.2.3 Reuse-ability and additionally functions ...15
3.3 Regulations and guidelines...15
3.4 Framework Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004 ...15
3.5 Future outlook ...16
4 Empirics ...19
4.1 Choice of targeting groups ...19
4.2 Choice of packages...19
4.3 Study with targeting groups - realization ...20
4.4 Choice of ideas for concept and prototype ...21
4.4.1 Concept and prototype developing ...22
5.2 Workshops ...27
5.2.1 Mind map...27
5.2.2 What if ...31
5.2.3 You are the idea...35
6 Ideas to mechano-active packages ...39
7 Discussion ...44
Electronic sources ...48
10 List of Appendix ...49
Appendix 1 – Planning Agenda ...50
Appendix 2 – Questionnaire...51
Appendix 3 – Choice of packages...53
Appendix 4 - Mind map ...55
Appendix 5 - What if...57
Appendix 6 - You are the idea ...58
Packages are prominent in our everyday life, the main purpose of packages is to protect and hold their contents, but throughout the years packages have developed to become more than just a shelter. They are used effectively as communication tools, communicating content along with marketing and branding: the strengthening of a brand. Further, the package presents information about its content and communicates something about its producer, which in turn reveals something about the consumer, intentionally or not. A package can act as a messenger sending out values that the producer and the consumer sympathize or identify themselves with. It can be about a certain lifestyle or about ideals. This is referred to as identity based consuming.
This fast changing world we live in set higher demands on packaging materials, manufacturing, design, ergonomics, functions and handling. Today we are talking about smart, intelligent or active packages and although the term varies it has one defined meaning: the package manages to do more than just protect, store and inform. This means that packages go from being passive to become interactive, with the possibilities of e.g. changing colour and shape, self-opening and self-closing, self-heating and self-cooling. Today’s packages are going through an exciting change, to say the least, which is reflecting our contemporary and developing lifestyle. (Butler, 2008, Preface)
Smart packaging has a few obstacles to overcome before brand owners start widespread implementation of these technologies in their packaging. These issues include cost and the complexity of implementation through the supply chain. But there are pressures expediting the growth of smart packaging, a number of drives favour the penetration of smart packaging,
including changing consumer demand patterns and possibility of brand identity through the use of high-tech features. The demand for smart packaging comes not only from the end-user segment, but also from retailers, brand manufacturers and government agencies. (Sharon, 2006)
The features in packaging are a lot more important today in how people make their selections, whether it is easily opened and closed, microwaveable etc. Changing consumer demographics affect the trends as factors driving changes in packaging, particularly the younger set of consumers, the growth of an elderly population, as well as two people working in a household and single-parent families, they all have their different needs. It all goes back to convenience and easy use of packaging. (Ingram, 2006)
The overall picture is that packages need to become smarter in order to match the increasing demands of both producers and consumers. The packaging innovators have the knowledge about how packages can become smarter and they have ideas on how interactive packages can improve today’s packaging. However for packaging innovators to be able to implement their inventions on the packaging arena, they need to convince the producers so they can give the consumers what they want. The producers need to know the consumer benefits of the package before they can sell it; therefore I decided to make a survey on about the consumer benefits of mechano-active packages.
Presentation and background
Innventia is a world leading international institute in research and developing relating to pulp, paper, graphic media, packaging and bio refining. In April 2009 the institution changed their name from STFI-Packforsk to Innventia. Innventia posted revenues of SEK 330 million in 2009 and employs 270 people, based in Stockholm, Trondheim and London.
Innventia has a large number of research and demonstration projects, among them an innovation project of active materials. Today Innventia have succeeded in creating a variety of mechano-active papers capable of moving in exciting ways. They have also created a prototype of a self-opening package; the package is not specified to any particular products but exists as a visionary concept. These interactive papers and packaging materials change colour and shape in response to various stimuli and can be used to create innovative packaging solutions.
(http://www.innventia.com, 8 April 2010)
In this study Innventia wish to examine the interest for mechano-active packages among consumers, to locate what types of packages the consumers find problematic and in need of improvement. Innventia will then take into consideration if these packages are relevant and interesting to develop into mechano-active packages.
The purpose is to do a study of consumer benefits of mechano-active packages, leading to the creation of 1-5 simple concepts and [or] prototypes of mechano-active packages based on real consumer needs.
Framing of questions
What types of consumers have an interest in mechano-active packages?
What types of packages are interesting to make mechano-active?
How can these packages improve and become mechano-active?
This study is executed for Innventia; primarily to assist them in their continuing work with developing mechano-active consumer based packages. The data can also be used in a sales and implementation perspective; to motivate producers in developing and using mechano-active packages based on consumer benefits. However this study may later on be interesting to producers and retailers who have an interest in packaging innovations.
Mechano-active materials have been developed through Innventia’s research, and because of business secrecy and protection of their invention I am not going to describe this process in detail. The participants of the three targeting groups have been demarcated within the range of a specific geographic area to collaborate in workshops with a number of brainstorming sessions.
To accomplish the purpose of this study I decided to work with targeting groups, which is a scientific method suiting to use when very little or nothing is known about a specific area. The scientist formulates a topic in which data is being gathered through group interaction. (Wibeck, 2000, p. 23) According to Wibeck targeting groups are especially effective within this type of research because it gives a direct and graphic description of peoples opinions. (Wibeck 2000, p. 40) The reason to why I chose a qualitative method instead of a quantitative was foremost because I wanted answers that was restricted to specific targeting groups, also it was more convenient and manageable. Carrying out a more extensive investigation would require more time and involve more participants, but would give a more general understanding of their opinions of mechano-active packages. However a quantitative study might be interesting after mechano-mechano-active packages have been introduced to the public. In this study it is more relevant to find out what a smaller amount of specific targeting groups think about the idea of mechano-active packages, so that it can be taken into consideration when developing packaging solutions based on consumer needs. I introduced the participants to mechano-active materials by letting them fill in a questionnaire, then I continued the study with a workshop that consisted of three brainstorming sessions, see chapter 4 Empirics, p. 19 for more details.
