Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism
ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/sjht20
20 years of Nordic nature-based tourism research:
a review and future research agenda
Peter Fredman & Lusine Margaryan
To cite this article: Peter Fredman & Lusine Margaryan (2020): 20 years of Nordic nature-based tourism research: a review and future research agenda, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/15022250.2020.1823247
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2020.1823247
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Published online: 26 Sep 2020.
Submit your article to this journal
Article views: 96
View related articles
View Crossmark data
20 years of Nordic nature-based tourism research: a review and future research agenda
Peter Fredmanaand Lusine Margaryanb
aNorwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway;bMid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden
This paper provides a review of research in nature-based tourism in the Nordic region, discuss it from an international viewpoint and provide an outlook for the future research agenda. To do this, we analyze the Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism for papers focusing on nature-based tourism from 2010 to 2020, as well as 29 key textbooks representing international scholarship within the last decade. We argue there has been an increase in the number of studies looking at nature-based tourism from the supply side, especially about destination development, lifestyle entrepreneurship and the role of guides. We also notice that many research questions are raised from practical needs, while more theoretically oriented research is rather limited. The international call for new, bold theoretical outlooks, the need to reimagine and fundamentally transform human-nature relationships towards sustainability and co-existence remains relevant for the Nordic context in the future.
ARTICLE HISTORY Received 15 August 2020 Accepted 8 September 2020 KEYWORDS
Nature; tourism; outdoor;
There is a trend of recreation in nature, suddenly and unexpectedly boosted by the COVID- 19 outbreak in the spring of 2020. Mobile tracking data from Oslo, the capital of Norway, show a 291% increase in outdoor recreational activity during the lockdown (Venter et al., 2020). Swedish national parks have also experienced a drastic growth in visitation in 2020 even before the peak season– some of them up to 75% (Hansson,2020). This reﬂects not only the unprecedented ban on international travel, but also a renewed interest towards domestic nature-based tourism and outdoor recreation. New challenges call for new research eﬀorts and nature-based tourism research is not an exception.
The Nordic region has always fascinated and attracted tourists with its magniﬁcent natural assets, and their tourism importance has only been increasing over time.
Nature-based tourism (NBT) research, consequently, has been one of the strongholds within Nordic tourism scholarship, an illustration of which is the collection of articles pub- lished in the Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism (SJHT) discussed here. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of current NBT research in the Nordic region, discuss it
© 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.
CONTACT Peter Fredman email@example.com Postboks 5003, NMBU 1432 Ås, Norway https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2020.1823247
from an international viewpoint and provide an outlook for the future research agenda. To do this, we analyze the SJHT for papers focusing on NBT from 2010 (issue 4) to 2020 (issue 2), as well as 29 key textbooks representing international NBT scholarship within the last decade.
The third issue in 2010 of SJHT, which marked the 10th year anniversary of the journal, Fredman and Tyrväinen (2010) focused on“frontiers” of NBT, which we take as the point of departure for our review. In this paper, the authors elaborated the principles of the NBT system pointing out the many stakeholders involved– not just those traditionally involved in tourism, but also those associated with the protection, management and utilization of natural resources. The Nordic context is alsoﬂavored with the longstanding traditions of outdoor recreation and well as the right of public access which applies to several of the countries.
When it comes to deﬁning NBT, we draw from the work in Sweden by Fredman et al.
(2009), which is further contextualized by Fredman and Tyrväinen (2010) and by Mar- garyan (2017): “activities by humans occurring when visiting nature areas outside the person’s ordinary neighborhood”, from which follows that the NBT sector represents those activities in diﬀerent shapes and forms, directed to meet the demand of nature tourists. We view the term NBT as an umbrella for many diﬀerent labels, such as nature tourism, wilderness tourism, adventure tourism, environmental tourism, wild- life tourism, geo-tourism, outdoor tourism and ecotourism. One should also observe that our deﬁnition of NBT does not give any guidance regarding sustainability per se – it is a description of tourism taking place in nature areas. However, once we add certain criteria to the operationalization of NBT it becomes normative, and when they guide operations in a more sustainable direction, it makes sense to talk about sustain- able NBT development.
In the global perspective,“nature-based tourism is huge” as claimed by Blumstein et al.
(2017, p. 2), and according to some estimates at least 8 billion people visit protected areas annually (Balmford et al.,2015). At the same time, many natural environments and wildlife species are currently threatened by global challenges, such as climate change, biodiversity decline, unsustainable resource consumption and other anthropogenic factors (Blumstein et al.,2017; Wearing & Schweinsberg,2018). High numbers of NBT tourists can be a source of additional pressure on natural areas, since no tourism can occur without creating an environmental impact (Øian et al., 2018). So what can be done to reduce or manage impacts, while stimulating the potential socio-economic and conservation beneﬁts of NBT? How can we continue enjoying the wonders of nature, while obtaining great tourist experiences, wellbeing and new insights? How can small businesses in rural regions deal with the many challenges of contemporary tourism? How can we ensure fair distribution of NBT-generated income and attractive employment conditions for NBT employees? These and many other questions have been subject of NBT research glob- ally and in the Nordic countries, as discussed below.
