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Predictors for return to work after

multimodal rehabilitation in persons with

persistent musculoskeletal pain

Olga Sviridova

Physiotherapy, master's level (120 credits) 2017

Luleå University of Technology Department of Health Sciences

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Predictors for return to work after multimodal rehabilitation in

persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain

Prediktorer för arbetsåtergång efter multimodal rehabilitering hos

personer med långvarig muskuloskeletal smärta

Olga Sviridova

Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology S7038H, Master of Science in Physiotherapy, 15hp

Spring, 2017

Supervisors: Gunvor Gard, Peter Michaelson Examiner: Lars Nyberg

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Jag vill tacka mina handledare Gunvor Gard och Peter Michaelson för

hjälp och vägledning.

Ett stort tack riktas även till min examinator Lars Nyberg och min

duktiga opponent Louise Andersson för stöd och viktiga synpunkter.

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3 Sviridova, O.

Predictors for return to work after multimodal rehabilitation in persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain.

Prediktorer för arbetsåtergång efter multimodal rehabilitering hos personer med långvarig muskuloskeletal smärta.

Master degree project, 15 credits, Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, 2017.

Abstract

Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most important causes of

temporary and permanent disability, causing acute or persistent pain, resulting in reduced and/or lost ability to work. Return to work (RTW) is multidimensional problem including many different factors and aspects. Few recent studies have analyzed factors predicting RTW after multimodal rehabilitation (MMR). Identification of predictors for RTW may help to improve the planning and optimization of the RTW strategy. The REHSAM II project is a randomized controlled trial with the aim to evaluate if MMR together with a web Behavior Change Program for Activity could increase work ability among persons with persistent MSDs as compared to MMR. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify factors explaining RTW 12 month after baseline in the REHSAM II project. Methods The present study is a secondary assessment of the data from the randomized controlled trial REHSAM II. A total of 97 participants with persistent musculoskeletal pain were randomly allocated to MMR + web-based education or only MMR group. The subjects were followed from baseline to 12 months. Information on potential predictors was obtained from self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed with univariate and multiple logistic regression models. Results In the final multiple regression model RTW was predicted by the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ score) (p=0.003, OR=0.961) and EuroQol (EQ-5D index) (p=0.017, OR=7.283). The univariate regression analyses showed that pain and disability level, the capacity to perform a task in relation to pain and other symptoms, hospital and psychiatric care, medication for insomnia, catastrophizing, self-assessed work ability compared with the lifetime best, satisfaction with life, ability for coping and controlling work situation, ability for coping with life outside work and sense of responsibility for managing health condition were significantly associated with RTW.

Conclusion In conclusion, psychosocial pain-related variable and health-related quality of life

predicted RTW in the final model. The result confirms the fact that RTW is a multidimensional problem involving a complex interaction of many factors.

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4 Sviridova, O

Prediktorer för arbetsåtergång efter multimodal rehabilitering hos personer med långvarig muskuloskeletal smärta.

Predictors for return to work after multimodal rehabilitation in persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain.

Master degree project, 15 credits, Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, 2017.

Sammanfattning

Bakgrund Muskuloskeletala problem anses som en av de viktigaste orsakerna till tillfällig och

permanent funktionsnedsättning, akut och långvarig smärta, och kan leda till minskad och/eller förlorad arbetsförmåga. Få studier hade genomförts med fokus att analysera faktorer som predicerar återgång till arbete efter multimodal rehabilitering. För att kunna planera rätt strategi är det viktigt att identifiera prediktorer som kan påverka arbetsåtergång. REHSAM II projektet är en randomiserad kontrollerad studie med syftet att utvärdera om MMR med ett web-program för beteendeförändring kunde förbättra arbetsförmåga och arbetsåtergång hos personer med långvarig muskuloskeletal smärta jämfört med MMR. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka faktorer som kan förklara en lyckad återgång till arbete 12 månader efter baslinje mätningar i REHSAM II projektet. Metod Denna studie är en sekundär utvärdering av data insamlad i REHSAM II projektet som var en randomiserad kontrollerad studie. Totalt 97 deltagare med långvarig muskuloskeletal smärta som deltog i studien randomiserades till MMR+web eller MMR grupp. Uppföljning skedde efter 12 månader. Information om potentiella prediktorer erhölls genom flera olika frågeformulär insamlade vid studiens baslinje. Materialet analyserades med enkel och multipel regressionsanalys. Resultat Multipel regressionanalys visade en signifikant association mellan Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ poäng) (p=0.003, OR=0.961), EuroQol (EQ-5D index) (p=0.017, OR=7.283) och arbetsåtergång efter 12 månader. Smärtintensitet, självskattande funktions- och arbetsförmåga, förmåga att utföra en uppgift i relation till smärta, sjukhus- och psykiatrisk vård, sömnmedicin, katastroftänkande, tillfredställelse med liv, förmåga att hantera och kontrollera sin arbetssituation, förmåga att hantera livet utanför arbetet samt ansvara för sitt eget hälsotillstånd associerades med återgång till arbetet i enkel regressionsanalys. Konklusion Resultatet visade att psykosocial smärtrelaterad variabel och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet är viktiga prediktorer för arbetsåtergång. Denna studie har bekräftat att arbetsåtergång är ett mångdimensionellt problem som invoverar ett komplicerat samspel av olika faktorer.

