Faculty of Economic Sciences, Communication and IT Computer Science Department
TCP Performance in Tactical Ad-‐Hoc Networks
Velizar G. Dimitrov
Prof. Andreas Kassler, Karlstad University
Asst. Prof. Rossitza Goleva, Technical University of Sofia
Communication has been a major resource to the human race by being able to transfer information from one to another. While many different forms exist such as sign language, speaking, and body language, it is telecommunications and the advance of the digital era that have changed the world throughout the last century. Public switched telephone networks (PSTN) was the first great achievement to provide individuals with the opportunity of multidirectional communication, essentially breaking the boundaries of distance. Wireless communications developed alongside the desire for richer content, leading to the abundance of cellular phones and Cable TV nowadays.
In early 1990s, the development of telecommunication technology lead to a revolution, as Internet started offering attractive services that help users or customers to obtain information stored in a computer in any part of the world. Communication technology has reached a stage, where it even substitutes social interactions and in the past decade social networking has become a multi-‐billion industry.
The Internet, the greatest technological phenomena of the modern era, has expanded more than anyone could imagine in just a few decades. Access to the global network is now available through numerous ways like cell phones, PSTN modems, ISDN, ADSL, broadband, satellite and so on. Integration of communication technologies has led to the state where a particular technology is just a means of accessing a unified information source. The proliferation of mobile computing and communication devices is the driver of the revolutionary change in the information society.
Moving to an era of ubiquitous communication imposes a new set of technical challenges. The very nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networking the easiest solution. It’s only natural that the wireless communications should be experiencing such a tremendous development over the past decade. The mobile user of today can use his cellular phone to check his email and read the news; travelers with portable computers are surfing the internet from almost any public location; tourists are searching online for attractions and checking directions through GPS maps; researchers are collaborating and exchanging data through the global network; teleworkers are attending online meeting and conferences; The world has acquired a foreseeable size.
Mobile computing devices are getting smaller, cheaper, more convenient, and noticeable more powerful. They are capable of running applications and services which previously were typical for on-‐desk workstations. It may be a pure philosophical question why do users demand more and more capabilities from their mobile devices, but the conclusion is that the demand is the fuel for the explosive progress of communication technology.
Most existing communication technologies rely upon a pre-‐built infrastructure to function and deliver they services. It is a well known fact that the deployment and support of a commercial network infrastructure is very time-‐consuming and considerable expensive. A problem with relying on an infrastructure-‐based system is that if it breaks down, the communication it supports also breaks down, if redundancy and backups are not highly prioritized. A prime example of this is a disaster area. Earthquakes, fires and floods can render an infrastructure of any scale unusable. For rescue operations it is good to be able to
communicate to coordinate work or get in touch with survivors in damaged buildings.
Another example is military operations. In the jungle there is a low probability of finding a suitable communication infrastructure.
An alternative way to deliver services has emerged. Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) are complex distributed systems that consist of autonomous mobile nodes that can move freely and organize dynamically. MANETs are focused on having the mobile nodes seamlessly connect to one another in their respective transmission ranges through automatic configuration, setting up a dynamic ad hoc network that is both flexible and powerful. Every node in the network functions both as a host and as a router, exhibiting also a capability for movement which makes the topology temporary and the network conditions dynamic. The routing of packets relies on multi-‐hop principles.
To enable communication in such systems, a great number of problems needed resolving. Communication theory was introduces as a relatively new science, whose purpose was to deal with challenges of unified digital communication. TCP/IP  protocol has proven itself as the reliable work horse of the Internet, albeit with some enhancements along the way. Therefore the naturally obvious solution to the problems of MANET communication for the transport layer would be to treat it like any other Internet system. Deploy TCP/IP in the end nodes, construct a routing protocol, and start the communication. Another motive to use TCP in MANET is the opportunity of connecting to the Internet -‐ an end-‐to-‐end connection can be maintained, without the need for protocol-‐converting proxies or gateways.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed as a reliable end-‐to-‐end connection-‐oriented protocol for data delivery over somewhat unreliable networks.