The targeting groups have been selected in consultation with my supervisors at Innventia; they are based on categories of consumers that we assumed would be interested in mechano-active
packages. The three targeting groups consist of the categories: Youth of today, Older with reduced mobility and Parents with small children. We decided that the number of participants would be suitable from six to eight in each targeting group, giving a total number of 18-24 participants. Through the three categories of targeting groups we assumed we had a wide and varying consumer segment with different consumer needs of packages. I asked conceivable participants if they wanted to participate in a consumer based study about a new packaging material, those who answered yes gained information either by phone or by e-mail. The participants were informed about date, time and location; they were also given a timetable and a concise description of mechano-active materials (see Appendix 1 and figure 3.1 on p. 13). By giving them a brief summary of what was expected of them I considered that they would have all the information
necessary for the upcoming event. The participants have been selected among students, colleagues, friends, neighbours, sports associations, parents' associations and pensioners' associations.
Through this selection we have tried to cover three major consumer segments, which on the other hand means that we have ignored other segments of consumers. This reduction can be seen as an intentional choice since we wanted to do a qualitative study with specific targeting groups, in order to make the study manageable and to achieve its purpose.
Workshop planning and questionnaire
The study with the targeting groups was carried out as a workshop. In a group, individuals will take more or less space and the risk that some might not share their opinions is relatively high. In order to get more opinions from the participants I chose to divide the workshop into one individual and one common part. In the first part the participants individually filled in a form and reflected more freely about the topic, while they in the second part were discussing and answering structured questions together as group. (Consider Appendix 1 and 2)
The question form for the workshops has been developed in consultation with my supervisor Hjalmar Granberg. We agreed that the purpose with the form was to give the participants a gentle introduction to mechano-active materials but at the same time give us valuable answers to
questions less suiting for group interviews. The group interview is similar to brainstorming sessions; the moderator requires much creativity from the participants, to generate ideas for mechano-active packages. (Consider appendix 4 and 5) Since the meeting with each targeting group depends upon effectiveness and creativity during a limited amount of time there is need of management and creative tools, that’s where the role of the moderator comes in. In the book “Ideas: Creative tools and methods for concept developing” by Dorte Nielsen I found the inspiration to these tools. The book brings up dependable methods and in this consideration they have been excellent and useful tools.
Data has been gathered by having the participants filling in forms and through group interaction, which was recorded and taken notes upon. Before recording, the moderator explained to the participants that the purpose with the recording is to make the documentation easier; its content will only be used by the moderator and is restricted for this purpose only. After approval from the
participants the group interactions were recorded. The files were later transferred to the moderator’s computer for reading and transcription.
Use and analysis of data
I analysed the data by first evaluating how the participants answered individually within the target group. Through this analysis I could see how similar and how different the participants within the same targeting group answered, I could also see how similar and different the three targeting groups answered in comparison. From this analysis I have been able to make conclusions and summarize what the majority think. Then I made an analysis of how the three targeting groups discussed and answered questions during the workshops. The participants’ discussions have given me a clear picture of what they generally and in detail, think of the selected packages. Their opinions and answers have also given me arguments to why, and ideas on how packages can improve and become mechano-active.
The answers and the results from the study are published as a report, either described directly in the text, as figures, in tables or as quotations.
Whilst new packaging materials are going through a developing process there is yet limited access to printed sources about the topic. However I found reliable information in the book “Smart Packaging Technologies for Fast Moving Consumer Goods” by Joseph Kerry and Paul Butler, also in the book “Innovations in Food Packaging” by Jung H. Han. Dr Joseph Kerry is a college lecturer and head of the food packaging research group in the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences at University College Cork. He is also a qualified member of the Institute of Packaging and is very involved in national and international research projects both at fundamental and applied levels. His co-editor Dr Paul Butleris a materials science specialist with interests in
nanotechnology, biomimetics, smart materials and smart packaging, currently an academic visitor in the Department of Materials at the University of Oxford and consults on smart materials and smart consumer packaging.Jung H. Han is a specialist in food processing and packaging. The authors have extensive knowledge in packaging and technology and I therefore find their work trustworthy and relevant. As for my electronic sources I find them mostly important and they can be seen as a necessary complement to the literature.
Smart packaging is a continuingly expanding research area. Theories along with innovations and developments can be found within a wide range of different areas, from raw material to end use and recycling. Aspects interesting for this study extend over the fields of intelligent packaging,
interactive packaging materials, consumer benefits, regulations and future outlook.
Terms like smart, active, intelligent or interactive are used to describe new packaging methods, these terms lack a clear definition and vary in some literature. (Han, 2005, p. 138)
The term smart packaging is sometimes used to describe both intelligent and active packaging; although these terms exist in a certain grey area they do have different meanings. Intelligent packaging can be described as packaging with external or internal indicators that provide information about history and quality of the package. Simplistically it refers to packaging that senses and informs. Active packaging on the other hand is not synonymous with intelligent
packaging since it changes the condition of the packaged goods e.g. to extend its shelf life. (Butler, 2008, p. 2) A package being active means that it changes when influenced by a certain stimuli such as moisture, temperature, electricity or chemicals. (Granberg, Hjalmar, senior research associate, Innventia, phone meeting, 31 March 2010)
Packaging can do so much more than simply brand a product or keep it fresh; the applications of intelligent packaging are almost endless. From virtually zero this market was expected to have sped up to Euro 500 million in sales by 2007
(http://www.pira-international.com/Intelligent-Packaging.aspx). Smart packaging technologies were initially considered to offer huge market potential and benefits for producers and consumers and there has been good growth in active packaging technologies over the past five years, but several factors have restrained market growth: its relatively high cost, consumer resistance and restrictions imposed by food safety legislation, particularly in the EU. Nevertheless, the trend for consumers to demand more convenient packaged foods will drive the development in active packaging, including use of moisture scavengers, self-venting films and microwave susceptors.