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Table of contents

Background ... 6

Introduction ... 6

The definition and predictors for return to work ... 6

Multimodal rehabilitation and the role of the physiotherapist in rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders and return to work. ... 9

REHSAM II project ... 10

Problem area and aim ... 11

Design ... 12 Participants ... 12 Outcome measures ... 12 Outcome variable ... 12 Predictive variables ... 12 Analyses ... 13 Ethical considerations ... 14 Results ... 15

Variables that were significantly related to return to work ... 15

Variables that could explain a successful return to work 12 month after baseline ... 16

Discussion ... 17

Methodological considerations ... 20

Conclusion ... 20

Implications and future research ... 21

Appendix 1 ... 33

Instruments tested as potential predictors in this study ... 33

Appendix 2 ... 37

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Background

Introduction

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common and significant human health problems worldwide (Bunzli, Watkins, Smith, Schütze & O’sullivan, 2013; Wilkie & Pransky, 2008). Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the most common reasons that patients seek medical care (LeBlank & LeBlank, 2010). MSDs may imply a reduced activity level, decreased productivity, reduced health-related quality of life in the general population. They are the most important causes of temporary and permanent disability, causing acute or persistent pain (SBU, 2010), physical and emotional suffering (Stenberg, Pietilä Holmner, Stålnacke & Enthoven, 2016; Linton, 2011), and as a result adducting reduced and/or lost ability to work (Stenberg et al., 2016). The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the general population is between 13.5% and 47% (Cimmino, Ferrone & Cutolo, 2011), and it is expected to increase further (Lidgren, Gomez-Barrena, Duda, Puhl & Carr, 2014). Sjögren-Rönkä, Ojanen, Leskinen, Mustalampi and Mälkiä (2002) found that the intensity of musculoskeletal pain was a premise for decreased ability to work.

The definition and predictors for return to work

Return to work (RTW) is a complex phenomenon that can be defined as a key indicator of the real-world functioning (Hlobil et al., 2005, Shaw & Polatajko, 2002). This is often a valued goal for a working person and is important for economic, social and health reason for individual and society as a whole (Opsahl, Eriksen & Tveito, 2016). It has been reported that the increased length of work absence leads to a lower probability of return to work (Waddell & Burton, 2006). It can lead to social stigmatization, economic and health problems for the individual; administrative, economic and practical consequences for the employer as well as economic problems for community (Selander, Marnetoft, Bergroth & Ekholm, 2002). Therefore successful return to work can be seen as having a positive impact on health, social, financial and personal outcomes.

There is a growing interest to study return to work as a research question in Sweden since the reform introduced by the Swedish government in 2008 (the rehabilitation chain). The 2008

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reform in the National Sickness Insurance System promoted return to work policy through focusing on early assessments of work ability, regular reviews of person’s capacity to return to work, entitlement to benefits and the use of evidence-based methods for return to work. The reform included also larger restrictions for receiving sickness benefits, time-limits for the review of eligibility and maximum length of sick leave within the rehabilitation chain, sick leave guidelines and a new sickness certification. The aim of these changes was to return to work within the 90 days thus reducing the number of people on sick leave and enhancing return to work outcome (Social Insurance Reports, 2007). The evidence that early interventions are more effective for return to work outcome is growing i.e. the longer people are off work due to illness the less likely they will return to work (Carroll, Rick, Pilgrim, Cameron & Hillage, 2010; Franche et al., 2005; Kuoppala & Lamminpää, 2008).

There are different approaches in terms of exploring problems in returning to work as a research question. One of them is to identify risk factors for developing musculoskeletal disorders (Lincoln, Smith, Amoroso & Bell, 2002; Lotters & Burdorf, 2006) and another is to identify predictors for successful return to work for persons who are suffering from musculoskeletal disorders (Hansen, Edlund & Branholm, 2005; Lydell, Grahn, Månsson, Baigi & Marklund, 2009).

