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Biofuels in the Transport in the Transport Sector Sector – – the Forest as the Forest as Energy Energy Resource Resource

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Biofuels

Biofuels in the Transport in the Transport Sector Sector the Forest as the Forest as Energy Energy Resource Resource

Anders Röj

Fuels and Lubricants

Volvo Technology Corporation anders.roj@volvo.com

+46 31 666918

The Future of Forest Bioenergy

Stockholm, 6-7 February 2007

(2)

Business Areas

Construction

Equipment Volvo Penta Volvo Aero Financial

Services

Mack Trucks Renault Trucks Volvo Trucks Buses

(3)

Fuels for the Future

Drivers for change

Climate change - greenhouse gas emissions

Availability of energy resources and projected increasing demand

Security of supply

• Emissions, regulated and unregulated

• Urbanisation, congestion and noise

Climate change - greenhouse gas emissions

Availability of energy resources and projected increasing demand

Security of supply

• Emissions, regulated and unregulated

• Urbanisation, congestion and noise

(4)

Production of all conventional Oil and Gas

0 10 20 30 40 50

1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050

P roduc ti on, Gboe /a

Gas Oil

Source: CJ Campbell, 2004

“Oil peak. The time of cheap and abundant crude oil will be over!”

“Oil peak. The time of cheap and abundant crude oil will be over!”

Tre nd 1, 6% an nua l g row th

(5)

Air Quality Modeling for Europe

(Auto-Oil II)

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020

CO NOx VOC Benzene PM-diesel CO2 SO2

All gaseous emission components & PM will soon reach “sustainable” levels

except CO 2 … our future challenge!

(6)

25 30 35 40 50

-15%

-30%

Heavy duty vehicles liter/100 km

Fuel Consumption Reduction

litre / 100 km

45

20

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020

(7)

Fuels for the future

How should the alternatives be evaluated?

• Sustainable availability

• Well-to-wheel energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

• Well-to-wheel regulated and unregulated emissions

Economy & infrastructure

• Other considerations

9 energy density

9 safety and health (fuel handling)

9 specific issues/concerns related to the different driveline applications (trucks, buses, marine, stationary)

9 political environment

9 customer perceptions

(8)

Well-to-Wheels analysis

of future automotive fuels and powertrains in the European context

A joint study by

EUCAR / JRC / CONCAWE

(9)

WtW GHG versus total energy use

(from Eucar/Concawe/JRC 2006) Liquid fuels 2010

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

Total WTW energy (MJ / 100 km)

W T W G H G em issi o n s ( g C O 2 eq v / 1 00 k m )

Conventional gasoline Conventional diesel RME: Gly as chemical RME: Gly as animal feed Syn-diesel: CTL Syn-diesel: GTL Syn-diesel: Farmed wood

Syn -diesel: Waste wood, Black liqour DME: CTL

DME: GTL DME: Farmed wood

DME: Waste wood, Black liqour EtOH: Wheat, Straw CHP, DDGS as AF EtOH: Sugar cane (Brazil)

EtOH: Wheat, Straw CHP, DDGS as fuel EtOH: Farmed wood

EtOH: Wheat straw

EtOH, Wheat, Lignite CHP, DDGS as AF EtOH, Wheat, Lignite CHP, DDGS as fuel EtOH, Wheat, NG GT+CHP, DDGS as AF EtOH, Wheat, NG GT+CHP, DDGS as fuel

Ethanol CTL

GTL

RME Biomass Gasification Black Liquor

Gasification Gasoline

Diesel

(10)

Possibility to Replace Gasoline & Diesel Fuel by 2012

(source: WtW study, Concawe)

Source: JEC WTW 2005

0,0%

2,0%

4,0%

6,0%

8,0%

10,0%

12,0%

Conventional Biofuels

Max ethanol Max syn-diesel Max DME Fraction of total road fuels market replaced (for constant distance driven) Fraction of WTW fossil energy avoided

potential future advanced biofuels options current

technology

Today Future

(11)

DME – Dimethyl ether

A ”multi source and multi purpose fuel”

DME

Other fossil sources

Biomass Biomass

Power generation

Power generation Natural gas

Diesel vehicles Diesel

Diesel vehicles vehicles

Fuel cell Fuel cell

Domestic gas Domestic gas

CH

3

-O-CH

3

Chemical

feedstock

Chemical

feedstock

(12)

Volvo DME-bus 1999

(1st generation technology)

(13)