(http://www.pira-international.com, 29 July 2010)
At iPACK there are almost 60 people working to find new, unexpected applications for a combination of organic chemistry, traditional electronics, paper technology and biomedicine, among other fields. The iPACK Centre, also a research partner to Innventia, was founded to
advance the ability of Swedish industry to compete in the market for intelligent packaging by developing innovative electronics in vision of internet-of-things, through close collaboration with industry, leading research centres, and early adopters internationally. The overall goal is to have iPACK internationally recognised as an important research centre for intelligent package solutions. (http://www.kth.se, 28 July 2010)
“An important part of the smart package concept is the experience itself as well as the use of it.” We are constantly searching for such applications for new, smart
Li-Rong Zheng, director of the research centre iPACK
When the concept of smart packaging has been discussed in recent years, a common example has been milk cartons that can indicate whether the milk has gone sour, but the technology use for intelligent packaging area is much larger than this. Even though it has a potential area of use according to Lars Sandberg, chairman of the board for first-stage iPACK, it is unlikely that the technology will first be used for this application. The technology will be used primarily in more expensive products such as packages for perfume or toys, where it can be a competitive edge in comparison with other similar products. There are also many possible applications in the
medicine/technical area. One example is packages that can keep track of when a person has taken their tablets. (http://www.kth.se, 28 July 2010)
Through their research Innventia has succeeded in creating a variety of mechano-active papers capable of moving in exciting ways. Mechano-active materials alter their shape in response to various stimuli such as moisture, water, temperature (heat and cold) or electricity, see figure 3.1 below. (http://www.innventia.com, 8 April 2010)
One can imagine that the applications of this invention are numerous, from moving decorations to new packaging solutions. Mechano-active materials can be used in creative marketing, in safety aspects e.g. to oppose piracy, to create self-opening packages, as an interactive building and inspiring design material.
A mechano-active material can bend, twist, swell, shrink, change shape/stability/stiffness when exposed to different stimuli. When exposed to a stimuli the mechano-active material enable packages to be opening, closing, isolating (heat and cold) and shape-able.
Example stimuli: moisture, water, heat, cold and electricity.
Example of common objects and phenomenon that provides stimuli:
Fridge, freezer, oven, microwave oven, radiator, air-condition (e.g. in the car or indoor a hot summer day), hot food and beverage, cold food and beverage, ice, snow, season, breath, body temperature, simple electric devices like cash register, mobile phone etc.
Figure 3:1 “Crib – Mechano-active materials”, freely reproduced from Hjalmar Granbergs description of mechano-active materials. (Granberg, 2010-03-20)
The effect of paper showing motion when exposed to different stimuli has been called “paper muscle”. In 2008 Veronica Holmberg’s study “Creating temperature stimulated paper muscles by printing and lamination”, was carried out as a part of a larger effort at Innventia, with the aim to find new applications for paper, in that study specifically by giving motion to paper by using a bilayer system, when the bilayer is exposed to stimuli such as heat, it will start to expand in all directions. (http://www.uppsatser.se, 27 July 2010)
Figure 3:2 “A bilayer system of mechano-active paper”. Illustration by Veronica Holmberg (http://www.uppsatser.se, 27 July 2010)
Introduction of a new consumer product
For smart packaging targeted at the consumer, the consumer benefits need to be central for a successful new consumer product introduction. A general mistake when introducing a new
technology or a product, in packaging just as any other sectors, is forgetting what are the important factors to the consumers at each stage of a products lifecycle. An efficient way of evaluating the benefits of a new product is by identifying where and how the new product will affect consumers.
The results can then be displayed as a matrix of utility versus the various stages of buyer
experience. For packaging the most important stages are generally purchase, use and disposal, so by placing a new smart packaging concept in one of these stages, innovators can clearly see how a new idea creates a different utility proposition from existing products.
(Butler, 2008, p. 234)
Consumer benefits and convenience aspects
One of the most driving aspects in the development of smart consumer packaging is user convenience. It is important that the package follows at least one out of three essential themes: saving time, saving money or making things easier for the consumer. Today’s consumers are tired of packages that are craving too much time and effort. First and foremost they want improvements that save time and are easy to use, without causing more stress in an already busy lifestyle.
People’s increasingly hectic lifestyles are creating new demands on packaging, the consumers expect packages to be lightweight, portable, reseal-able, easy to open and use without the aid of tools. Even at the end of its lifetime packages need to be safe and easy to handle, consumers expect packages to be reusable, or to be easily cleaned or crushed. If a package fails to live up to these expectations it will create one last negative experience for the consumer. Our hectic lifestyles show no signs of slowing down, most likely consumers will be even more mobile and time pressured in the future. This tendency creates opportunities for smart packaging to offer new and improved solutions that matches the consumer needs and demands on convenience.
(Butler, 2008, s. 245)
The new term “wrap rage” is used to describe the built-up frustration that can occur when packages are too difficult to open. The frustration is just one part of the problem, it can lead to injury whilst consumers trying to use knifes and other sharp tools to open difficult packaging. Packages that are difficult to open are also discriminating against consumers with reduced mobility; it creates a barrier since it hinders certain types of consumers to choose freely among products, which negatively affects repeated purchasing. Easier-to-open packages are generally about good design, vaguely increasing the total package cost. Usually it deals with very small changes, but the
message is that these small design changes can make large differences to open-ability and improve the user convenience significantly. These types of re-design; with focus on improving consumer open-ability, certainly fit into the category of smarter packaging.
Reuse-ability and additionally functions
Smarter packaging could simply be about a great package design that is well suited for its original purpose but provides additional convenience and usefulness once it is empty. This way of making packages smarter would not only give the consumers new benefits but would also support
sustainability and reusability, reducing the amount of packaging going to waste.