Many factors have been described in the literature as potential return to work predictors. These factors can be related to the person, environment and/or occupational dimension (Fadyl, McPherson, Schluter, Lydell et al., 2009, Turner-Stokes, 2010). It has been reported that gender (Enthoven, Skargren, Carstensen & Oberg, 2006; Lydell, Baigi, Marklund & Månsson, 2005), age (Lydell et al., 2005), a period of certified sick leave, motivation, subjective perception of pain, self-assessment of physical status (Cheng & Li-Tsang, 2005), patient beliefs (Crombez, Vlaeyen, Heuts, Lysens, 1999), catastrophizing (Vlaeyen, Kole-Snijders, Boeren & van Eek, 1995), fear avoidance (Turner et al., 2006) and positive or negative approach to work (Hansen et al., 2005) may be considered as predictors for RTW on individual level. Social support (Heikkilä, Heikkilä & Eisemann, 1998), alcohol consumption (Kaiser, Mattsson, Marklund & Wimo, 2001), level of education (Lydell et al., 2005; Westman et al, 2006), work organization (Johansson, Lundberg & Lundberg, 2006) and family life (Kaiser et al., 2001) are environment related predictors. The occupation dimension related predictors were mentioned social and emotional

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workplace environment, development opportunities (Ekberg, 1994), structure at the workplace, work tasks and relationships (Gard & Sandberg, 1998).

Few studies have analyzed success factors i.e factors predicting an increased return to work after multimodal rehabilitation (MMR) in a long term perspective in persons with persistent musculoskeletal disorders. In their study Lydell et al. (2009) found that the number of sick-listed days before rehabilitation, age, self-rated pain, life events, gender, physical capacity, self-rated functional capacity, educational level and light physical labor were predictors for return to work. Hildebrandt, Pfingsten, Saur and Jansen (1997) identified factors that had a significant impact on the probability to return to work after multimodal rehabilitation. These factors were self-rated prediction of return to work, the length of absence from work, application for pension, and a decrease in disability after treatment. Positive expectations for return to work as well as lower disability level were associated with successful RTW outcome in the study of Merrick, Sundelin and Stålnacke (2013). More research should be focused on determining factors that can predict successful RTW to reach a better understanding of return to work related processes and factors. It can help to provide the best intervention for every person within an optimal time period (Selander, Marnetoft & Asell, 2007). It is particularly important to increase knowledge about the modifiable factors that might affect the likelihood of return to work (Hamer, Gandhi, Wong & Mahomed, 2013).

Usage of the term return to work has considerable confusion in the literature due to the fact that it is measured and defined by employment status as either decreased work ability, work disability or workability recovery (Hlobil et al., 2005; de Vries, Brouwer, Groothoff, Geertzen & Reneman, 2011; Löfgren, Ekholm & Öhman, 2006; Shaw & Polatajko, 2002). Lydell et al. (2009) and Shaw and Polatajko (2002) describe in their studies RTW as a person’s return to his/her workplace (without specifying part- or full-time recovery). In the study of Blonk, Brenninkmeijer, Lagerveld and Houtman (2006) it has been suggested that part-time return to work could be a pathway to full-time work. With regards to the definition of return to work just a few studies have investigated a part-time RTW as one of the RTW strategies. Returning to at least part-time work as well as maintaining the same level of work ability has positive consequences for the patients and can be considered as a successful working strategy (Ahlstrom, 2014; de Vries et al., 2011;

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Löfgren et al., 2006; Sieurin, Josephson & Vingård, 2009; Wåhlin, Ekberg, Persson, Bernfort & Öberg, 2012).

Multimodal rehabilitation and the role of the physiotherapist in rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders and return to work.

One of the treatments supposed to improve health and return to work is multimodal rehabilitation (Norlund, Ropponen & Alexanderson, 2009, SBU, 2010). Multimodal rehabilitation is a recommended treatment for persistent musculoskeletal pain disorders (National medical indications, 2011; SBU, 2010). It consists of a combination of physical and psychosocial components coordinated in an interdisciplinary team (Guzmán et al., 2001; SBU, 2006; SBU, 2010; Scascighini, Toma, Dober-Spielmann & Sprott, 2008) including treatments from different health care professionals (e.g. nurse, occupational therapist, physician, physiotherapist, psychologist or psychosocial counsellor). It is effective in increasing physical function and reducing pain in persons with neck and back pain (Airaksinen et al., 2006; Krismer & van Tulder, 2007; Karjalainen et al., 2003; Guzmán et al., 2001). Borys, Lutz, Strauss and Altman (2015) found evidence for the effectiveness of a multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic low back pain. Scascighini et al. (2008) showed a strong evidence for multimodal rehabilitation compared to no treatment or standard medical treatment in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic back pain. There is also evidence that MMR significantly can improve return to work outcome (Norlund, Ropponen & Alexanderson, 2009). A study carried out by Lytsy, Carlsson and Anderzén (2017) found that the multimodal rehabilitation, compared with control, reported a significant increase in working hours per week, as well as a significant increase in work-related engagement in patients with mental illness and chronic pain. Merrick et al. (2013) found that multimodal rehabilitation may decrease level of sick leave.