Theoretically, TCP should be independent of the underlying network technology and infrastructure. TCP shouldn’t make a difference whether the piggy-‐backing IP is running over wireless or wired connections. But it turns out that TCP was designed and optimized on assumptions that are specific to wired networks. Thus ignoring the properties and peculiarities of wireless networks leads to a dramatically worsened performance .
The purpose of the current work is to assess and analyze the problems and weaknesses of TCP in MANETs as well as investigate various approaches and techniques that try to overcome TCP’s shortcomings. This study was conducted through the strong collaboration between The Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria and Karlstad University, Sweden in the person of Prof. Andreas Kassler and Jonas Karlsson.
2. Challenges in MANET environment
Mobile Ad Hoc networks are formed dynamically and are prone to frequent topology changes. The topology, as well as other network conditions, can change rapidly and unpredictably. Nodes are free to move arbitrarily and may or may not organize between themselves. The MANET is infrastructure-‐less, self-‐sustained and may or may not be connected to an outside network. Each node should be able to communicate with any other node within its transmission range. For communication with nodes beyond its transmission range, the intermediate nodes should relay the message hop by hop. Routes between nodes are dynamic and should generally be considered as multi-‐hop.
Although ad hoc networks offer great flexibility and convenience, those do come at a price. Ad hoc networks inherit the problems of traditional radio/wireless communication.
• The wireless medium and its properties are not considered absolute.
• The communication range and boundaries are not readily observable.
• Since the wireless medium is shared, the signal is not protected from outside signals and the signal itself is not constrained between the communicating node pair.
• The wireless medium is considerably less reliable then wired media.
• The communication channel has time-‐varying and asymmetric propagation properties.
The presence of the former properties of the wireless medium leads to the manifestation of the following issues concerning the communication and networking:
• Lossy channels
Signal attenuation is observed due to the decrease of the intensity of EM waves, which leads to low signal-‐to-‐noise ratio (SNR) with increase of distance; The relative velocity between sender and receiver causes Doppler shift in the frequency of the arriving signal, worsening the probability of a good reception; Reflection of EM waves from surrounding objects causes Multipath fading i.e. the signal travels over multiple paths before reaching the receiver which in turn causes fluctuations in amplitude and phase, which results in destructive interference, effectively lowering the SNR;
• High bit error rate
Due to the previously specified channel properties, the radio network is prone to transmission errors. This leads to bit errors in the received data, which often causes the data to be discarded. This may be interpreted as a packet loss event.
• MAC contention
MANETs use multi-‐hop relaying. A packet reception and transmission uses the same radio resources, and must contend for medium access with other transmitters. If there are lots of transmissions, this leads to high contention which can be problematic performance wise.
• Hidden terminal problem
A typical scenario is illustrated on Figure 1. When two transmitters (A, C) are out of range of each other i.e. they are "hidden" to one another, and both want to communicate with a third node (B) reachable from both A and C. Since C cannot hear
A’s transmission, it assumes it is OK to transmit, which causes a collision at B which receives both signals.
Figure 1 – Hidden terminal problem
To resolve the hidden terminal problem  have introduces a carrier sensing scheme coupled with a two-‐way handshake mechanism. Specifically, the source terminal A transmits a Request-‐To-‐Send (RTS) control message to the destination terminal B. When the destination terminal B receives a RTS message, it replies with a Clear-‐To-‐Send (CTS) control message indicating its readiness to receive and effectively reserving the medium for a predefined time frame since when C hears the CTS message it knows that someone else is transmitting and it will not interfere.
• Exposed terminal problem
The problem is depicted in Figure 2. If A-‐B and C-‐D are communicating respectively, and B and C are within range of each other, they experience the exposed terminal problem.
When B transmits to A, C cannot transmit to D because it assumes its transmission will be jammed by B’s transmission, when in fact it would not.
Figure 2 – Exposed terminal problem
• Mobility and loss induced route breaks
As a result of frequent topology changes, route re-‐computations would be necessary to maintain overcall connectivity. In a MANET, nodes are responsible for forwarding/routing packets to the destination. Considering the mobility aspect, it is obvious that routes must be recomputed when nodes move out of transmission range.
If node A was used to reach host B, but A is unreachable, another way must be found to reach B.