Although the opportunities are many, the examples today are few. Naturally, everyday packaging has its limits to be reused, since how many yoghurt pots does one household need? Nevertheless already today there are packages with the possibility of fulfilling dual purposes and functionality. In the future smart packaging technology is expected to have some tear-offs with focus on reuse-ability. (Butler, 2008, p. 244-245)
Regulations and guidelines
Compared with countries like Japan and USA the use of active and intelligent materials in Europe is still limited. It is difficult to identify why this is the case but cost and consumer interest are believed to be some reasons. The introduction of active and intelligent packaging will progress along with the growing consumer interest for safe and convenience food. With the publication of a specific regulation on active and intelligent materials, a system of authorisation will be enabled; this may also increase the use of active and intelligent materials. (Butler, 2008, p. 320)
Framework Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004
In the European Union the general requirements for food contact materials (FCM) are set through Framework Regulation 1935/2004, particularly important is paragraph 3 stating that the packaging material should not endanger human health. (Butler, 2008, p. 317)
Within the framework there are also regulations stating that consumers should not be mislead by labels, advertising or presentation. (Butler, 2008, p. 309)
The framework describes active and intelligent packaging by the following definitions: “Active food contact materials and articles mean materials and articles that are intended to extend the shelf-life or to maintain or improve the condition of packaged food. They are designed to deliberately incorporate components that would release or absorb substances into or from the packaged food or the environment surrounding the food”
“Intelligent food contact materials and articles mean materials and articles which monitor the condition of packaged food or environment surrounding the food”
The definition of active packaging distinguishes active materials from passive packaging materials whilst it also excludes all packaging materials from natural sources. The definition of intelligent materials is restrictive as it refers to packaged foods only. This means that an ordinary thermometer or recording equipment used in food production or storage is not considered ‘‘intelligent’’ articles. (Butler, 2008, p. 309)
A specific regulation, paragraph 14 on active and intelligent packaging is under preparation and resembling its final stage. The document can be taken as a starting point for requirements on active and intelligent packaging. The draft regulation deals in particular with the authorisation procedure for active and intelligent components. So far the European Commission has announced that active and intelligent packaging shall act in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 5; they should be suitable and effective for the intended purpose, also the active and the intelligent components shall be included in the Community list. An active or intelligent packaging is only considered to be following the draft regulation if these requirements are fulfilled. (Butler, 2008, p. 311)
Packages available today are doing an excellent job in preventing waste and getting products to customers in good condition. Even so there are a number of reasons why packages need to become smarter in the future. The world of consumer-packaged goods is mature and the market saturated, at least in a developed world, so a new paradigm is necessary. We live in a rapidly changing world where yesterday’s status quo is no longer good enough. Future packaging must offer and deliver a more valuable proposition to the consumer, particularly dealing with convenience and on the go support that our increasingly hectic lifestyles are demanding. (Butler, 2008, p. 233)
Consumers are seeking after faster, easier and more convenient high quality foods. This means that consumption with focus on convenience most likely will be central in the future. (Han, 2005, p. 141) Conveniences may be considered within manufacturing, distribution, sales, marketing and environment. It may also be related to productivity, processibility, traceability, ware housing, easy opening and cooking preparation. (Han, 2005, p. 10) Another continuing trend within packaging is research and developing of new materials with higher safety functions. (Han, 2005, p. 10)
In the future we are likely to see developments in low peel-force adhesives, even smart packages that are self-opening but still tamper-proof. Just to keep in mind, there is a fine line between easy to open and easy to tamper with. (Butler, 2008, p. 243)
Anyone claiming that today’s packaging is perfectly tailored to meet the needs of the older
generation is mistaken. This statement is based on the results of Pro Cartons study about packaging requirements of consumers over 60’s. Today life expectancy is rising while birth rate is falling; in fact society is getting older every year. Back in 1950, the number of people under 20 was
approximately twice as high as the number of those aged 60 or above. By 2050, however, this ratio will have been reversed, then there will be more than twice as many over 60’s as young people. The older generation yields new power, and they want to be offered packaging that meets their needs. It is people who don’t want to be classified as “the elderly” by advertisers and marketing specialists but instead expects being allowed to maintain the consumption and lifestyle habits of their middle years.
The results show that less than one-fifth of older consumers are completely satisfied with the packaging designs that exists today, Meanwhile 81 % is either satisfied only to some degree or else they are completely dissatisfied. They are especially critical of: packaging that is difficult to open and difficult to re-close, packaging that does not allow the product to be stored for an appropriate length of time and packaging designs that do not allow the contents to be served in portions. It is time for the packaging arena to adjust to this new power of the older generation and recognise the dynamic potential for innovation offered by the reversal in society’s age profile.
(http://www.procarton.com, 7 March 2010)
The developments in smarter packaging also require a new look upon how paper is being used; at Innventia they have a vision of paper 2030. This vision is based on the following trends divided into four major categories:
Increased security needs Think globally act locally
Selforganising networking communities
Mass customisation Customer as a producer
Interactivity Everybody is a potential customer
Growth assumption Ethics Emotional content Added value Material research Brand value
Figure 3:3 “Vision of paper 2030”, freely reproduced from Hjalmar Granbergs illustration. (Granberg, Hjalmar, senior research associate, Innventia, phone meeting, 31 April 2010)
By 2030 it is possible that:
• People express themselves by personal inventions based on inspiring sustainable materials
• Paper should have built-in latent interactive properties, e.g. opto-active and mechano-active papers
• Fibre-based materials should be available ‘‘building blocks’’
In this part I am describing the choice of targeting groups and choice of packages. I am also describing the realization of the study with the three targeting groups and how the ideas to developing a prototype concept were chosen.