Physiotherapy is an important part of multimodal rehabilitation and plays an important role in rehabilitation of patients with musculoskeletal disorders (Goldby, Moore, Doust & Trew, 2006; Malmgren-Olsson, Armelius & Armelius, 2001; Rosen, 1994). Different physiotherapy interventions were shown to improve general health, reduce and eliminate pain and disability as well as to increase work ability in patients with musculoskeletal pain (Borg, Gerdle, Grimby &

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Stibrant Sunnerhagen, 2006; Nemes et al., 2013; SBU, 2006). According to Gosling, Keating, Iles, Morgan and Hopmans (2015) physiotherapists are important stakeholders in facilitating return to work as a component of rehabilitation. Physiotherapists in their study reported that they use to discuss returning to work with patients during the first visit. Researcher mentioned that physiotherapists especially those working in primary care are ideally positioned to influence return to work processes.

There are usually several actors involved in a process of return to work: social and employment services, healthcare, employer and the patient. An active collaboration between all actors involved in the return to work process is needed in order to obtain the successful outcome. This means that not only the social security and the government should dictate rules for rehabilitation, but also health care specialists, especially physiotherapists who are professionals with a wide range of skills, should play a direct role in participating in the rehabilitation process.

REHSAM II project

REHSAM II project is a randomized controlled trial with the primary aim to evaluate if multimodal rehabilitation in combination with a web Behavior Change Program for Activity (web-BCPA) could increase work ability among persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain from the back, neck and shoulders in primary health care as compared to multimodal rehabilitation only. The multimodal rehabilitation included treatments from at least three health care professionals of different occupation as well as web-BCPA as a self-management program to complement and improve the MMR. The multimodal rehabilitation was focused on the patient-centered synchronized treatments based on a biopsychosocial perspective of pain. The cognitive behavioral approach for behavior change toward activity and participatory goals was used by the healthcare specialists. Inclusion criteria of participants were: seeking primary health care for persistent or recurrent pain from the back, neck and shoulders with duration of more than three months, aged 18-63 years, scoring ≥ 90 on the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) questionnaire, actively working or in disposition to work for at least 25%. The treatments were individual and/or in group sessions, the minimum number of treatments in multimodal rehabilitation was two to three times a week for six to eight weeks,

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including home exercises. The treatment period and content were adjusted to the participant’s needs and progress.

The physiotherapists as part of the multimodal rehabilitation were responsible for physical activity (individualized exercise program, warm-water exercise, Basic Body Awareness Therapy), acupuncture, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, and manual therapy. Other treatments as ergonomics, functional training, patient education, relaxation, mindfulness were provided by health care professionals of various occupations. A wide variety of outcome measures were used in the project such as pain intensity, self-efficacy to control pain and other symptoms, self-rated health, general self-efficacy, coping, catastrophizing and others. Web-BCPA adherence and feasibility, as well as treatment satisfaction, were also investigated. The subjects were followed from baseline to 4 months and 12 months (Nordin, Michaelson, Gard & Eriksson, 2016).

Problem area and aim

Return to work is a complex process that involves the interaction of many factors and strategies (Cancelliere et al., 2016). One of the important strategies described in the literature is the identification of predictors for return to work outcome. Remarkably few recent studies have analyzed success factors predicting an increased return to work after multimodal rehabilitation in a long term perspective in persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain. Additional knowledge about the predictors may help to reach a better understanding of the process to return to work and return to work related factors as well as improve the planning and optimization of the return to work strategy (Gerner, 2002, Lydell et al., 2009). With the data collected by the REHSAM II project we hope to reach a better understanding of return to work predictors.

The aim of this study is to identify factors explaining return to work outcome 12 month after baseline in the REHSAM II project.

Research questions:

Which baseline variables were significantly related to return to work?

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Design

The present study is a secondary assessment of the data from the randomized controlled trial REHSAM II.