Current state of nature-based tourism research– A Nordic outlook
We identiﬁed 77 papers in the Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism focusing on NBT by reviewing titles, keywords and abstracts, using the deﬁnitions described above. Full papers, introductions to special issues and research notes were all included
in our analysis. This means that approximately one-quarter of all papers published in the last 10 years focus on NBT. Next, we performed thematic analysis of the article keywords, around which we structure our review. To validate this approach, we also manually re-ana- lyzed all the papers in search of common themes.
First, looking at diﬀerent types of tourism reﬂected in Nordic NBT research, two main observations can be made. Most striking is perhaps the large diversity of diﬀerent outdoor recreation activities studied, ranging from the relatively common, such as animal-based ones (especially equestrian andﬁshing), or skiing (alpine and backcountry) to more niche activities, such as glacier travel, motoring, mountain biking and Viking tourism. In this context, Iceland seems to be a key place for horse-based tourism where research has focused on customer satisfaction (Sigurðardóttir & Helgadóttir, 2015), environmental and social Impacts (Schmudde,2015), and development of business clus- ters (Sigurðardóttir & Steinthorsson,2018). Studies of recreationalﬁshing have also primar- ily taken a suppliers’ perspective, focusing on for example landowners’ perception of risk in Norway (Stensland,2013) and obstacles when developingﬁshing enterprises in Sweden (Waldo & Paulrud,2012). When it comes to skiing, published research reﬂects the popular- ity of alpine skiing, primarily looking at patterns of demand (Falk & Vieru,2017; Malasevska
& Haugom,2019) as well as the values associated with back-country skiing experiences (Berbeka,2018; Rokenes et al.,2015).
It is also obvious that Nordic NBT research has close connections to both the outdoor recreation and adventure tourism researchﬁelds, the latter highlighted with a special issue in SJHT (Mykletun, 2018). Consumer-oriented studies looking at environmentalism and tourism preferences (Wolf-Watz et al.,2011) and feelings of immersion in glacier hiking (Løvoll, 2019) illustrates the former, while research along the traditional adventure avenue (Mykletun,2018) as well as the more recent progress towards softer and slower adventure (Rantala et al.,2018; Varley & Semple,2015) represents the latter.
Second, observing the diﬀerent analytical concepts and approaches used in research about NBT, the picture is just as diverse as for the diﬀerent types of tourism. Economic approaches related to valuation and value creation seems to be one of the main avenues. This includes contingent valuation of hiking trails (Lee et al., 2013), hedonic price examination of ski-lift ticket prices in Norway (Malasevska, 2018) and experience- based brand personality as a source of value co-creation (Seljeseth & Korneliussen, 2015). Segmentation of visitors based on diﬀerent criteria is yet another prominent approach among research in NBT. This includes studies of national park visitors and their interest in tourism services in Finland (Sievänen et al.,2011), aﬀective and cognitive dimensions of ski destination images in Norway (Andersen et al.,2018), and socio-demo- graphic inﬂuences on participation in outdoor recreation activities (Tangeland et al.,2013).
The role of place and place attachment is yet another important dimension when looking at NBT, given the many close connections between tourism actors, local resources and communities (Keskitalo & Schilar, 2017). This is reﬂected in a study by Raadik Cottrell and Cottrell (2015) who found that sense of place inﬂuences perceived environmental change and the eﬀects on future holiday experiences to Saaremaa in Estonia. Sense of place can also help better understand the acceptance of, or opposition to, conservation and tourism strategies among local populations (Lemelin et al., 2015). Learning and interpretation are other themes recognized, related to the role of guides as well as tourists’ nature connections. Andersen and Rolland (2018) found that learning (through guides)
relates to both skills and techniques necessary for living and skiing in unfamiliar nature and connecting the participants more closely with nature. Among the many other analyti- cal approaches observed, we also notice applications using ethnography, grounded theory, importance-performance analysis, REP-scales, visitor-employed photography and visitor monitoring techniques.