Choice of targeting groups
In order to answer the question what types of consumers are interested in mechano-active packages, a phone meeting with my supervisors at Innventia: Hjalmar Granberg and Beatrice Buzsaky-Johansson were arranged 15 April 2010. We had earlier decided to work with different targeting groups, during the meeting my instructors presented that they would like one of the targeting groups to contain individuals with reduced mobility, because they believe that mechano-active packages could improve their everyday life. I agreed but also expressed that because of the increasing older population today, even older people without reduced mobility could be interesting participants. We agreed that one of the targeting groups should consist of older with reduced mobility. Parents with small children represented another targeting group; they felt like a natural choice because when taking their children outside the home they are often carrying lots of
necessary packages. Finally the category youth of today was chosen as another targeting group, this because we would like to think that younger people are mostly open-minded and could provide a different input to the study.
Choice of packages
To answer the question what types of packages are interesting to make mechano-active my supervisors at Innventia gave me the task to choose ten packages that I thought would be
interesting to make mechano-active. We decided that the theme for the mechano-active packages should be determined to the following stimuli: moisture, water, heat, cold and electricity. From the beginning I choose ten packages within the following categories: beverages, dairy products, canned food and cleaning and hygiene articles. After consultation we decided that I should choose two packages to each targeting group, I selected packages within the category food and beverage since it is primary packages that each and one can relate to. (Consider Appendix 3)
Study with targeting groups - realization
After establishing targeting groups and packages I continued my work by carrying out the study with the chosen targeting groups, to answer the question: how can these packages improve and become mechano-active?
The first study was accomplished with targeting group 1: Youth of today, represented by six participants within the ages of 20-25, of which three were women and three were men. Half of the participants knew each other from earlier. The study took place in a study room at Malmö
University, School of Technology. All of the participants were taking an active part in the discussions; they seemed comfortable whilst showing a vivid interest.
The second study was set out with targeting group 2: Older with reduced mobility, represented by an equal division of altogether six men and women within the age of 55-82. Two of the participants knew each other from earlier. Most of them had stated that they were suffering from aching joints or were having rheumatic pains in joints. The study took place at the moderator’s home. The atmosphere was cheerful and lively; the participants expressed their opinions with a great interest. Although the discussion at sometimes had a tendency to slip outside the topic, the moderator managed to lead it back to the primary discussion.
The third study proceeded with targeting group 3: Parent’s with small children, represented by three men and three women within the ages of 25-32. Two of the participants knew each other since earlier. Once again, the workshop took place at the moderator’s home. The discussion was self-moving and the participants expressed similar opinions.
Each targeting group has participated in a workshop divided into three parts. In the first part the participants were introduced to the purpose of the investigation, they were then presented to the timetable and to mechano-active materials. After the introduction they were asked to fill in a form, the form was expected to give an idea of the consumers living conditions and how they generally handle every day packages. Simultaneously the form gave the participants an introduction to mechano-active materials and it gave them a chance to independently reflect about packages before they start discussing. (Consider Appendix 1 and 2)
In the second part of the study the participants took part in mind mapping, to define the chosen packages. Each targeting group discussed two packages in relation to use, functions, sustainability, reusability, recycling and problems. The chosen packages are found within the category beverage and food, and have been adapted to the consumer needs of each targeting group. The discussion
started with the moderator placing the package on the table and encouraged the participants to examine the package by looking at it and touching it. The participants were then asked to discuss the package out of the earlier mentioned concerns while the moderator filled in templates of mind maps. (Consider Appendix 3 and 4)
In the third part the participants were allowed to act as innovators through two different
brainstorming sessions. First they were asked to imagine what would happen if the package were mechano-active, once again the moderator reminded the participants about the behaviour of a mechano-active material. Within this part the participants could define the use of mechano-active materials and imagine what a mechano-active package would look like, in addition to this they could also predict problems that might occur. (Consider Appendix 5).
Finally the moderator asked the participants to imagine that they are the idea, the mechano-active package. The participants were spontaneously expressing their opinions on how they felt, where in the shop they were placed and why the customers should choose them among others. They were also giving ideas on colours and shapes. This part is filling a marketing purpose, to give an idea on how the consumers feel about mechano-active packages. (Consider appendix 6)
Choice of ideas for concept and prototype
As previously mentioned we agreed to make 1-5 concepts and (or) prototypes of mechano-active packages based on the consumer needs from this study. Throughout my work I realized that the time limit would allow me to focus on one concept only, in order to develop a more proper mechano-active solution. The results from the three workshops generated plenty of ideas; some of them have been of great importance for the process with developing a concept and a prototype of a mechano-active package. I thought it would be more reasonable to choose one of the packages discussed among the participants from the study. Among the packages presented for the participants, I felt that there was particularly one package that was in desperate need of improvement: the paper mug. It was a package that a lot of the participants seemed to be dissatisfied with. It was brought up and mentioned as a difficult package several times in the questionnaire. And during the discussion with targeting group 1, Youth of today, it became clear that its construction is poorly designed to live up to the consumer needs and expectations of today. The paper mug is daily used by a wide range of consumers; therefore I thought it was ideal to see what improvements could be done to the paper mug if it became mechano-active.
Concept and prototype developing
To come up with a packaging solution and design of a mechano-active paper mug I had to define the problems with its contemporary equivalent. Through the group interview the participants had given me answers to why the paper mug is difficult to handle, as expected, some of their answers were similar to my definition of problems. Generally they thought that the lid was causing
problems because of its inability to attach to the mug properly. The participants would like to see a better construction of the lid; so that it attach properly to the mug, which lead to my conclusion that the main focus should be on improving the open and close ability. In fact I found interesting and useful ideas from all the targeting groups, I used it as inspiration and transferred these ideas into my concept of a mechano-active paper mug.
Ideas used as inspiration:
“Cans where you make the lid swell or expand to make the opening or closing easier”.
A participant from targeting group 1. Youth of today, when answering the question: What package would you like to be mechano-active?
“It is convenient that it is shaped as a mug, which makes it easier to stack, and storage, also easier to hold. Maybe the lid could self-close with the influence from the stimuli heat and steam from the hot beverage”.
Targeting group 1. Youth of today, when discussing the paper mug
“Almost like a package for micro wave popcorn, it is flat and takes little space but when heated it starts to expand”.