Participants

A total of 97 participants were included in analysis, 15 men and 82 women, age between 18 and 63 year, mean age at baseline was 42.7 (10.7). Participants were recruited by 17 health care centers in Norrbotten, Sweden certified for multimodal rehabilitation. They were participants seeking primary health care for long lasting severe pain from back, neck and shoulder with a moderate to high risk for persistent pain and future disability (scoring ≥ 90 on the ÖMPSQ), actively working or in disposition to work for at least 25%. Participants were randomly allocated to the MMR+web group or the MMR group. The subjects were followed from baseline to 12 months.

Outcome measures Outcome variable

In this study return to work status was assessed as an outcome measure. In Sweden people can work part time depending on assessment of the degree of work ability. Sickness benefit can be paid at 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% (Kristensen et al., 2013). Here we define successful return to work as maintaining same work ability level at baseline level as well as return to work to at least 25% at 12 month follow compared to baseline (Ahlstrom, 2014; de Vries et al., 2011; Karlson at al., 2010; Löfgren et al., 2006).

Predictive variables

Due to the fact that there is a lack of knowledge about predictors for successful return to work after multimodal rehabilitation we decided to include all baseline variables in the REHSAM II project in the analysis:

- Background variables (c.f. sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, children education, medication).

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- Need of hospital and psychiatric care, duration of sick leave and symptoms, physical activity, work training.

- Treatment group (MMR or MMR+web).

- Validated questionnaires that measure (se appendix 1):

o Self-reported work ability - Work Ability Index Score (Ilmarinen, 2009; Torgén, 2005) and Return to work self-efficacy (RTWSE) (Shaw, Reme, Linton, Huang & Pransky, 2011).

o Pain intensity - Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (Dworkin et al., 2005)

o Disability - The Pain Disability Index (PDI) (Denison, Åsenlöf & Lindberg, 2004; Tait, Chibnall & Krause, 1990; Tait, Pollard, Margolis, Duckro & Krause, 1987). o Health-related quality of life - EuroQol (EQ-5D) (Björk & Norinder, 1999; Rabin &

Charro, 2001).

o Self-efficacy and catastrophizing measures such as Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES) (Lomi, Burckhardt, Nordholm, Bjelle & Ekdahl, 1994; Lomi & Nordholm, 1992), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GES) (Löve, Moore & Hensing, 2012; Scholz, Doña, Sud & Schwarzer, 2002) and Catastrophizing - Two-item Coping Strategies Questionnaire (Two-Item CSQ) (Jensen & Linton, 1993; Jensen, Nielson, Turner, Romano & Hill, 2003).

o Physical and functional level and adjustment to injury and pain - The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) (Linton & Boersma, 2003). - Self-constructed questions about:

o coping and controlling work situation as well as life outside work, o satisfaction with life and work,

o own role in rehabilitation.

Analyses

Analysis was performed using SPSS version 22.0. The outcome variable, return to work, was analyzed as a dichotomous variable; return to work was either successful or unsuccessful. The associations between dependent and independent variables were evaluated using the logistic regression. Univariate logistic regression analysis is a statistical method that allows summarizing and studying relationships between dependent and independent variables. Multiple regression

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analyses are designed to analyze complex relationship between the dependent variable and several independent variables (Carter, Lubinsky, & Domholdt, 2011). Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to reflect the strength of the association. The Cox & Snell R square (or pseudo r-square statistic) was used to describe the approximate proportion of variation in the values of the dependent variable that can be explained by the variation in the independent variable (Cox & Snell, 1989, Sundell, 2011). Statistical models were built as follows. First, each predictor was tested individually. We performed simple univariate analyses to determine which independent variable is associated with the outcome variable, return to work. Through use of a multiple regression analysis with a gradually inclusion of independent variables we examined variables found to be significantly associated with return to work. The independent variable with the lowest p value from univariate analysis was first entered into the multiple regression models. Thereafter, the remaining significant independent variables from univariate analysis were added one at a time in order of significance level (from lowest to highest). Depending on whether it showed a significant result with previous variables or not, tested variable was added or removed from the multiple regression models. Finally it was formed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) model.

Ethical considerations

Ethical approval for the project REHSAM II was received from The Regional Ethical Board in Umeå, Sweden (Dnr 2011-383-31M). All collected information is confidential and will be used only for the purpose of this study in order to increase knowledge about the factors explaining successful return to work in persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain.

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Results

Of all participants, 60 had a successful return to work and 37 had not return to work after 12 months. Within the RTW-group 30 participants were able to return to work with 25 percent or more from the baseline; 30 participants continued to work at the same level.

