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An analysis on the exclusion amongst Afro-Swedes in the Swedish labour market : Its consequences on their feelings of trust and social belongingness


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An analysis on the exclusion amongst Afro-Swedes in the

Swedish labour market - its consequences on their feelings

of trust and social belongingness

Jasmine Osueke

International Migration and Ethnic Relations Level: Bachelor thesis

15 credits Spring 2020


The Colour Line,

Is the Power Line,

Is the Poverty Line.

Asian Dub Foundation, feat A. Sivandan (2000)



This thesis analyses if the exclusion amongst Afro-Swedes in the Swedish labour market has affected their feelings of trust and social belonginess towards swedes and the Swedish society. The method used to reach to a conclusion is semi-structured interviews and a focus-group interview by using the Social Exclusion Theory. The result of the study shows that the feelings of trust and social belonginess among Afro-Swedes has been affected in a negative way due to the labour market exclusion. The first and foremost reason is that their social capital has been affected due to the exclusion in the labour market which in its’ turn has led them to an economic disadvantage affected their social class. As a result this has affected their trust and feeling of belonginess in the sense that they feel that they do not live up to the

standards of being a part of the society, rather it makes them more segregated and continue to label them as ‘the others’.



Afro-Swedes, Labour market, Exclusion, Minority group, Trust and social belonginess

Wordcount: 11408


I want to thank my supervisor for guiding me and advising me through my thesis


I would like to give a special thanks to the participants that participated in the

focus group interview even though we are facing a really difficult situation in

the world at the moment due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Thank you for making

my thesis work possible even while practicing social distancing.

Thanks to the interviewees who made this work become possible:

Thanks to my family that have supported me along the way.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction ... 1

1.2 Topic and research problems ... 1

1.3 Purpose, aim and research question ... 1

1.4 Limitations and delimitation ... 2

1.5 Ethical issues ... 2

1.6 Structure ... 3

Chapter 2 Background ... 3

2.1 Research on afro-swedes ... 3

2.1.2. Significance ... 4

2.3. Objective of the study ... 5

Chapter 3 Theoretical framework and concepts ... 5

3.1 Term: definition and discussions ... 5

3.1.2 Afro-swedes ... 5 3.1.3. Race ... 6 3.1.4. Racism ... 6 3.1.5. Afrophobia ... 6 3.1.6. Segregation ... 7 3.1.7. Colour-blindness ... 7 3.1.8 Trust ... 7 3.1.8. Social belonginess ... 7 3.1.10. Belonginess at work ... 8 3.1.11. The ‘others’ ... 8

3.2 Social exclusion theory ... 9

3.3 Use of the theoretical framework ... 13

Chapter 4 Methodology ... 13

4.1. Material ... 14

4.2 Coding and interpretation of data ... 16

Chapter 5 Empirical analysis ... 17

5.1 Social deprivation ... 18

5.2 Economic disadvantage ... 22

5.3 Democratic disqualification ... 24

Chapter 6 Discussion of result ... 25

Chapter 7 Conclusion ... 27

Bibliography ... 29


Appendix 2. Focus group interview ... 34

Appendix 3. Participants for individual interviews ... 35

Appendix 4. Focus group participants ... 36


List of Abbreviations

DO DiskrimineringsOmbudsmannen [the Swedish Equality Ombudsman] ECRI the European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance

ENAR the European Network Against Racism EU the European Union

FRA the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights IGO Intergovernmental Organization

NGO Non-Governmental Organization

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development SCB Statistiska Central Byrån [Statistics Sweden]

SFI Svenska för Invandrare [Swedish for Immigrants]

SIV Statens Invandrarverk [the Swedish Board of Immigration]

SOU Statens Offentliga Utredningar [Swedish Government’s Official Reports] UN the United Nations

UNAS the United Nations Association in Sweden

UNECE the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe UNGA the United Nations General Assembly


List of Swedish Authorities with Translations

Brottsförebygande rådet (Brå)

[the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention]

Diskriminerings Ombudsmannen (DO)

[the Swedish Equality Ombudsman]

Integrationsverket Not active since June 2007

[the Swedish Integration Board]


[the County Administrative Board]


[the Migration Agency]


[the Swedish Government]


[the Swedish Parliament]


[the Swedish Health and Human Services Department]

Statens Invandrarverk / Invandrarverket (SIV) Not active since July 2000

[the Swedish Board of Immigration]

Statistiska Central Byrån (SCB)