Targeting group 2. Older with reduced mobility, when discussing the frozen ready meal
“Maybe the lid is a bowl, put on the can, after heating you turn the can upside down to release the lid that has expanded to a bowl”.
Targeting group 3. Parents with small children, when discussing the canned baby food
The concept is being described with two sketches, one sketch shows the function and the other visualise the concept. I also made a full scale drawing of the mug construction, describing all the parts of the mug and their measurements, to use when constructing the prototype. The essential of the design is that the lid has a 2-3 mm deep cut in which layers (a bilayerstructure) of mechano-active materials are being placed. On the top of the paper mug there is an edge with the size of 5x2 mm that is rolled inward. After the mug is filled with hot beverage e.g. coffee the lid is put on the mug, the edge inside of the mug fits into the cut and holds the lid. When influenced by heat and steam from the hot beverage the mechano-active cut in the lid expands/swells, the expansion secures the hold and prevents the lid from coming loose. (Consider Appendix 7)
In this part the results from the study with the targeting groups are being presented. I am here reproducing essential information that has emerged. Please observe that only content relevant for the report is being brought up.
Altogether the study consisted of 18 participants. Here are the essential results of what has emerged from the questionnaire:
Of the total amount of participants 39 % are singles
39 % have a partner 22 % are married
Of those who were singles, 43 % are found in the targeting group Youth of today, of those who had a partner, 28,5 % are found in the targeting group Older with reduced mobility and of those who are married, 28,5 % are found in the targeting group Parents with small children.
Number of children:
Of the total amount of participants 39 % have no children
28 % have one child 11 % have two children 11 % have three children 11 % have four children or more
In the targeting group Youth of today none of the participants have any children, in the targeting group Older with reduced mobility the majority have three children and in the targeting group Parent’s with small children the majority have one child.
Of the total amount of participants 61 % lives in a rented flat
11 % lives in a co-operate flat 6 % still lives with their parents
Of the total amount of participants 39 % are full-time workers 22 % are part-time workers 22 % are students
17 % are pensioners
Of the total amount of participants
28 % have an income of 200 000 – 300 000 SEK/year 28 % have an income of 100 000 - 200 000 SEK/year 22 % have an income of 50 000 - 100 000 SEK/year 11 % have an income of 0 - 50 000 SEK/year 11 % have an income over 300 000 SEK/year
Those with the highest income/year are found in the targeting groups Older with reduced mobility and Parents with small children, those with the lowest income/year are found in the targeting groups Parents with small children and Youth of today.
Purchases of provisions:
Of the total amount of participants
28 % state that they are taking care of the purchases
56 % state that they together with their partner, are taking care of the purchases 17 % state that somebody else is taking care of the purchases
The majority of the participants, 89 %, state that they sometimes are handling packages with difficulties. Only 11 % (2 of 18, both of them men) state that they are handling packages without any difficulties.
Why are these packages difficult to handle? What makes them difficult? The majority of the participants are answering this question by stating that it’s because you often need tools, like a knife or a scissor to open up the package.
Of those packages being described as difficult, the majority of the participants within each targeting group could identify the following:
• Media and electronic products packaged in plastic • Cans made of glass for e.g. jam and pickles • Milk cartons
The participants shared the opinion that the most problematic with those packages is that they are difficult to open.
Of those packages being described as difficult, the following were brought up by several of the participants:
• Paper mug • Margarine • Gruel
• Food put on bread to make a sandwich e.g. spread and filling • Packages for bread, rice, porridge and cereals
• Shopping bags
The participants shared the opinion that the most problematic with those packages is that they are difficult to re-close or storage.
They are also mentioning other reasons to why packages are difficult to handle, e.g.: ”The paper mug is worthless when it comes to multitasking, just a simple thing like walking and drinking at the same time, which is the actual purpose with coffee-on-the-go”.
”If a package requires too many detailed instructions to follow or understand, then the packaging design has failed”.
”A Media product within a plastic package can be pretty challenging to open up without getting injured on the sharp edges, and you have to be careful not to damage the package too much if you want the guarantee to remain valid “.
”Milk cartons are complicated because of their design, it is difficult to pour milk without splashing, I want the milk to flow smoothly”.
”The lid on cans for jam etc. often requires aid in order to open up”.
”Packages that are supposed to be opened up with a tear of, usually doesn’t work. You have to use much power on a tiny surface and once the package has been opened, it is stuck with sharp edges and unable to be re-sealed”.
”Sometimes there are too many layers of unnecessarily packaging material before you get to the content”.
All of the participants believe that mechano-active packages can improve today’s packaging. They are giving a variation of examples on how packages could improve by made mechano-active; some examples are being explained more detailed than others:
”Absolutely, the material would improve packages to be more sustainable and easy to open, the lid to a package could e.g. swell with moisture or water”.
”Plastic packages to media products could have mechano-active edges for a more convenient and easier opening, maybe by sinking the edges in water for a couple of seconds”.
”A paper mug could react on heat or moisture, in order to be shape-able, maybe if only the lid was mechano-active to create a solid self-sealing lid, maybe with the heat and steam from the hot coffee”.
”Milk and other diary products like yoghurt would have a better sustainability if they could be properly resealed without leaking in air”.
”Packages for spread and fillings could be re-close able, when the package is being stored in the fridge it closes, because of the cold”.
”Margarine could be self-opening in room temperature and self-closing in the fridge”. ”A milk carbon that was shape-able, for better grip and pouring”.
”A self-opening lid for cans, maybe with the help of body temperature, with heat and pressure from the hand, you press your hand on the lid and after a short while it opens up ”.
”The milk carbon could self-close when being exposed to cold, e.g. in the fridge, so it remains fresh longer”.
”Just imagine being able to heat the gruel without a microwave, maybe by just the heat from your hands or simply by shaking the bottle”.