Variables that were significantly related to return to work

Potential predictors for successful return to work were analyzed using univariate logistic regression analyses by testing each independent variable separately. Table 1 summarizes results of the univariate regression analysis for the 17 variables found to be significantly correlated with return to work outcomes.

Table 1. Independent variables with significant associations with return to work outcome in univariate logistic regression.

Variable P Cox&Snell R.Square

Odds Ratio (OR) ÖMPSQ score 0.000 0.188 0.952 EQ-5D index 0.000 0.15 16.822 WAI Score 0.000 0.145 1.332

PDI summary mean 0.002 0.117 0.632

Satisfied with life 0.002 0.112 1.954

ASES Self-efficacy symptoms summary mean 0.004 0.094 1.039

Coping with work situation 0.007 0.082 1.601

CSQ Catastrophizing “It is terrible and I feel it is never going to be better”

0.008 0.081 0.626

Controlling work situation 0.012 0.072 1.523

Psychiatric care 0.020 0.096 0.075

Coping with life outside work 0.021 0.06 1.78

ASES Self-efficacy pain summery mean 0.024 0.055 1.025 Pain intensity minimum 0-100 last week 0.025 0.054 0.98 Responsible for managing my health condition 0-100 0.028 0.054 1.026

Hospital care 0.031 0.05 0.312

CSQ Catastrophizing “I feel I can’t stand it anymore” 0.033 0.049 0.741 Medication for insomnia last month 0.043 0.042 0.7 ÖMPSQ-The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire, EQ-5D- EuroQol, WAI-Work Ability Index, PDI-The Pain Disability Index, ASES - Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), CSQ- Coping Strategies Questionnaire

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The result of the univariate analysis showed that EQ-5D health index (p=0.000, Cox & Snell R Square=0.15, OR=16.822), ÖMPSQ scale score (p=0.000, Cox & Snell R Square=0.188, OR=0.952) and WAI score (p=0.000, Cox & Snell R Square=0.145, OR=1.332) at baseline were the most relevant variables associated with return to work after 12 months. Higher EQ-5D index indicating improved health as well as lower ÖMPSQ scale score at baseline indicating lower risk for developing long-term problems were related to successful return to work after 12 months. Lower PDI (p=0.002) and lower pain intensity last week (p=0.025) were associated with successful return to work. Satisfaction with life at baseline was also significantly associated with return to work after 12 months (p=0.002). Participants who were more satisfied with their life had a more successful return to work. Higher ability for coping with work situation (p=0.007), controlling work situation (p=0.01) as well as coping with life outside work (p=0.02) at baseline were significantly associated with successful return to work after 12 months. A lack of need for psychiatric (p=0.02) or hospital care (p=0.03) at baseline was related to successful return to work after 12 months.

In addition, belonging to any of the treatment groups (multimodal rehabilitation and multimodal rehabilitation with web) was not significantly associated with return to work outcome after 12 months.

Variables that could explain a successful return to work 12 month after baseline

All the factors that were significantly associated with return to work in univariate analysis were entered into a multiple logistic regression. Only two predictors remained significant in the final multivariable model: ÖMPSQ score and EQ-5D index (Table 2).

Table 2. Independent variables with significant associations with return to work outcome in multiple logistic regression.

Variable P Cox&Snell R Square

Odds Ratio (OR) ÖMPSQ score 0.003 0.240 0.961 EQ-5D index 0.017 7.283

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Discussion

This study aimed to identify factors that could predict return to work outcome after 12 months among persons with persistent musculoskeletal pain participating in the MMR. The research questions were to determine variables that were significantly related to return to work and to identify variables that could explain a successful return to work 12 month after baseline. In the final multivariate analyses of all patients only two variables ”ÖMPSQ score” and ”EQ-5D index” were singled out as being associated with return to work outcome.