Looking at Nordic research focusing on the consumer side of NBT, weﬁnd a relatively large body of literature about experiences of nature. This includes for example how subjec- tive feelings inform tourists’ experiences during glacier hiking (Løvoll,2019), extraordinary related to food tourists’ nature-based experience (Goolaup & Mossberg,2017), and how the Arctic’s unique attraction for skiers can strengthen bonds within a group, heighten the experience and ultimately create value for participants which is reﬂected in a high will- ingness to pay (Berbeka,2018). Experiences of wildlife can also be an important aspect of the NBT product, which is illustrated with a study from Vittangi Moose Park in Swedish Lapland (Griggio,2015). In this study, the author argues that the experience is an Erfah- rung, a set of knowledge that becomes meaningful through its shared nature, created through a bodily and visual transaction between visitors and moose. Another recurrent theme is the study of motivations. This is reﬂected in the Nordic literature through studies about push-and pull factors among hunters (Suni & Pesonen,2019), motivational segments for trips along the high coast byway of Sweden (Steen Jacobsen & Antonson, 2017), and tourist’s motivations for purchasing NBT activity products (Tangeland,2011).
In the latter study, the author identiﬁed four motivation factors: quality improvement, skill development, new activity and social, which can help managers of NBT businesses to target more proﬁtable segments and develop their products.
Next, turning our attention to the supply side of NBT, weﬁnd several research directions.
One of the more prominent foci is the role of guides. Guides can play a major role for high- quality interpretation and learning as part of the tourism experience as we noted above (Andersen & Rolland, 2018). Guides can also create values for clients in various ways.
Rokenes et al. (2015) show that guides can contribute to prevent conﬂicts within the client group and decrease the risk of accidents. They also argue that with guides comes a potential for better choreographing of experiences, nature interpretation and learning to behave environmentally friendly. The potential to create monetary values in terms of increased willingness to pay among tourists is only marginally visible in the literature reviewed.
Lifestyle businesses, entrepreneurship and amenity migration are other related topics we identiﬁed. This includes studies about international winter tourism entrepreneurs who have moved to a “low-amenity” rural areas in northern Sweden (Carson et al., 2018) as well as the role of place attachment for the lifestyle entrepreneurship (Schilar
& Keskitalo, 2017). Findings suggest that the underdeveloped low-amenity character of the place were key factors in migration choices. This takes us to the topics of natural ame- nities and resources which we also found being a relatively frequent theme of research in NBT. For example, how tourists perceive wilderness versus power production in the high- lands of Iceland (Sæþórsdóttir & Saarinen,2016) or how regional distribution of natural amenities can impact NBT supply in Sweden (Margaryan & Fredman, 2017). From the latter study, we note that natural and human-made amenities are comparable in their power to predict the distribution of NBT operations at a national level, suggesting that the border between NBT and other forms of tourism is not as distinct as is often imagined.
When it comes to development and management the destination is an obvious research unit also in NBT scholarship. This includes studies of experience attributes at winter des- tinations in Norway, primarily circling around skiing (Andersen et al.,2018), destination branding (Seljeseth & Korneliussen, 2015), destination image of rural landscapes (Pre- stholdt & Nordbø,2015), and how to transform an iconic attraction into a more diversiﬁed destination (Viken & Aarsaether,2013). Two key aspects of success in destination develop- ment we can observe from these studies are public participation and the small ﬁrms’
ability to interact locally and social competence. A key aspect of rural development is of course the dynamics of the economic system and to what extent money spend by tourists stay in the region. The amount of direct expenditure is one key aspect (Fredman & Yuan, 2011), but there is not much research found looking at the impact on local economies from such expenditure in the NBT context in the Nordics.
Finally, a relatively large group of studies have taken on one or more perspectives related to sustainability in NBT, whereof most of them have an environmental focus. A dominating theme in this context is the implications of climate change. Studies by Nicholls and Amelung (2015) suggest the possibility of more desirable climatic conditions in the southern and eastern parts of the region in the future. However, most research is focused on winter tourism where climate eﬀects are more challenging. This is reﬂected by studies looking at the impact on summer ski visitors in Norway (Demiroglu et al., 2018), links between downhill ski lift revenues and snow depth (Falk & Vieru, 2017), costs of adaptation to climate change in Finnish winter tourism (Kaján et al.,2015) and polar tourists’ weather tolerance on Svalbard (Denstadli & Steen Jacobsen, 2014).
Results indicate that small businesses seem to be most aﬀected in terms of ﬁnancial costs from climate change, and although customers might have high climate change awareness, they show limited climate friendliness. The topic of environmental concern is another theme identiﬁed in the Nordic NBT literature (Puhakka, 2011; Wolf-Watz et al.,2011).
A second prominent theme under the sustainability umbrella is tourism in protected areas, manifested with a special issue in the SJHT 2011 (Higham & Vistad, 2011).