”A bottle that was self-cooling would be smart when transported outside the fridge, maybe this could be working with electricity instead, from the mobile phone, everybody is carrying one today so it would be very comprehensive”.
What package would you like to be mechano-active, e.g. self-opening, self-closing, shape-able etc? How would the mechano-active package make it easier for you?
”I am always carrying a banana in a banana case inside my bag so that it doesn’t get mashed. But I find the existing cases today poorly designed because I have to choose bananas after the shape of the case; I think it would be clever if the case were shape-able ”.
”Packages that requires aid from tools, so they became easier to open”.
”For lunch I often buy a salad, I would appreciate if the salad could stay cold and fresh longer. ”Self-closing lids for example soft drinks”.
”I think that shape-able packages would be great, I am imaging that they would help creating more space in e.g. the fridge and the freezer, they would make storing easier”
”Self-heating food that could be heated directly inside the package would be great e.g. during the lunch break when everybody waiting in line to microwave their food”.
”Baby canned food and gruel could be self-heating, sometimes I find myself in situations where I have no access to a microwave e.g. in the car when driving long distances, then it would be ideal if the food were self-heating”.
”Beverage that could be kept chilled longer”.
”Paper mugs that could keep the coffee heated longer, without having the lid causing any difficulties”.
”I would like packages for bread to be resalable so that they stayed fresh longer and didn’t become dry”.
”Cans were you make the lid swell or expand to make the opening or closing easier”.
Are there any other packages, except the ones you mentioned that could be mechano-active? If so, what packages would that be?
”Within the army during field training I experienced that the food conditions were pretty bad, the packages for meal were impractical to handle and reseal, I think mechano-active packages could be interesting for the Army”.
”Generally packages with fragile content and packages that are uneasy to handle and transporting”.
”Packages to ice cream, chocolate and butter could all be self-cooling”. ”Reseal-able bags that can keep its content fresh longer”.
”Perhaps there could be shape-able napkins and sanitary towels”.
44 % of the participants would buy a mechano-active package if it improves
the packages appearance. The majority of these participants are found in the targeting group Parents with small children. All of the participants would buy a mechano-active package if it
improved the packages functions and made it easier to use.
72 % of the participants would buy a mechano active package if it improved both the packages appearance and functions but to a slightly higher cost than today. Of those who answered no on this question, the majority are found in the targeting group Youth of today.
Here are the essential results of what has emerged during the workshops with the targeting groups:
Through Mind map (consider appendix 3) the targeting groups define the chosen packages (consider appendix 6) according to: use, functions, sustainability, reusability, recycling and problems.
Targeting group 1. Youth of today
Package: Paper mug Definition:
“Mostly by adults but sometimes also by children”. “Usually during morning or lunch, when you are on the go from somewhere to somewhere else”. “At work during meetings, in school in the classroom, in the car (with varied success)”.
“The opening in the lid is not ideal for drinking because it is too small”. “The lid lack the ability to attach to the mug properly and often falls off. “It is convenient that it is shaped as a mug which makes it easier to stack and storage, also easier to hold”.
“The construction is weak and fragile, it is not designed for it is purpose on the go. Because the lid often falls off it is easy to spill and burn yourself (or others). “Sometimes the hot coffee dissolves part of the paper mug and you get paper particles in your coffee which is unpleasant”.
One of the participants state, “The paper mug can be used as an ordinary mug once or twice to be filled with e.g. water” but the majority of the participants state, “Once the paper mug is empty it has fulfilled its purpose”.
“The paper mug should be sorted as paper, carton and plastics but it is hardly anyone that sorts it properly, it is more common that it is thrown away in the closest trash can or just left behind in the classroom, meeting room etc.”.
“The most problematic with the paper mug is that it is poorly designed and doesn’t live up to the expectations to use on the go”. “It simply doesn’t feel up do date, it is not convenient or
user friendly enough”. The participants would like to see a better construction of the lid; so that it attaches properly to the mug, also they would like the opening to be better, perhaps shaped as a spout that is close able.
Package: Frozen ready meal Definition:
The participants state that mostly adults use the ready meal, mainly as lunch at work but even as lunch at home sometimes, especially by single households that wants one-portion meals. They believe that people choose the ready meal because it is convenient and fast. “Of course, you need access to a microwave or an oven also you have to storage it in the fridge or the freezer, but it is still convenient”. “Sometimes you need tools to open the package, e.g. a scissor when the strip doesn’t work”.
One of the participants stated, “It fills the function fast and convenient”, whereupon another participant stated “But it doesn’t fill the functions of satisfying hunger or being nutritious enough”. The participants are also discussing whether the foil is filling a function or not, the majority of them state that the foil is unnecessary because it can’t be heated in the microwave or oven, “The foils function is actually to hold the pie and make it maintain its shape”, “it feels like you could find a better solution than using foil because it is not environmentally friendly”. “If the outer package would have been appropriate there would be no need of an inner
package”. “The rip on this particularly package is working flawlessly but there are other ready meals with more difficult opening, like some being packed in bags”.
“The Package is relatively fragile because it is being defrosted pretty fast”. “It is sensitive for over-heating but at the same time it is difficult to have it even heated, sometimes it is still cold in the middle”. “It should not be put to the freezer and being heated too many times”.
The participants share the opinion that this package can not being used for anything else but one participant add, “Well if you are creative you could always find use for it”.
The participants define that the package should be sorted as paper, carton, plastic and metal. • Problems
The participants are questioning the use of foil and whether it can be replaced with something else. They are also mentioning that the heating can be difficult because it is affecting the consistency of the food, sometimes when overheated the food loosens its consistency and when not properly heated it could still be cold in the middle.
Targeting group 2. Older with reduced mobility
Package: Concentrated juice Definition:
“Mostly by older, because of tradition but also by younger more environmentally conscious people”. One of the participant state, “The concentrated juice is more environmentally friendly because you mix the concentrate by adding water yourself, readymade juices and drinks means that there are a huge amount of water being transported on our roads everyday when we have fully access to fresh water at home, we need to use our resources better”. “Also it is cheaper to
buy concentrated juices than ready made juices, for the price conscious”. “Sometimes you need tools like scissors or knifes to open up the package, it is not always that the strip works
flawlessly”. The participants agree that the package is mostly used at home where you have all the tools necessary: water, measuring cup and carafe.