The result of the present study demonstrated a predictive ability for the variable “Physical and functional level and adjustment to injury and pain” measured by the ÖMPSQ instrument. This instrument has been designed for predicting risk for developing chronic pain associated with psychosocial factors (Hockings, McAuley, & Maher, 2008; Linton & Boersma, 2003; Linton & Hallden, 1998). Earlier studies showed that ÖMPSQ has a predictive ability when pain and disability are used as an outcome in patients with low back pain (Maher & Grotle, 2009). Linton and Boersma (2003) found that ÖMPSQ can be a good predictor of future absenteeism due to sickness. The present study confirmed that ÖMPSQ can be used as a predictor for return to work outcome. Lower ÖMPSQ score at baseline was associated with successful return to work after 12 months. Westman, Linton, Öhrvik, Wahlén and Leppert (2008) have found similar results 3 years after MMR for persons with non-acute musculoskeletal pain problems. Participants in their study completed a multimodal rehabilitation or standard treatment that included a variety of treatments in primary health care. However, the researchers did not specify the procedures used and the time period for the treatment for each group. Other studies have also showed that ÖMPSQ has a predictive ability for future sick leave; the higher the score, the higher risk for long term sick leave (Linton & Boersma, 2002; Linton & Halldén, 1998). Based on previous studies as well as results shown in this study, we can assume that ÖMPSQ may be considered as a promising scale for predicting return to work outcome thus allowing expanding use of this tool. It can also be suggested that early identification of risk for developing chronic pain associated with psychosocial factors is of importance in predicting return to work.

Another predictor that was significantly associated with return to work outcome in the multiple regression analyses was self-rated health measured by the EQ-5D instrument. Self-rated health is

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an often used generic health indicator that has been examined as a predictor of subsequent disability retirement and working conditions (Pietiläinen, Laaksonen, Rahkonen & Lahelma, 2011). Different health self-assessment tools have been used in the literature for predicting a variety of conditions. Earlier research showed that self-rated health predicts disability retirement (Biering-Sørensen et al., 1999; Krokstad, Johnsen & Westin, 2002; Månsson & Råstam, 2001; Pietiläinen et al., 2011), long-term sickness absence (Post, Krol & Groothoff, 2006), return to work (Iakova et al., 2012; Nielsen et al., 2012) and mortality (Månsson & Råstam, 2001) among people with different diagnoses and disorders. The present study showed that better self-rated health (EQ-5D index) was significantly associated with successful return to work after 12 months. Iakova et al (2012) have found that good perception of general health measured by a VAS scale may predict a higher return to work 2 years after a multimodal rehabilitation program. Our result is also supported by a study of Wåhlin et al. (2012) showing that better self-rated health measured by EQ-5D was significantly associated with successful return to work at a 3-months follow-up for persons with musculoskeletal disorders who received combined clinical and work-related interventions. Hansson, Hansson and Jonsson (2006) found that return to work can be predicted through the use of EQ-5D among persons with low-back pain or neck pain. Self-rated health measured by EQ-5D was found to be a strong return to work predictor for patients with non-acute, non-specific spinal pain after cognitive-behavioral rehabilitation or traditional primary care in the study of Lindell, Johansson and Strender (2010). It has also been reported that the EQ-5D provides simplicity and brevity and is more preferable to more complex instruments that measure self-rated health (Dorman, Slattery, Farrell, Dennis & Sandercock, 1997). Based on our findings it is possible to suppose that self-rated health perception is of importance in predicting return to work. Interventions targeted on perceived health may have a positive effect to return to work. This study shows the promising result of the extended use of this questionnaire in researching return to work outcome.

The univariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between potential predictors and return to work outcome. The results of the univariate analysis are consistent with previous studies and confirm the fact that variables such as pain and disability level, satisfaction with life, abilities to cope with and control work situation, catastrophizing and other psychosocial variables related to work place as well as outside work are related with return to work outcome

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(Iakova et al., 2012; Gustafsson et al., 2013; Hildebrant et al., 1997; Josephson, Heijbel, Voss, Alfredsson & Vingård, 2008; Linton, 2002; Lotters and Burdorf, 2006; Lydell et al., 2009; Merrick et al., 2013). Interestingly, medication for insomnia at baseline was significantly associated with return to work in our study. To the best of our knowledge none of earlier studies has investigated this predictor.

A surprising finding in this study was that none of the demographic parameters as sex, age, education and other was associated with return to work. Previous studies that investigated predictors for return to work showed that male gender (Lydell et al., 2009, Lydell et al., 2005), young age (Blackwell, Leierer, Haupt & Kampitsis, 2003), higher educational status (Blackwell et al., 2003; Hildebrant et al., 1997) were found to be significant predictors for successful return to work after multimodal rehabilitation. A possible explanation can be difference in sample size as well as sample proportion of males and females in our study compared to other studies. Smoking was not a predictor for successful return to work outcome in our study, but was investigated in study of Lundborg (2007) who found a strong relationship between smoking and sick leave.