However, even if protected areas are the research context, the studies do not necessarily related to the issues of nature protection. For example, analyses of inter-year comparisons of hikers’ characteristics in the Swedish mountains (Wall-Reinius & Bäck,2011) or visitor expenditure at diﬀerent spatial levels (Fredman & Yuan, 2011). A study about tourism impacts on local communities in Estonian National Parks by Reimann et al. (2011) demon- strates an approach that more directly target the tourism-conservation nexus. Another example is the study by Garms et al. (2017) from Fulufjället National Park in Sweden where travel motives among German visitors are studied. Results show it is the outstand- ing scenery that provides German visitors with rewarding experiences of the Scandinavian
“wilderness”, which can help managers of protected areas to better facilitate visitor experiences.
This research also points at the need for systematic visitor monitoring to underpin appropriate management of protected areas for tourism (Skriver Hansen, 2017). This takes us to theﬁeld of landscape research, how landscape is changed and assessed. An interesting example is from the Finnish Lapland where Uusitalo and Sarala (2016) modeled erosion vulnerability of soils and vegetation at two mountain resorts with 3D- terrain models. Such approaches can be used for discussion of acceptable changes to
landscape. A Norwegian study investigates how tourists understand and make sense of landscapes using manipulated photos of the past and probable future development (Vinge & Flø, 2015). Findings show that understandings of landscape change processes are embedded in wider discourses of nature and culture.
International research in nature-based tourism
Just like the Nordic context, international research on NBT has signiﬁcantly matured during the last decade. This is evidenced not only by explosion of the sheer quantity of academic publications on the topics related to NBT, but also in their qualitative properties. In order to understand the main research themes emerging from the international literature we have analyzed textbooks in English language dedicated to NBT and its subsectors (e.g. ecotour- ism, wildlife tourism, mountain tourism, adventure tourism) published in the period of 2010–2020. Additionally, we refer to the review of 151 research papers published between 1998 and 2017, conducted by Elmahdy et al. (2017), who identify megatrends aﬀecting tourism in general and NBT in particular.
Coming of age for NBT research is displayed in the growing caution, skepticism and criti- cal examination of the promise of tourism and the beneﬁts it was expected to provide to the local communities and achievement of sustainability goals in general (Blumstein et al.,2017;
Büscher & Davidov,2013; Mowforth & Munt,2015; Nepal & Saarinen,2016). Withering away of the excessive optimism, typical for the literature of the 1990s and early 2000s on NBT, and especially ecotourism, is catalyzed by the accelerating globalization, imminence of negative global environmental trends and challenges, their inherent complexity and wickedness.
Expansion of the literature voicing critical perspectives on NBT, as well as growing attention towards its impacts on various aspects of human and non-human environment, is quite noticeable, echoing trends in tourism research in general.
One of the key overall themes in the international NBT literature is understanding the role of NBT within the context of a complex set of global transformations, also termed Antropocene (Gren & Huijbens,2015; Mostafanezhad & Norum,2020), and which, accord- ing to the review by Elmahdy et al., include environmental (climate change; land use and landscape change); social (population growth, urbanization, household composition, aging, health and well-being, work-leisure patterns, gender equality, values and lifestyle);
economic (economic growth; sharing economy; fuel costs); political (political unrest;
changes in border control; health risks; geopolitics); and technological transformations (transportation, high-tech equipment, information and communication technologies).
Combination of these interconnected global trends is and will be signiﬁcantly aﬀecting the demand for NBT experiences, and the way people engage with nature.
Global anthropogenic transformations made striving for sustainability more urgent and prominent in the research literature, which aspires toﬁnd ways of harnessing tourism’s positive impacts, as well as exposing and mitigating the negative ones. In this regard, an ongoing theme within the NBT research has focused on the ontological need to rethink, re-evaluate and fundamentally transform human relationships with nature, which, being based on the nature-culture dichotomy, the Romantic traditions of framing nature as a spectacle, idealization of wilderness, and the “tourist gaze”, has brought to unsustainable outcomes (Büscher & Davidov,2013; Fletcher,2014; McCool &
Bosak,2016; Mostafanezhad & Norum,2020).
A key focal area in the quest for sustainability is the examination of tumultuous relation- ship of tourism and nature conservation, speciﬁcally the ever-increasing demand for experi- encing wildlife on the one hand and the decreasing wildlife populations on the other (Blumstein et al.,2017; Carr & Broom,2018; Fatima,2017; Fennell,2014; Kline,2018; Mark- well,2015; Prideaux & Pabel,2018; Van der Duim et al.,2014). Wildlife, especially the mega- fauna, is the backbone of NBT in many countries, and understanding the impacts of tourism on various species,ﬁnding ways to improve the contribution of tourism to conservation, as well as the surrounding ethical, political, economic, managerial and other perspectives, con- stitutes a signiﬁcant part of global NBT research. In contrast, wildlife conservation eﬀorts in the Nordic countries have never had direct existential reliance on tourism, and the link between tourism and conservation is, therefore, less prominent in the Nordic NBT literature.