• Network partitioning
Two communicating nodes may be partitioned i.e. separated with no route in between, for varying amounts of time. The partitions in a disjoint network are often referred to as
"islands". Like with route re-‐computations, nodes may move out of transmission range, and if there are few forwarding nodes the network may be partitioned until a new forwarding node joins the "islands" again. During partition events, no packets can be delivered between nodes in the "island".
• Forward/reverse route failures
Depending on routing protocol, the routing may not be symmetric i.e. traffic from A to B may not use the same route from B to A. This problem will be noted again in the asymmetry-‐type problems. Depending on the transport layer requirements on acknowledgements, this may be a problem. A route failure can happen on the reverse path, while packets are still being delivered on the forward path.
• Multipath routing
In order to improve network reachability, multiple routes may be maintained by the routing protocol. This is done, for example, in TORA. If a packet takes different routes, it is probable that the routes have different delay and that packet reordering will occur.
• Bandwidth asymmetry
Depending on the utilization of the channel and quality of the signal, bandwidth may differ, with respect to the data rate, in the forward and reverse direction e.g. IEEE 802.11g  can dynamically negotiate data rates from 6 to 54 Mbps.
• Loss rate asymmetry
This type of asymmetry occurs when the forward or reverse path is significantly lossier.
In MANETs this is due to the fact that conditions and communication channel parameters differ from place to place.
• Route asymmetry
Route asymmetry implies that the forward and reverse traffic flows traverse different set of nodes. This produces a difference in parameters of the forward and reverse channels like the throughput and delay, due to the different hop count, and has an overall degrading effect. It is important to note that all of the asymmetry-‐type problems are interconnected and the presence of one can indicate the presence of any of the other ones. Also each of them can be the cause or result of any of the others.
3. TCP's congestion control algorithm
TCP  is a connection-‐oriented, reliable, end-‐to-‐end transport protocol that provides efficient flow and congestion control, which guarantees reliable, ordered data packet delivery. For ordering it utilizes sequence numbers, which are also used for reliability, as correctly received data is acknowledged to the sender. If no acknowledgement (ACK) is received for a packet in a certain time frame, the packet is retransmitted. To use the network resources efficiently, TCP estimates the available capacity of the receiver and the network, and transmits as much as the lowest of these allows. The receiver indicates how much data it can accept through an advertised window value in the returning acknowledgments. The congestion window is flow control imposed by the sender to determine the network capacity, while the advertised window is flow control imposed by the receiver to indicate the rate at which it can process the received data.
3.1. TCP Tahoe
TCP’s congestion control [5, 6] is illustrated of Figure 3 and works as following:
TCP probes the network by sending more and more data. A congestion window (cwnd) is limiting the total number of unacknowledged packets that may be in transit end-‐to-‐end.
Starting with one segment, more data is sent as acknowledgements are received i.e. for every acknowledgment received the congestion window (cwnd) is increased by one segment. This results in an exponential growth of the congestion window (cwnd). The sender can send into the network the minimum of its congestion window and the receiver’s advertised window.
This algorithm for increasing the congestion window is termed the Slow Start phase, although
"slow start" in an understatement. The reception of acknowledgements indicates that there is additional capacity in the network.
Figure 3 – TCP‘s congestion control
When a loss occurs, either by the expiration of the Retransmission timer (RTO) or by the reception of three duplicate acknowledgments (DUPACK), TCP assumes that the network’s capacity has been reached. Once a presumed congestion is detected, the current value of the congestion window (cwnd) is halved and recorded in ssthresh (slow start threshold). Then cwnd is reset to one segment (segment size is usually 536 or 512 bytes) and transmission is resumed in the Slow Start phase. If the value of cwnd reaches the value of ssthresh without packet loss events occurring, TCP now knows that it is approaching the network’s capacity and enters the Congestion Avoidance phase or in other words, ssthresh indicates when the Slow Start phase should transition to the Congestion Avoidance phase. During this phase, the congestion window is linearly increased versus the exponential growth of the Slow Start phase.
