Disciplinary Literacy

Full text

(1)

John Airey

Disciplinary Literacy

Department of Languages,

Linnaeus University, Sweden

University Physics Education Research Group

Uppsala University, Sweden

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Brief summary of my earlier work

Learning in English

Teaching in English

Monolingual Learning

Disciplinary differences

Disciplinary literacy

Disciplinary literacy discussion matrix

Conclusions

Questions

Overview

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Overview of earlier work

Students learning in English

Airey (2003; 2004; 2006a; 2006b; 2009a 2009b 2010a; 2010b)

Teachers teaching in English

Airey (2011a; 2011b; 2011c; 2011d; 2012; 2013; 2014; 2015; 2016)

John Airey Bergen 25 January 2016

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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PhD work:

Parallel courses in English and Swedish

Videoed lectures in Swedish and English

Selected video clips used to

stimulate recall

Learning in English

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Results

Students reported

no difference

in their

learning when taught in Swedish or English

However, during stimulated recall students

did report a number of

important differences

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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When taught in English

Students

ask and answer fewer questions

Results

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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When taught in English

Students

who took notes

had difficulty

following the lecture

The success of these students appeared to

depend on doing

extra work outside class

Results

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Students

adapted

their study habits…

Only asked questions after the lecture

Stopped taking notes in class

Read sections of work before class

Simply used the lecture for mechanical

note-taking

Airey and Linder (2006; 2007)

Results

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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The following are six

recommendations

for

lecturers :

1.  Discuss the fact that there are differences

when lectures are in a second language.

2.  Create more opportunities for students to

ask and answer questions in lectures.

3. Allow time after the lecture for students to

ask questions.

Recommendations

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4.  Ask students to read material before the

lecture.

5.  Give out lecture notes in advance or follow

the book

6.  Consider other teaching forms than lectures

Online lecture followed by discussion?

Recommendations

(11)

Thøgersen & Airey (2011)

Built on earlier work with students that

suggested people speak more slowly in a

second language

(Hincks 2010; Airey 2010)

Danish lecturer taught same lecture five

times

Teaching in English

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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English

Danish

(13)

In English:

Same material took longer (22%)

Lecturer used a more formal, ’textbook’

style

Teaching in English

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Questions:

Is this true for all lecturers?

Is this true for all languages?

Is this true for all subject areas?

Teaching in English

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Lecturer profiles

18 lecturers at two Swedish universities

Range of disciplines

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Video

1.  Ten-minute mini-lecture in Swedish on

a subject they usually teach

2.  Ten-minute mini-lecture in English on

the same subject

Data collection

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Lecturers spoke more slowly had more

pauses and shorter runs in English

Differences between lectures

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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5,00% 10,00% 15,00% 20,00% 25,00%

Articulation rate in syllables per second [normalised]

English Swedish

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Three types of lecturer

1. Structured no change in English

Two options:

–  lecture is longer

–  the end of the lecture is cut off

2. Structured works differently in English

Two options:

–  Choose to miss out some content

–  Cover all content but in less depth

3. Free structure

–  presents different information (but probably would in L1)

–  Lecture tends to be shorter—less to say

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Tentative conclusions

1.  Lecturers probably

need more time

to do the

same job in English

2.  Highly-structured (teacher-centred) lecturers

may have fewer problems changing to

English.

3.  May be pragmatic for lecturers to change

style to a more structured approach.

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Summary earlier work

My research shows what happens when:

Swedish students learn in English

Swedish lecturers teach in English

But what should guide the decision to

teach in English in the first place?

First need to understand monolingual

learning.

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Monolingual learning

Northedge (2002) claims that the fundamental

role of a university lecturer is to introduce

students to the

specialist discourse

of the

discipline.

Building on this, Airey (2012, 2016) argues

all

teachers are language teachers

even in

monolingual settings

.

Two ways of viewing this claim:

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Weak, uncontroversial stance

Disciplinary learning depends on the ability

to

interpret the specialized language

in

which the knowledge is construed.

(Lemke 1990)

Strong, radical stance

Disciplinary learning is a form of

discourse

change

.

(Wickman & Östman 2002)

We are all language teachers!

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Disciplinary learning clearly becomes more

complex when two (or more) languages are

involved.

Which languages are actually

needed

for

appropriate disciplinary learning?

What is an appropriate

language mix

?

Learning in more than one language

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Disciplines have been shown to have quite

different approaches to knowledge building.

See Biglan (1973), Kolb (1981),

Becher & Trowler (2001), Bernstein (1999),

Trowler (2014)

Disciplinarity

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Each discipline has different goals and

different

ontological

and

epistemological

assumptions

Ontology

A set of assumptions about the nature

of reality and existence

Epistemology

A set of assumptions about how

knowledge is obtained

Disciplinarity

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Bernstein (1999) classified disciplinary

knowledge structures as

hierarchical

or

horizontal

Hierarchical knowledge structures

Progress by

integration of new knowledge

with existing knowledge

Horizontal knowledge structures

Progress by introducing

new perspectives

that do not need to be coherent with existing

perspectives

Disciplinary knowledge structures

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Progression in hierarchical knowledge

structures can be viewed as

developing a single

agreed “language”

New knowledge comes from

integration

(29)

Progression in horizontal knowledge structures

can be viewed as

introducing new ”languages of

description”

New knowledge comes

from new perspectives

Disciplinary knowledge structures

L

1

L

2

L

3

L

4

L

5

L

5+1

horizontal

(30)

Disciplinary knowledge structures

hierarchical

knowledge

structure

horizontal

knowledge

structure

“warring

triangles”

physics

biology

science

L

1

L

2

L

3

L

4

L

5

...

social science

humanities

history literary studies

(31)

Physics has the most hierarchical knowledge

structure of all disciplines.