Further, another important theme, especially within the NBT literature stemming from the developing countries is ensuring community participation, democratic governance, environmental justice and fair distribution of NBT beneﬁts and costs. Patterns of colonialism, dispossession, displacement and conﬂict, often reproduced by NBT, are exposed and criti- cized in a notable share of NBT literature (e.g. Büscher & Davidov,2013; Fennell,2014; Mos- tadanezhad et al., 2016; Nepal & Saarinen, 2016; Van der Duim et al., 2014; Wearing &
Schweinsberg,2018). In the Nordic context sustainability research take a diﬀerent shape, which is mostly focused on the mitigation and adaptation to global challenges, such as climate change, rather than, for example, resolution of internal economic conﬂicts or achiev- ing justice for marginalized social groups. In short, the tight tourism-communities-conser- vation nexus, which is a focus of a lion’s share of international NBT research, especially in the developing countries, is of less relevance for the Nordic research context.
In line with the tourism research literature in general, the last decade of NBT research has been dominated by the importance of understanding tourism experience as well as managing nature for a desired NBT experience facilitation (Huddart & Stott, 2019; Kline, 2018; Newsome et al.,2013; Prebensen & Chen, 2017). This also suggests the increasing perception of nature as primarily a source of experiences, often coupled with unrealistic expectations of safety and control (Gstaettner et al.,2020), which is driven by the afore- mentioned global transformations (Elmahdy et al.,2017), exacerbating human disconnect- edness from nature and its processes. Understanding tourist experiences has been a prominent theme in the Nordic NBT research, which largely follow the advances of the
“Nordic school” of tourism experience research.
Finally, an important theme in international NBT research literate is the importance of environmental education, interpretation and learning. Being a key component of ecotourism, oﬀering opportunities for learning through nature interpretation as an indivisible part of NBT is highlighted in the majority of the reviewed textbooks (e.g. Fennell,2014; Huddart & Stott, 2019; Ramírez & Santana,2018; Wearing & Schweinsberg,2018). As noticed above, the impor- tance of guides and guiding has been prominent in Nordic NBT research, even though their role as educators and interpreters has received secondary importance comparing to risk man- agement, conﬂict prevention and resolution, and overall NBT experience facilitation.
The future of nature-based tourism research
This paper was prepared a few months after the COVID-19 virus brought tourism in much of the world to a sudden stop. At the same time, bans on international travel
have stimulated increasing interest in domestic tourism, which also includes visiting nature areas in one’s own homeland (McGivney, 2020). Apart from giving nature a
“breather” in the absence of tourism, COVID-19 exposed profound dependence of con- servation of multiple nature areas and wildlife species, especially in developing countries, which are threatened by the plummeting of NBT-generated income (e.g.
Mohammed, 2020; Turner-Cohen, 2020). Nature-based destinations have an opportu- nity to position themselves well for post-pandemic travel, introduce themselves to new travel audiences and even grow and sustain market share (Destination Analysts, 2020). All this supports our belief that NBT will continue to be highly important for visi- tors, businesses and natural areas that facilitate these experiences also in the future post-COVID-19 world.
In the Frontiers in Nature-based Tourism issue of SJHT 10 years ago, Fredman and Tyr- väinen (2010) identiﬁed a shortage of studies examining the supply of NBT, including topics about innovation processes, business constraints and economic impact. They also requested more research about public-private cooperation given the many stake- holders involved. Based on the review we did for this paper, we argue there has been an increase in the number of studies looking at NBT from the supply side, especially about destination development, lifestyle entrepreneurship and the role of guides. Just like Fredman and Tyrväinen did in 2010, we also notice that many research questions are raised from practical needs, while more theoretically oriented research is quite limited. To conclude, when comparing Nordic research in the last 10 years with the broader international picture, we highlight the following topics as fruitful avenues for future NBT studies:
(i) Continuing eﬀorts towards more knowledge about the diﬀerent aspects of sustain- able NBT;
(ii) policies to deal with the challenges related to both over- and under tourism, includ- ing crowding, visitor management as well as injections for contested destinations;
(iii) how experiences from nature can contribute to health and wellbeing, including restorative eﬀects on humans and means for social distancing in times of pandemics;
(iv) the socioeconomics of NBT, including impacts on local communities, resilience, public-private collaborations and contributions from tourism to nature protection;
(v) use of new technology prior to, during and after the NBT experience, including mar- keting, product development and visitor monitoring;
(vi) better understand and match the NBT entrepreneurship with an increasingly multi- faceted and urbanized demand, including lifestyle motivations, product innovation and market segmentation;
(vii) more emphasis on the development of methods and analytical approaches contri- buting to the theoretical advancement of the future NBT research agenda.