The linear growth in the Congestion Avoidance phase couples with the exponential reduction when congestion takes place, have coined TCP's Congestion Avoidance algorithm as an Additive-‐Increase/Multiplicative-‐Decrease (AIMD) algorithm. It generally functions by probing the network for usable bandwidth and linearly increases the congestion window by 1 Maximum Segment Size (MSS) per round-‐trip time (RTT), until loss occurs. When loss is detected, the policy is changed to multiplicative decrease which cuts the congestion window in half. The result is a saw-‐tooth behavior that represents the probing for bandwidth.
The described congestion control algorithm so far is the so called Tahoe variant. During the course of history, the algorithm has undergone some modifications and optimizations.
3.2. TCP Reno
The next major and wide-‐spread variation of the congestion control algorithm is the Reno variant. The difference here is that if three duplicate acknowledgements (DUPACKs) are received, Reno will halve the congestion window, perform a Fast Retransmit, and enter a phase called Fast Recovery, instead of start from Slow Start, as Tahoe would. If an acknowledgement (ACK) times out, Slow Start is used as it is with Tahoe.
Reno’s Fast Recovery phase dictates that after Fast Retransmit sends what appears to be the missing segment, Congestion Avoidance, but not Slow Start is performed. It is an improvement that allows high throughput under moderate congestion, especially for large windows. The reason for not performing Slow Start in this case is that the receipt of the duplicate acknowledgements (DUPACKs) tells TCP more than just a packet has been lost. Since the receiver can only generate the duplicate acknowledgements (DUPACKs) when another segment is received, that segment has left the network and is in the receiver's buffer. In other words, there is still data flowing between the two ends and TCP does not want to reduce the flow roughly by going into Slow Start. The Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery algorithms are usually implemented together.
3.3. TCP Vegas
TCP Vegas  was developed at the University of Arizona in mid-‐1990s. It proposes a modification in TCP’s congestion avoidance algorithm that takes into account packet delay, rather than packet loss, in order determine the transmission rate of packets into the network.
TCP Vegas detects congestion based on the increasing of Round-‐Trip Time (RTT) values of the
packets in the connection. Thus the algorithm depends heavily on accurate calculation of the RTT value. If the RTT is "too small" then the utilization of the network is considered low and higher throughput should be achievable while if it’s "too large" the connection is overrunning the network capacity. Since Vegas implements linear increase/decrease mechanism for the congestion control, its fairness is questionable and is subject to research. An interesting scenario is the situation in which Vegas and Reno/New Reno share the same communication channel. Vegas’ performance is noted to degrade since it detects congestion before it actually happens, while Reno/New Reno detect congestion when packet loss has already occurred.
3.4. TCP New Reno
The New Reno  modification concerns the Fast Recovery algorithm that begins when three duplicate acknowledgments are received and ends when either a retransmission timeout occurs or an acknowledgment arrives that acknowledges all of the data in the transmission window’s instance before the Fast Recovery procedure began.
During Fast Recovery the Congestion Avoidance takes place instead of the Slow Start, as it is with Reno, but for every duplicate acknowledgment that arrives to the sender, a new unsent packet is transmitted. The purpose of this action is to keep the transmit window full.
The arrival of duplicate acknowledgment indicates that a packet has been received at the destination and that is why it is safe to put another one in flight.
When an acknowledgement (ACK) arrives, confirming only part of the packets in the congestion window, New Reno assumes this ACK points to a loss hole in the sequence space and a new packet beyond the confirmed sequence number is resend. This allows New Reno to fill holes in the sequencing space while effectively maintaining the high throughput during the hole-‐filling process. This behavior is similar to TCP SACK (Selective Acknowledgment)  but New Reno outperforms it with high error rates.
4. TCP in MANETs
The performance of TCP dramatically degrades in MANETs. This happens because of the way TCP was designed, namely with wired networks in concern, although theoretically it shouldn’t make a difference. Because the bit error rate (BER) in wired networks is significantly lower than in wireless networks (much less than 1% ), TCP assumes that all packet losses are due to congestion of the network infrastructure. So, the root of the problem regarding TCP’s performance in MANETs is its congestion control algorithm. Due to the significantly higher error rate in wireless network and events such as route recomputations, network partitioning and route failures, the probability of a packet loss is much greater. This packet loss, that is result of routing failures and wireless errors, is then misinterpreted by TCP to be an indication of congestion, which is not the case.