Duration of sick leave, physical activity as well as satisfaction with present work had no association with return to work after 12 months. Number of sick-listed days before rehabilitation and physical activity have been considered as important predictors for return to work after multimodal rehabilitation in earlier studies (Grahn, Ekdahl & Borgquist, 1998; Lydell et al., 2009; Lydell et al., 2005). Work dissatisfaction predicted non-RTW and disability in the study of Fayad et al. (2004). Return to work self-efficacy was not associated with RTW in our study, but was mentioned in previous studies as a predictor of return to work (Lydell et al., 2009). A possible explanation to that can be that the multimodal rehabilitation in most of these studies was focused on the different work interventions to facilitate return to work in addition to MMR. In our study no work interventions were included.

Treatment group was not associated with return to work after 12 months in our study. This means that the participants’ belonging to one of the treatment groups (MMR or MMR+web) did not affect the return to work outcome. The mean use of the web-BCPA was low and may indicate that participants were not motivated for internet therapy. Moreover, the participants in our study

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represented a group with severe and complex disorders and the fact that they have had high pain intensity during a long time makes it possible to assume that the relatively brief intervention conducted in our study could not affect the return to work.

Methodological considerations

Our findings need to be discussed in light of the study limitations. First, this study was a secondary assessment of a randomized controlled trial which not is an optimal design for investigating predictors. However, this design can be used to generate possible predictive variables for further prospective studies. Another weakness was that the large majority of participants were women, that makes it difficult to generalize the results of this study to men. There is also an inherit risk of a false positive results in the univariate regression models due to the repeated analyses, which can have affected the predictive models. In the final regression model only two variables showed significant association with the outcome variable which clearly meets the criteria to a minimum case-to variable ratio for achieving valid results (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013). The final multiple regression model as a whole explained only 24% of the variance, which indicated relatively low values of model clarification between the predictors and outcome. In the study of Lydell et al. (2009) values of model clarification were between 25% and 35% at the 5-year and 18–25% at the 10-year follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, no other analogous studies investigating similar clarification models are to be found to the time the present research been complete.

The strength of this study is that almost all instruments have been widely used and have shown good validity and reliability. However, some potential predictors such as questions about responsibility for managing health condition or controlling life and work situations were measured with an unvalidated scale, which may lead to limited generalization of the results. A large number of different predictor variables were tested in this study that can also be evaluated as strength.

Conclusion

In conclusion, psychosocial pain-related variable and health-related quality of life predicted return to work in the final model. Variables, concerning pain and disability, care and medication, capacities, psychosocial factors and work ability were related to return to work. The result

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confirms the fact that return to work is a multidimensional problem involving a complex interaction of many factors.

Implications and future research

The importance of understanding the factors influencing return to work as well as identifying predictors for successful return to work is well known. First, it enables us to identify patients at risk of poorer outcomes with a high risk for prolonged absence. Second, it helps health care professionals to reach a better understanding of the process to return to work and return to work related factors. It can also help to improve the planning and optimization of the return to work strategy as well as develop return to work assessments and prognoses. Third, some modifiable predictors can be targeted with specific interventions and treatments.

The finance and coordination of rehabilitation efforts rely on the Swedish government and the National Sickness Insurance System in the process of return to work at the present time. However patients see their contact with physiotherapists as an essential part of their rehabilitation that affects recovery and return to work. Physiotherapist as professionals with a wide range of skills related to evaluation of work ability, assessment of physical and psychosocial health should take a direct part in the issue of returning to work. We need to take a position on such issues in the physiotherapy and change the perspective for choice of rehabilitation. More attention should be given to the role of the physiotherapist in return to work. Based on the results of this study, self-rated health and an increased risk for developing chronic pain associated with psychosocial factors play an important role in returning to work. These factors should be taken into account as early as possible. The variety of problems looked at from a patient perspective by using self-reported measures provide a better understanding of the patient’s condition. Through using ÖMPSQ and EQ-5D instruments physiotherapist can identify patients with risk for chronic illness and high risk of sickness absence. In collaboration with other stakeholders physiotherapists can analyze and choose adequate intervention according to individual’s condition and preferences thus improving the outcome. Treatment strategies should vary and be individually adapted depending on the severity of the health condition.

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Our findings are consistent with previous studies that return to work reflects a multidimensional process including many different factors and aspects. Further research should test the results presented in this study with the larger and heterogeneous sample to examine if the variables found in the present study can be confirmed as predictors. As we only evaluate the baseline data, it would be very interesting to see the correlation between the changes in return to work and our predictors over time, i.e. they change synchronously or follow the changes over time another pattern.

We believe that this study will motivate to further investigations of predictive factors influencing RTW outcomes.

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Figure

Table 1. Independent variables with significant associations with return to work outcome in univariate  logistic regression
Table 2. Independent variables with significant associations with return to work outcome in multiple logistic  regression

References

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