Finally, the international call for new, bold theoretical outlooks, the need to reimagine and fundamentally transform human-nature relationships towards sustainability and co- existence remains relevant for the Nordic context, especially so in times when visitation to nature areas are increasing as observed in recent years.
Financial support from The Norwegian Research Council and the BIOTOUR project is gratefully acknowledged.
No potential conﬂict of interest was reported by the author(s).
Financial support from The Norwegian Research Council and the project From place-based natural resources to value-added experiences: Tourism in the new bio-economy (BIOTOUR) is gratefully acknowledged; Norges Forskningsråd [grant number 255271].
Andersen, O., Øian, H., Aas, Ø, & Tangeland, T. (2018). Aﬀective and cognitive dimensions of ski des- tination images. The case of Norway and the Lillehammer region. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(2), 113–131.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2017.1318715 Andersen, S., & Rolland, C. G. (2018). Educated in friluftsliv– working in tourism. Scandinavian Journal
of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(4), 362–376.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2018.1522727 Balmford, A., Green, J. M. H., Anderson, M., Beresford, J., Huang, C., Naidoo, R., Walpole, M., & Manica,
A. (2015). Walk on the wild side: Estimating the global magnitude of visits to protected areas. PloS Biology, 13(2), e1002074.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002074.
Berbeka, J. (2018). The value of remote Arctic destinations for backcountry skiers. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(4), 393–418.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2018.1522728 Blumstein, D. T., Geﬀroy, B., Samia, D. S., & Bessa, E. (2017). Ecotourism’s promise and Peril. Springer.
Büscher, B., & Davidov, V. (2013). The ecotourism-extraction nexus: Political economies and rural realities of (un)comfortable bedfellows. Routledge.
Carr, N., & Broom, D. M. (2018). Tourism and animal welfare. CABI.
Carson, D. A., Carson, D. B., & Eimermann, M. (2018). International winter tourism entrepreneurs in northern Sweden: Understanding migration, lifestyle, and business motivations. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(2), 183–198.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2017.1339503 Demiroglu, O. C., Dannevig, H., & Aall, C. (2018). Climate change acknowledgement and responses of summer (glacier) ski visitors in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(4), 419– 438.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2018.1522721
Denstadli, J. M., & Steen Jacobsen, J. K. (2014). More clouds on the Horizon? Polar tourists’ weather tolerances in the context of climate change. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 14(1), 80–99.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2014.886096
Destination Analysts. (2020). Retrieved July 4, 2020. https://www.destinationanalysts.com/blog- nature-based-destinations-and-the-future-of-travel/
Elmahdy, Y. M., Haukeland, J. V., & Fredman, P. (2017). Tourism megatrends: A literature review focused on nature-based tourism. NMBU Report. NMBU.
Falk, M., & Vieru, M. (2017). Demand for downhill skiing in subarctic climates. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(4), 388–405.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2016.1238780 Fatima, J. K. (2017). Wilderness of wildlife tourism. CRC Press.
Fennell, D. A. (2014). Ecotourism. Routledge.
Fletcher, R. (2014). Romancing the wild: Cultural dimensions of ecotourism. Duke University Press.
Fredman, P., & Tyrväinen, L. (2010). Frontiers in nature-based tourism. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 10(3), 177–189.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2010.502365.
Fredman, P., Wall Reinius, S., & Lundberg, C. (2009). Turism i natur. Deﬁnitioner, omfattning, statistik, Mid-Sweden University, ETOUR, Report R2009:23.
Fredman, P., & Yuan, M. (2011). Primary economic impacts at three spatial levels: The case of Fulufjället National Park, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11, 74–86.
Garms, M., Fredman, P., & Mose, I. (2017). Travel motives of German tourists in the Scandinavian mountains: The case of Fulufjället National Park. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(3), 239–254.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2016.1176598
Goolaup, S., & Mossberg, L. (2017). Exploring the concept of extraordinary related to food tourists’ nature-based experience. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(1), 27–43.https://
Gren, M., & Huijbens, E. H. (2015). Tourism and the Anthropocene. Routledge.
Griggio, C. (2015). Looking for experience at Vittangi Moose Park in Swedish Lapland. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(3), 244–265.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2014.999015 Gstaettner, A. M., Lee, D., & Weiler, B. (2020). Responsibility and preparedness for risk in national parks: Results of a visitor survey. Tourism Recreation Research, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/
Hansson, E. (2020, Apr. 21). Coronakrisen har lett till kraftig ökning av naturutﬂykter. Natursidan.
Accessed 2020, July 04.https://www.natursidan.se/nyheter/sa-klarar-naturomradena-det-okade- besokstrycket/
Higham, J., & Vistad, O. I. (2011). Tourism in protected natural areas: The Nordic-Baltic context.
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.
Huddart, D., & Stott, T. (2019). Adventure tourism: Environmental impacts and management. Springer Nature.