Another aspect of TCP is the retransmission timer (RTO). It keeps track of how long to wait for an acknowledgement and when to retransmit. It’s initialized to 3 sec. when a connection is established and its value is maintained/recalculated via Karn's  and Jacobson's  algorithms with the usage of the Round-‐Trip Time (RTT) values . RTO’s value is doubled each time it expires and a certain packet is retransmitted and with route recomputations and network partitioning, this timer can be inflated which means that it takes a long time before a packet loss is detected and the packet is retransmitted. Since this timer is sensitive to delay variations (jitter), it can also be inflated if the link layer is more or less reliable, because the varying amount of link layer retransmissions will cause delay fluctuations for the delivered packets.
TCP estimates network capacity as a counter of allowed unacknowledged packets in flight, namely the congestion window (cwnd). In a mobile/dynamic environment with frequent route recomputations this value loses its meaning, as it is only valid for the route that it has been measured for. When the route changes the new route may have much different characteristics, which in each case means that TCP performs suboptimal.
A great amount of research has been invested in dealing with TCP’s performance issues in wireless ad hoc networks. Most studies found in the literature are base on simulations and experiments, and significantly less are the analytic studies in the field. Most of them are based on the idea of changing the functionality and/or the behavior of TCP to adapt it to the new network environment.
The approaches towards optimizing TCP for wireless ad hoc networks can be classified in three categories:
• Cross-‐layer approaches – implements techniques that involve the exchange of information between two or more OSI layers  aiming to improve the overall performance. These techniques allow the use of exotic strategies and offer great flexibility, but require modifications to the cross-‐communicating protocols. Changes may or may not be needed at the intermediate agents.
• Layered approaches – implements techniques that are constrained in a single OSI layer . These techniques are easier to implement and maintain, require fewer modifications to the protocol stack, but lack the power and flexibility of the cross-‐layer solutions. Changes may or may not be needed at the intermediate agents.
• Alternative transport protocols – exploits the idea of totally scraping TCP as a transport protocol and implement an entirely new one, with or without similarities to existing
transport protocols. This approach requires most ingenuity and may yield good results but raises the issue of compatibility with other networks. If the new protocol is implemented in an isolated network, it will work seamlessly, but isolated networks are hard to come across in real life. If the network is to be connected to the outside world, the use of special protocol-‐translating proxy/gateway is required, which has its drawbacks. Another solution is to introduce generic-‐protocol encapsulation for the new transport protocol in order to deliver it to its destination, where the receiver must be equipped to understand the alternative transport protocol. This also has its shortcomings like bigger overhead, more processing power, etc.
In the following few sections, notable examples for each of the previously mentioned approaches will be given. Some of the solutions a strictly specialized for certain scenarios, others try to offer a more universal solution. Most of the researches are base on simulations and experiments and offer numerical results that can be compared, although the test scenarios differ.
4.1. Cross-‐layer solutions
TCP-‐Feedback  is an approach that relies on feedback from the network to handle route failures in MANETs. The idea is to enable the TCP sender to distinguish between route-‐brake induced losses and those due to network congestion. When routing agent of a node detects a route break, it sends back a Route Failure Notification (RFN) message to the source. On receiving the RFN, the sender goes into a snooze state. A TCP sender in snooze state will stop sending packets, and will freeze all its variables, such as timers and pending congestion window size. The TCP sender remains in this snooze state until it is notified of the restoration of the route through Route Re-‐establishment Notification (RRN) message. On receiving the RRN, the TCP sender will leave the snooze state and will resume transmission based on the previous sender window and timeout values. To avoid a dead-‐lock scenario in the snooze state, when the TCP sender receives RFN, it triggers a route failure timer. When this timer expires the congestion control algorithm is invoked normally. The authors report an improvement by using TCP-‐F over TCP. The simulation scenario is basic and is not based on an ad hoc network. Instead, they emulate the behavior of an ad hoc network from the viewpoint of a transport layer.