(Bernstein1999)

Kuteeva and Airey (2014) find disciplines with

hierarchical knowledge structures have

strong preferences for

English

as a medium

of instruction.

John Airey Bergen 25 January 2016

Disciplinary knowledge structures

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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English language PhD theses

0

20

40

60

80

100

Nat.

Ma

t.

Me

d.

Te

k.

Fil.

Eko

.

Sa

m.

Sp

r.

Ark.

Lit.

Et

n.

Geo.

H

is.

Rel.

Ko

n.

Upp.

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Natural sciences Social sciences Humanities and Arts

Disciplinary differences and language

Least objection

to English

Most objection

to English

(34)

Teaching in English

10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%   70%   All/almost  all   None/almost  none  

(35)

What does this mean for

parallel

language use?

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Parallel language use is a necessity—only its

implementation can be discussed

Gregersen and Josephson (2014: 45)

An intuitively appealing idea [but] a

somewhat fuzzy and probably unrealistic

target

Phillipson (2006: 25)

An unoperationalised political slogan

Kuteeva and Airey (2014: 536)

Parallel language use—some voices

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Parallel language use and disciplines

How can we operationalise parallel language

use?

What do we want our graduates to learn to do?

In

which languages

should they be able to do

this?

I argue that this

depends on the discipline.

John Airey Bergen 25 January 2016

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Disciplinary Literacy

Attempt to operationalise parallel language

use in terms of the development of

disciplinary literacy

In order to explain this term first need to

look at the term

literacy

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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What is literacy?

Gee (1991) suggests that we have

one primary

discourse

(the oral language we learn as a

child) and

many secondary discourses

(specialised communicative practices used in

other sites outside the home).

Gee defines

Literacy

as ’fluency in’ these

secondary discourses.

Two points here:

John Airey Bergen 25 January 2016

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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What is literacy?

1. Literacy involves not just reading and

writing but also

speaking and listening and

other (non-linguistic) skills

e.g. maths skills

graphing skills, experimental skills, etc

cf. Archer (2006) Airey & Linder (2009)

2. Literacy depends on

where

you intend to

use these skills.

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Disciplinary literacy refers to the ability to

appropriately participate in the

communicative practices of a discipline.

Airey (2011b)

What is disciplinary literacy?

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Disciplinary Literacy

The goal of any degree programme is the

development of

disciplinary literacy.

Airey (2011b)

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Disciplinary Literacy

Disciplinary literacy is developed for three

sites

society

,

workplace

and the

academy

John Airey Bergen 25 January 2016

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

(44)

Disciplinary Literacy Triangle

Society

Academy

Workplace

Each of these

sites places

different demands

on language

(45)

Disciplinary Literacy Triangle

Society

(46)

Moreover, each site has the potential to be

divided into an

international and a local

form

.

These forms have quite different language

needs

The

international forms

will almost certainly

involve some

English

, whilst the

local forms

probably involve

one or more other

languages

.

International and local

John Airey Bergen 25 January 2016

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Society

Academy

Workplace

L1

L2

L3

(48)

Each discipline has its own knowledge

structure. These knowledge structures

do

not appear to be language−neutral.

Each discipline fosters a unique form of

disciplinary literacy for three sites:

Society,

Academy and Workplace.

The demands placed on language in these

three sites are very different.

Summary

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix

Focuses discussion on:

The communicative practices lecturers

believe students need to master.

i.e. The local language(s), English,

and other modes.

The site in which these communicative

practices are needed.

i.e. academy, workplace and society

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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What forms of communication do you think

your students need to master?

Each lecturer marks the cells in the matrix

Discussion then moves from cell to cell

(regardless of whether or not it is checked).

Introductory question

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Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Initiating faculty dialogue

Two follow up questions:

1. How will students be given the opportunity

to develop the desired skills during a given

course?

2. How will this development be assessed?

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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A

top down, “one-size-fits-all” language

policy

that deals with language in anything

more than a ”general recommendations”

sense will be

problematic.

Need

locally decided, disciplinary-specific

decisions

about what to teach in which

language(s)

Suggest using the matrix to stimulate

intra-faculty discussion

Conclusions

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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University language policies should:

1.  Encourage the faculty discussion of

disciplinary literacy goals.

2.  Require disciplines to declare the

language-learning outcomes of each

course.

Conclusions

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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Programme and course syllabuses should

detail disciplinary literacy outcomes

alongside more traditional learning

outcomes:

In this course the following skills will be

developed in the following language(s)

How do the skills developed in a particular

course relate to the overall goal—the

development of disciplinary literate

graduates?

John Airey Bergen 25 January 2016

Conclusions

Overview Earlier work Monolingual learning Disciplinary differences Disciplinary literacy The Disciplinary Literacy Discussion Matrix Conclusions Questions

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