Kaján, E., Tervo-Kankare, K., & Saarinen, J. (2015). Cost of adaptation to climate change in tourism:
Methodological challenges and trends for future studies in adaptation. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(3), 311–317.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2014.970665
Keskitalo, E.C.H., & Schilar, H. (2017). Co-constructing“northern” tourism representations among tourism companies, DMOs and tourists. An example from Jukkasjärvi, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(4), 406–422.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2016.1230517.
Kline, C. (2018). Tourism experiences and animal consumption: Contested values, morality and ethics.
Lee, W. S., Kim, J., Graefe, A. R., & Chi, S.-H. (2013). Valuation of an eco-friendly hiking trail using the contingent valuation method: An application of psychological ownership theory. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 13(1), 55–69.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2013.771902 Lemelin, R. H., Koster, R., Bradford, L., Strickert, G., & Molinsky, L. (2015). People, Places, protected
areas and tourism: Place attachment in Rossport, Ontario, Canada. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1-2), 167–182.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2015.1006391 Løvoll, H. S. (2019). The inner feeling of glacier hiking: An exploratory study of“immersion” as it
relates toﬂow, hedonia and eudaimonia. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 19(3), 300–316.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2019.1581084
Malasevska, I. (2018). A hedonic price analysis of ski lift tickets in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(2), 132–148.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2017.1322531 Malasevska, I., & Haugom, E. (2019). Alpine skiing demand patterns. Scandinavian Journal of
Hospitality and Tourism, 19(4–5), 390–403.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2018.1539924 Margaryan, L. (2017). Commercialization of nature through tourism, Doctoral thesis in tourism studies,
Mid-Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences.
Margaryan, L., & Fredman, P. (2017). Natural amenities and the regional distribution of nature-based tourism supply in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(2), 145–159.https://
Markwell, K. (Ed.). (2015). Animals and tourism: Understanding diverse relationships (Vol. 67). Channel View.
McCool, S. F., & Bosak, K. (2016). Reframing sustainable tourism. Springer.
McGivney, A. (2020, Apr. 07). Please don’t come: calls to close US national parks over virus fears. The Guardian. Accessed 2020, July 07. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/apr/07/us- national-parks-coronavirus-close-open
Mohammed, O. (2020, June, 24). With no tourists to watch migration, Kenyan operator’s planes are grounded The New York Times. Accessed 2020, July 07.https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/
Mostadanezhad, M., Norum, R., Shelton, E. J., & Thompson-Carr, A. (2016). Political ecology of tourism:
Community, power and the environment. Routledge.
Mostafanezhad, M., & Norum, R. (2020). Anthropocene ecologies: Entanglements of tourism, nature and Imagination. Routledge.
Mowforth, M., & Munt, I. (2015). Tourism and sustainability: Development, globalisation and new tourism in the third world. Routledge.
Mykletun, R. J. (2018). Adventure tourism in the North– six illustrative cases. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(4), 319–329.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2018.1524999 Nepal, S., & Saarinen, J. (2016). Political ecology and tourism. Routledge.
Newsome, D., Moore, S. A., & Dowling, R. K. (2013). Natural area tourism. Ecology, impacts and man- agement. Channel View.
Nicholls, S., & Amelung, B. (2015). Implications of climate change for rural tourism in the Nordic region. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1–2), 48–72.https://doi.org/10.1080/
Øian, H., Fredman, P., Sandell, K., Sæþórsdóttir, A. D., Tyrväinen, L., & Jensen, F. S. (2018). Tourism, nature and sustainability: A review of policy instruments in the Nordic countries, Nordic Council of Minister, TemaNord.
Prebensen, N. K., & Chen, J. S. (2017). Nature tourism. Routledge.
Prestholdt, R., & Nordbø, I. (2015). Norwegian landscapes: An assessment of the aesthetical visual dimensions of some rural destinations in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1–2), 202–222.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2015.1014129
Prideaux, B., & Pabel, A. (2018). Coral reefs: Tourism, conservation and management. Routledge.
Puhakka, R. (2011). Environmental concern and responsibility among nature tourists in Oulanka PAN Park, Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(1), 76–96.https://doi.org/10.
Raadik Cottrell, J., & Cottrell, S. P. (2015). Sense-of-place inﬂuences on perceived environmental change: Eﬀects on future holiday experiences to Saaremaa, Estonia. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(4), 425–446.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2015.1024820 Ramírez, F., & Santana, J. (2018). Environmental education and ecotourism. Springer.
Rantala, O., Hallikainen, V., Ilola, H., & Tuulentie, S. (2018). The softening of adventure tourism.
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(4), 343–361. https://doi.org/10.1080/
Reimann, M., Lamp, M.-L., & Palang, H. (2011). Tourism impacts and local communities in Estonian National Parks. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11, 87–99. https://doi.org/10.