TCP-‐ELFN (Explicit Link Failure Notification)  is similar to TCP-‐F . However in contrast to TCP-‐F, the evaluation of the proposal is based on a real interaction between TCP and the routing protocol. This interaction aims to inform the TCP agent about route failures when they occur. The authors use an ELFN message, which is transported by the route failure message sent by the routing protocol to the sender. The ELFN message is essentially similar to ICMP  Destination Unreachable -‐ Source Route Failed message, which contains the sender, receiver addresses and ports, as well as the TCP packet sequence number. On receiving the ELFN message, the source responds by disabling its retransmission timers and enters a "frozen" state. During the "frozen" period, the TCP sender probes the network to check if the route is restored. If the acknowledgment of
tie probe packet is received, TCP sender leaves the "frozen" mode, resumes its retransmission timers, and continues the normal operations. In the mentioned reference, the authors study the effect of varying the time interval between probe packets. Also, they evaluate the impact of the RTO and the Congestion Window upon restoration of the route. They find that a probe interval of 2 sec. performs the best, and they suggest making this interval a function of the RTT instead of giving it a fixed value.
For the RTO and cwnd values upon route restoration, they find that using the prior values before route failure performs better than initializing cwnd to 1 packet and/or the RTO to 3 sec., the latter value being the initial default value of RTO in TCP Reno and New Reno versions. This technique provides significant enhancements over standard TCP, but further evaluations are still needed. For instance, different routing protocols should be considered other than the reactive protocol DSR , especially proactive protocols such as OLSR . Also, values other than 2 sec. for the probe interval should be checked as well.
Ad-‐Hoc TCP  is implemented as a layer between IP and TCP and manages the operation of TCP. More specifically, it handles non-‐congestion related packet loss, route changes, network partitioning, packet reordering, congestion and congestion window management. Ad-‐hoc TCP works by intercepting packets destined for TCP, inspects them and based on a certain algorithm puts the sender into persist state, congestion control state or retransmit state. When ICMP  Destination Unreachable messages arrive at Ad-‐hoc TCP, it assumes network partitioning and the sender is put into a persist state to halt data transmission while Ad-‐hoc TCP is put into a disconnected state.
The persist state consists of sending periodic probes, which are acknowledged when the network converges and Ad-‐hoc TCP is then put into normal state and removes the sender from the persist state. Ad-‐hoc TCP then also controls the congestion window because the capacity of the new network path is unknown and must be probed. To detect congestion, Ad-‐hoc TCP relies on ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) 
messages. Upon the reception of ECN-‐tagged packets, Ad-‐hoc TCP enters a congested state, lets TCP do its congestion control and ignores duplicate acknowledgements. To separate error loss from congestion loss, Ad-‐hoc TCP counts acknowledgements. When a triple DUPACK has arrived or when the RTO expires, Ad-‐hoc TCP puts the sender into persist mode and itself into loss state. Ad-‐hoc TCP then proceeds by doing retransmissions, while avoiding triggering the congestion control, as packets were not lost because of congestion. When a true acknowledgments arrives, the sender is removed from the persist mode and Ad-‐hoc TCP enters its normal state. The last mechanism also provides resiliency to packet reordering. When packets are reordered enough to normally cause congestion control, Ad-‐hoc TCP intercepts the triple DUPACKs, and puts the sender into the persist state. When acknowledgements for the reordered packets arrive, the sender is brought out of persist state, without invoking congestion control.