Chapter 1 Introduction

1.2 Topic and research problems

Swedes generally recognize themselves as anti-racists, democratic, equal and tolerant. Furthermore, the Swedish integration policy is based on the colour-blind ideology which basically surrounds the idea of that all humans are equal despite of their ethnic and cultural background, these values are highly prioritised in Sweden and among Swedes (Heinö 2009:303). A central feature in the Swedish integration policy is the access to the labour market which is believed to be colour-blind and rational (Ibid). However, according to a report by the Centre for Multidisciplinary Studies on Racism at Uppsala University, on behalf of the County Administrative Board of Stockholm County ‘Anti Black Racism and

Discrimination in the Labour Market’ the Swedish labour market might not be as colour-blind

and rational as it is claimed to be. The report explains that Afro-Swedes are over-represented in low-status- and low-paying jobs despite their educational achievement (Länstyrelsen, 2018). They highlight that there seems to be a hinderance for Afro-Swedes compared with the rest of the population to get high job positions with higher status and salary that correspond to their educational level. This hinderance prevents Afro-Swedes from progressing in their career even if they have the same or higher qualifications as other candidates (Ibid). In the report, they recommended further research on Afro-swedes. Among many other

recommendations they recommend further investigation on what consequences racism and discrimination have on individuals, with respects to their social life, their physical and mental health, and their feelings of trust and social belonginess.

1.3 Purpose, aim and research question

The purpose of this research is to sensitize and bring understanding to the situation faced by Afro-Swedes in the Swedish societies and labour market. The researcher aims to look deeper at the career and employment opportunities for afro-swedes and to understand the effect these issues have on Afro-Swedes. With the recommendation explained above, this thesis will try to investigate to answer the research questions:


2 • What are the consequences associated with poor-quality work for individuals?

1.4 Limitations and delimitation

The group chosen for this thesis is Afro-Swedes, which is a group per definition found in the Swedish society. That means that there will be a geographical delimitation to Sweden and data from and/or on the Swedish society will be the most appropriate to use. The language can as well be a (de)limitation hence there is a geographical delimitation, most sources will be in Swedish and in some cases English. However, the thesis becomes more trustworthy if the findings from reports, documents and authorities is understood directly by the research hence it removes the risk with translation language biases in the core findings. By choosing to do interviews with Afro-Swedes on this topic, gives the researcher the chance to get primary sourceshence the interviewers get the chance to explain their feelings which will be used as the core findings. The literature will be used as a secondary source and used to explain and understand the interviews. Another limitation may be to find participants for the interviews hence the criteria of the expected interviewers need to have a certain level of education, age and currently being employed. Furthermore, the notions foreign born, African-born and Swedish-born Afro-Swedes has to be acknowledged by both the writer and the reader. Nevertheless, the analytic framework will be used as a tool to gain understating about the broader picture of Afro-Swedes’ feelings on their exclusion in the Swedish labour market and as mentioned earlier, the interviews will be the primary source, other limitations explained above will therefore have a small impact on this research.

1.5 Ethical issues

Hence this study involves interviews, there are ethical issues to be taken into account. First and foremost, the researcher will make sure that any possible harm is eliminated, and the benefits are maximising to both participant and other people. This will be done by not exposing the interviewer to more questions then what is strictly necessary to fulfil the research aims. Their privacy and anonymity will be highly respected. The research will be reviewed carefully and critically to ensure that the results are credible. When doing a research on a minority group, it is highly important to ensure that the researcher does not put the particular group that is being investigated in danger of being stigmatized. Afro-Swedes is


3 therefore a concept deliberated upon very carefully in chapter 2.4.1 Terms: Definition and Discussion.

1.6 Structure

The thesis begins with presenting the research problem and further to explain the purpose of

the research and the research questions, the limitations of the research and any ethical issues.

Chapter two presents previous researches made on Afro-Swedes and the significance the thesis has in the bachelor programme international migration and ethnic relations.

Furthermore, it explains the objective of the study and finally a discussion and definition of

the terms used in the thesis. Chapter three presents the theoretical framework. Chapter four

explains the methodological approach, the focus group, and the implementation of data

collection. Chapter five presents the major findings, followed by chapter six that is analysing

the finding and answering the research questions. Finally, in chapter seven, the thesis is

concluded and recommendations for further research are made. Information regarding the

method and interviews are listed in the appendices.