Rokenes, A., Schumann, S., & Rose, J. (2015). The art of guiding in nature-based adventure tourism– How guides can create client value and positive experiences on Mountain Bike and Backcountry Ski Tours. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15, 62–82. https://doi.org/10.1080/
Schmudde, R. (2015). Equestrian tourism in national parks and protected areas in Iceland– an analy- sis of the environmental and social impacts. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1- 2), 91–104.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2014.1000713
Sæþórsdóttir, A. D., & Saarinen, J. (2016). Changing ideas about natural resources: Tourists’ perspec- tives on the wilderness and power production in Iceland. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(4), 404–421.https://doi.org/ 10.1080/15022250.2015.1108866
Seljeseth, P. I., & Korneliussen, T. (2015). Experience-based brand personality as a source of value co- creation: The case of Lofoten. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15, 48–61.https://
Sievänen, T., Neuvonen, M., & Pouta, E. (2011). National Park visitor segments and their interest in rural tourism services and intention to revisit. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11, 54–73.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2011.638210
Sigurðardóttir, I., & Helgadóttir, G. (2015). Riding high: Quality and customer satisfaction in equestrian tourism in Iceland. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1-2), 105–121.https://doi.
Sigurðardóttir, I., & Steinthorsson, R. S. (2018). Development of micro-clusters in tourism: A case of equestrian tourism in northwest Iceland. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 18(3), 261–277.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2018.1497286
Skriver Hansen, A. (2017). Applying visitor monitoring methods in coastal and marine areas– some learnings and critical reﬂections from Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17 (3), 279–296.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2016.1155481
Steen Jacobsen, J. K., & Antonson, H. (2017). Motivational segments for trips along the high coast byway of Sweden: A study of local leisure excursions and domestic holidaymaking. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(2), 177–193.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2015.1133318 Stensland, S. (2013). Landowners’ perception of risk sources and risk management strategies in Norwegian Salmon Angling Tourism. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 13(3), 208–227.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2013.830362
Suni, J., & Pesonen, J. (2019). Hunters as tourists– an exploratory study of push–pull motivations.
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 19(2), 175–191. https://doi.org/10.1080/
Tangeland, T. (2011). Why do people purchase nature-based tourism activity products? A Norwegian case study of Outdoor Recreation. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(4), 435–456.
Tangeland, T., Aas, Ø, & Odden, A. (2013). The socio-demographic inﬂuence on participation in Outdoor Recreation activities – implications for the Norwegian domestic market for nature- based tourism. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 13(3), 190–207.https://doi.org/
Turner-Cohen, A. (2020, June 20). Starving to death amid tourism industry collapse. News.com.au.
Retrieved July 4, 2020. https://www.news.com.au/technology/science/animals/coronavirus- captured-elephants-in-southeast-asia-starving-to-death-amid-tourism-industry-collapse/news- story/b509aceb0a8cfd9989dcfb0417091d05
Uusitalo, M. T., & Sarala, P. (2016). Indicators for impact management of Subarctic Mountain Resorts:
Monitoring built-up areas at high altitudes in Northern Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(1), 1–23.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2015.1046483
Van der Duim, R., Lamers, M., & Van Wijk, J. (2014). Institutional arrangements for conservation, devel- opment and tourism in eastern and Southern Africa: A dynamic perspective. Springer.
Varley, P., & Semple, T. (2015). Nordic slow adventure: Explorations in time and nature. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1–2), 73–90.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2015.1028142 Venter, Z., Barton, D., Gundersen, V., Figari, H., & Nowell, M. (2020). Urban nature in a time of crisis:
recreational use of green space increases during the COVID-19 outbreak in Oslo, Norway, SocArXiv.
Viken, V., & Aarsaether, N. (2013). Transforming an iconic attraction into a diversiﬁed destination: The case of North Cape Tourism. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 13(1), 38–54.https://
Vinge, H., & Flø, B. E. (2015). Landscapes lost? Tourist understandings of changing Norwegian Rural Landscapes. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 15(1–2), 29–47.https://doi.org/10.
Waldo, S., & Paulrud, A. (2012). Obstacles to developing recreational Fishing Enterprises in Sweden.
Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 12(2), 121–139.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.
Wall-Reinius, S., & Bäck, L. (2011). Changes in visitor demand: Inter-year comparisons of Swedish hikers’ characteristics, preferences and experiences. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11, 38–53.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2011.638207
Wearing, S., & Schweinsberg, S. (2018). Ecotourism: Transitioning to the 22nd century. Routledge.
Wolf-Watz, D., Sandell, K., & Fredman, P. (2011). Environmentalism and tourism preferences. A study of outdoor recreationalists in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 11(2), 190– 204.https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2011.583066