TCP-‐BuS (Buffering capability and Sequence information) , like previous proposals, uses the network feedback in order to detect route failure events and to take adequate
reaction to this event. The novel element in this proposal is the introduction of buffering capability in mobile nodes. The authors select the source-‐initiated on-‐demand ABR (Associativity-‐Based Routing)  routing protocol. It employs explicit notifications for route failures and route reestablishment. These messages are called Explicit Route Disconnection Notification (ERDN) and Explicit Route Successful Notification (ERSN). On receiving the ERDN from the node that detected the route failure, called the Pivoting Node (PN), the source stops sending. And similarly after route reestablishment by the PN using a Localized Query (LQ), the PN will transmit the ERSN to the source. On receiving the ERSN, the source resumes data transmission. During the Route ReConstruction (RRC) phase, packets along the path from the source to the PN are buffered. To avoid timeout events during the RRC phase, the retransmission timer value for buffered packets is doubled. As the retransmission timer value is doubled, the lost packets along the path from the source to the PN are not retransmitted until the adjusted retransmission timer expires. To overcome this, an indication is made to the source so that it can retransmit these lost packets selectively. When the route is restored, the destination notifies the source about the lost packets along the path from the PN to the destination. On receiving this notification, the source simply retransmits these lost packets. But the packets buffered along the path from the source to the PN may arrive at the destination earlier than the retransmitted packets. So the destination will reply by duplicate ACK. These unnecessary request packets for fast retransmission are avoided. In order to guarantee the correctness of TCP-‐BuS, the authors propose to transmit reliably the routing control messages ERDN and ERSN. The reliable transmission is done by overhearing the channel after transmitting the control messages. If a node has sent a control message but did not overhear this message relayed during a timeout, it will conclude that the control message is lost and it will retransmit this message. This proposal introduces many new techniques for TCP’s improvement. The novel contributions of this paper are the buffering techniques and the reliable transmission of control messages. In their evaluation, the authors found that TCP-‐BuS outperforms the standard TCP and the TCP-‐F under different conditions.
The evaluation is based only on the ABR routing protocol and different routing protocol should be taken into account.
Split TCP : TCP connections that have large number of hops suffer from frequent route failures due to mobility. To improve the throughput of these connections and to resolve the unfairness problem, the Split TCP scheme was introduced to split long TCP connections into shorter localized segments. The interfacing node between two localized segments is called a proxy. The routing agent decides if its node has the role of proxy according to the inter-‐proxy distance parameter. The proxy intercepts TCP packets, buffers them and acknowledges their receipt to the source (or previous proxy) by sending a local acknowledgment (LACK). A proxy is also responsible for delivering the packets, at an appropriate rate to the next local segment. Upon the receipt of a LACK (from the next proxy or from the final destination), a proxy will purge the packet from its buffer. To ensure the source to destination reliability, an ACK is sent by the
destination to the source similarly to the standard TCP. In fact, this scheme splits also the transport layer functionalities into those end-‐to-‐end reliability and congestion control. This is done by using two transmission windows at the source which are the congestion window and the end-‐to-‐end window. The congestion window is a sub-‐
window of the end-‐to-‐end window. While the congestion window changes in accordance with the rate of arrival of LACKs from the next proxy, the end-‐to-‐end window will change in accordance with the rate of arrival of the end-‐to-‐end ACKs from the destination. At each proxy there would be a congestion window that would govern the rate of sending between proxies. Simulation results show that an inter-‐proxy distance between 3 and 5 hops provides up to 30% improvement on throughput while fairness is maintained. This method has significant drawbacks such as large buffers and network overhead.
Figure 4 – Split TCP’s operation 4.2. Layered solutions
TCP Westwood  is a sender-‐side-‐only modification to TCP New Reno that is intended to better handle large bandwidth-‐delay product paths (large pipes) with potential packet loss due to transmission or other errors (leaky pipes) and with dynamic load (dynamic pipes). TCP Westwood relies on monitoring the ACK stream for information to help it better set the congestion control parameters -‐ Slow Start Threshold (ssthresh) and Congestion Window (cwnd). In TCP Westwood, an "Eligible Rate" is estimated and used by the sender to update ssthresh and cwnd upon loss indication or during its "Agile Probing" phase, a proposed modification to the Slow Start phase. In addition, a scheme called Persistent Non-‐Congestion Detection (PNCD) has been devised to detect persistent lack of congestion and induce an Agile Probing phase to utilize large dynamic bandwidth. Significant efficiency gains can be obtained for large leaky dynamic pipes, while maintaining fairness. TCP Westwood+ is an evolution of TCP Westwood, in fact it was soon discovered that the Westwood bandwidth estimation algorithm did not work well in the presence of reverse traffic due to ACK compression.
TCP-‐Jersey  adopts a similar to TCP Westwood’s idea of estimating the available bandwidth at the sender by observing the rate of the returning ACKs, but uses a rather simple estimator. The bandwidth estimator proposed in TCP-‐Jersey is derived from a time-‐sliding window (TSW) estimator. Intermediate nodes warn sender of congestion by employing the estimator to estimate the bandwidth occupied by individual flows. TCP-‐