Volvo DME-truck 2005

(2nd generation technology)

(14)

Black liquor to engine fuels

- making good use of low grade biomass

Pulp Mill

Green Liquor

Methanol/DME

Internal heat and power

Biomass fed power

boiler

BLGMF Pulp Wood

Black Liquor

*

Production Efficiency = Methanol/ DME

Additional Renewable Energy > 65%

(Source: *

Chemrec)

Additional Renewable Energy

Pulp

(15)

Chemrec Ownership and Main Business

VantagePoint Venture Partners

• Chemrec develops and Commercializes Black Liquor Gasification Technology which will convert Pulp Mills to Biorefineries

• The technology has the potential to generate near 30 % of Sweden’s current

consumption of automotive fuels through black liquor gasification at the Swedish pulp mills. The potential in Finland is ~50%, in Canada ~7% and in the US ~3%.

• Fuel generation at pulp mills becomes a second main product generating a cash flow on the level of 1/3 of the cash flow of the pulp at prices close to energy price of diesel and gasoline at crude prices of 30 USD/bbl

• Alternatively the technology has the potential to generate approx. 10 TWh added green power production or ~7 % of current Swedish power consumption.

Chemrec AB

Nykomb Synergetics Volvo Technology Transfer

(AB Volvo)

(16)

Gas Conditioning and Cleaning

DME or MeOH P.D.U

Process Developmt Unit

H2/CO = ~1/1

Raw DME HP-steam

(Dp-1/mill) LP-st

(Dp-1/mill) CO

2

C.W

Train /Truck

~4 ton DME / day

DP-1 Plant

The DME Pilot

CO

2

(17)

Biofuels Advisory Council (BIOFRAC)

Biofuels in the EU – A Vision for 2030 and Beyond

• By 2030, the European Union covers up to one fourth of its road transport fuel needs by clean and CO 2 -efficient biofuels.

• A substantial part is provided by a competitive European industry. This significantly decreases the EU fossil fuel import dependence.

• Biofuels are produced using sustainable

and innovative technologies, creating

opportunities for biomass providers,

biofuel producers and the automotive

industry

(18)

2005

2010

2020

2050

Improving present processes («1st generation») EtOH, ETBE, FAME, FAEE

EtOH, F-T Diesel, DME («2nd generation») from lignocellulosic biomass

Integrated biorefinery complexes

Biofuels Advisory Council (BIOFRAC)

Anticipated future roadmap

(19)

Biofuels Technology Platform:

Structure

WG X WG Y WG Z

Steering Committee

Secretariat

STEM (SWE) FNR (D) CPL (UK) STEM (SWE)

FNR (D) CPL (UK) Mirror

Group

(20)

Biofuels Technology Platform

Working Groups

• Working group structure, organization (officers, memberships) and tasks worked out by the Steering Committee

• Following WGs have been decided:

-WG1: Biomass availability and supply -WG2: Conversion processes

-WG3: Product distribution and use -WG4: Sustainability assessment -WG5: Markets and regulations

• The Working Groups are up working, first meetings held during the last couple of weeks.

• Target for the first year of work: finalization of a comprehensive

Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for Biofuels

(21)

Biofuels

Biofuels Platform – Platform 1st Steering Committee 1st Steering Committee

Biofuel producers Abengoa

Elsam

Biofuel producers Abengoa

Elsam Farmers

Copa-Cogeca Farmers Copa-Cogeca Forestry

Sveaskog UPM-KYMMENE

Forestry Sveaskog UPM-KYMMENE

Biofuel associations European Biodiesel Board

Biofuel associations European Biodiesel Board Universities

Cardiff Graz Universities

Cardiff Graz Research institutes

IFP ECN CLN/Polish TP Research institutes

IFP ECN CLN/Polish TP Vehicle industry

Volkswagen Fiat Powertrain

Volvo

Vehicle industry Volkswagen Fiat Powertrain

Volvo

Oil companies Repsol YPF

Total Neste Oil Oil companies

Repsol YPF Total Neste Oil Food/non-food industry

Dupont Cargill

Food/non-food industry Dupont

Cargill

(22)

Interaction with other Technology Platforms

BIOFUELS

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

European Road Transport Advisory Council

(ERTRAC)

Sustainable Chemistry Plant Genomics

and

Biotechnology Sustainable Benefits from Renewable Forest

Resources

(23)

Thank You for Your Attention !

Thank You for Your Attention !

(24)

References

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