“The package is not ideal to hold when tearing of the strip because it sometimes requires a lot of strength, the opening could be made easier for those who have problems with hurting joints”. “Sometimes you don’t use all of the content at once, then you would like the package to be reseal-able, especially considering the many single households of today”.
“After opening the package can be storied a couple of days in the fridge but it wont stay fresh unless you use all of it and storage it in a pot or carafe”. “It is common that people use clips or even plastic bags to reseal the opening”. “What is good about the design and the shape is that is it solid and ideal for storing and transporting”.
“Sometimes the package itself is being used to fill the carafe with water”. In general the participants believe that most people throw away the package once it is empty.
The participants state that the package is being sorted as paper and carton. “The package is easy to squeeze together and takes little space in the trash can”.
The participants agree that the opening is in need of improvement, especially suited for older people with reduced mobility. They would also like the package to be reseal-able.
Package: Frozen ready meal Definition:
In the categories use, functions, reuse-ability and recycling the answers were too similar to
targeting group 1 to be brought up again. However in the categories sustainability and problems new and interesting information was gained.
“The package is solid and ideal for storing in the freezer”. • Problems
“Frozen ready meals are expensive, considering what you get in amount of food and quality”. “What is negative about frozen ready meals is the missing feeling of actually cooking and all the scents that whets the appetite”. “The meal doesn’t deliver the feeling of pure joy of food”. “The taste and the consistency after heating also lower the standard of the food”. “The elderly still wants to experience the same feelings of joy and happiness about food, they want to be able to “cook” ready meals that feels and tastes like homemade food, it is something that a lot of elderly misses when having home-help service”.
Targeting group 3. Parents with small children
Package: Gruel Definition:
“Exclusively by parents with small children”.” Even some adults and older people drinks gruel”. “Sometimes you need tools like a scissor to open up the package”. “There are several
things you need to prepare the gruel; a tablespoon, water, a feeding bottle, and microwave or oven to heat it, and then you need a can to storage the gruel because it needs to be storied dark and dry”. The majority of the participants state that they rather keep the gruel inside a can because the package is too sensitive. “The gruel is mostly used during morning and evening”. “After preparation it is easy to carry the gruel in a feeding bottle whenever you are leaving home”. One of the participants state, “There are also ready made gruel in the shop if you want it more convenient”, but in general the participants agree that it is more price conscious to choose big pack when it comes to gruel.
“It is difficult to pour the gruel from the package because the paper is thin and the gruel sticks to the glued opening”. Altogether they believe the pouring function is in need of improvement. “It would be an good idea if the big pack had handles for easier carrying”.
“The gruel is sensitive to moisture, that is why you rather keep it storied in a can than in the original package (bag)”.
All of the participants agree that the package can’t be used to something else when it is empty. • Recycling
The participants’ state that the package is being sorted as paper and (or) soft plastic. • Problems
“There are several steps to prepare the gruel, you need a lot of tools. It would be smart if the package was reseal-able and made of a more resistant material, so that the gruel could be stored directly inside the package.”
Package: Baby canned food Definition:
“Mostly by parents with small children”. “It is being used up to 1-2 times a day as lunch, dinner or in between meals”. It can be used either at home or outside the home”.
“You need access to a microwave or oven and sometimes you need a can opener but today’s cans are relatively easy to open”. “This specific can has a smart click sound that appears when opening, to secure that it hasn’t been opened before use ”. “The can is made of glass which is convenient because you can heat it directly in the microwave, but you have to make sure you don’t burn yourself because it gets really hot”. One of the participants state, “You need a spoon and a bowl if you don’t want to feed the baby directly from the can but when you are about to teach them to eat themselves you would use a bowl” whereupon the others agree: “You don’t want them to handle the can by themselves because it is made of glass”.
“The can is made of glass which makes it fragile for transportation, it can easily break”. • Reuse-ability
“The can is ideal for storing of all kinds of things e.g. spices”. • Recycling
The participants state that the lid needs to be separated from the can and then sorted as metal whilst the can is being sorted as glass.
“The main problem is that the can is made of glass, which makes it fragile for transporting and sensitive for heating, it is easy to burn your hands when holding the can”.
After defining their chosen packages the targeting groups were asked to reflect over how these packages could improve. This was done through What if, where they imagined what would happen if the packages were mechano-active.
Targeting group 1. Youth of today
Package: Paper mug Use and functions:
• Opening and closing
“The opening in the lid could open with help from moisture from your lips, when you don’t put your lips to the opening it stays closed”.” Maybe the lid could self close with the influence from the stimuli heat and steam from the hot beverage”. “Actually the lid is causing most problems, what if only the lid was mechano-active”?
”The mug could be shaped after the hand, curved, so that I became more grip-friendly”. • Isolating (heat, cold)
”Wouldn’t it be smart and practical if you shake the mug then the content becomes heated again”? ”Or if the heat from your hands could warm up the beverage and keep it warm while your drinking”. ”A mechano-active package that keeps beverage chilled longer, when taken from the fridge”.
”It would have been more ideal if the lid was mechano-active, when put on the paper mug it attaches properly”
”The paper mug could still look the same but be more grip-friendly”
”If the mug is able with e.g. heat from your hands it is important that it is only Shape-able on a certain area, so that the lid doesn’t go off when you squeeze it, because that is what happens today when you squeeze it. ”The material, or the paper can’t be too sensitive for stimuli”
Package: Frozen ready meal Use and functions:
• Opening and closing
”The package could unfold itself when being heated in the microwave or oven”. ”The package could have an indicator that shows when it is ready, or help you to control the right
temperature”. • Shape-able