Chapter 2 Background

2.1 Research on Afro-Swedes

Afro-Swedes is a minority group particularly exposed to variety forms of racism, hate crimes and discrimination in the Swedish society. The committee of the United Nations reported in May 2018 on their concerned about the discrimination against Afro-Swedes and persons of African descent. These reports included hate speech, racist hate crimes, racial profiling, economic segregation, employment and racist depiction in the media among others. (CERD 2018, s. 5) According to a report by the Centre for Multidisciplinary Studies on Racism at Uppsala University, on behalf of the County Administrative Board of Stockholm County

‘Anti Black Racism and Discrimination in the Labour Market’ it is explained that in order for

an Afro-Swede to make the same income as the rest of the population in Sweden with a three year post-secondary school diploma, Afro-Swedes needs to hold a doctoral degree


4 The identification of being black made by the society is according to Hübinette what connects Afro-Swedes which leads to the development of a “black” identity through the interaction and association with the majority society. This normally bring forward a label of Afro-Swedes - a black identity -which in its turn bring forward the fact of their different skin- and hair colour leading to being insulted by racist words and abuse (Hübinette, 2011; Kalonaityte, Kwesa and Tedros 2007). This identification makes the Afro-Swedes vulnerable for Afrophobian hate crimes, racism and discrimination. The discrimination is understood to be happening both in public and private contexts. The term ‘race’ has however been taken out of legislation in Sweden not only in the officially language but also in the discrimination legislation. However, in the report ‘Anti Black Racism and Discrimination in the Labour Market’ they argue that racism those not presume the idea of biological race because they claim race is a result of racism and therefore, racism is not dependent on the term race (Länsstyrelsen, 2018;22). Race in the field of social science is today more or less understood as a social reality that relies on visible differences rather than a biological reality (Bonilla-Silva 1997:473)

2.1.2. Significance

International migration and ethnic relations are concerned to be a multidisciplinary field that investigate matters concerning migration, integration, segregation, discrimination, and culture among many others. The topic of Afro-Swedes’ exclusion in the Swedish labour market and the effect on their lives can be very interesting to be a significance matter of an international migration and ethnic relation researcher for multiple reasons. First and foremost, since the research reflects upon many of the topics that are included in the multidisciplinary field of international migration and ethnic relations; minorities, identity, equality, integration, education, labour market, national policy, discrimination and furthermore look deeper into a minority group based on a mixed global south-north identity. Secondly, there is a necessary research gap to fill: The understanding if the exclusion on the labour market has effected (or not) Afro-Swedes feelings of trust and social belongingness and if it has a negative impact (or not) on their social life, both concerning positive factors such as integration as well negative factors like segregation and discrimination. Finally, the last significance for this research relates to the report by the County Administrative Board of Stockholm County ‘Anti Black


5 researches on how issues of this nature reflects and affects afro-swedes. In a multidisciplinary field as international migration and ethnic relation this topic is well connected to the field in many different and important ways. It can be rewarding to start examining one owns country and highlight a specific situation, before going to another country to examining theirs.

2.3. Objective of the study

It is not a hidden fact that a majority of studies and research done on the minority group Afro-Swedes has concentrated on discrimination and racism. This research will try to cover the research gap on how the feelings of Afro-Swedes have been affected (or not) and to get an understanding and overall picture on whether or not the exclusion on Afro-Swedes in the Swedish labour market has affected their trust towards the country and its citizen in any way, and if that is the case, try to understand how it has affected their social life and belongingness.

Chapter 3 Theoretical framework and concepts

This chapter will briefly define the terms used throughout the thesis and then explain the chosen theoretical framework Social Exclusion and finally explain how it will be used in the analysis.

3.1 Term: definition and discussions

3.1.2 Afro-Swedes

Afro-Swedes are defined by Afrosvenskarnas Riksförbund [the National Association for Afro-swedes] as Swedish inhabitants with any type of African origin (Afrosvenskarna, 2015b). The research includes all people with an origin from Africa living in Sweden. There are no limitations to whether they are born in Sweden or Africa or being the first, second or third generation in Sweden. “To understand a society, we are sometimes forced to see individuals as participants of social collectives that we can compare with each other…” (Johan Heinö, 2012:105f, cited in Brinkemo, 2014:136). Furthermore, when applying a concept such as Afro-Swedes it is important to understand and be aware that Africa is a large continent with a huge diversity between nations, ethnicity, language and other distinctions which the author is fully aware of. In this case – the similarities – is people with African


6 origin, living in Sweden. It is important to bring forward the fact that not everyone is

comfortable with the term Afro-swede therefore it should be used with certain limitations, for example, the term Afro-Swedes can indicate that the author is questioning Afro-Swedes as not being “real” Swedes or that they represent marginal groups in the Swedish literary field (Heith, 52-53). The researcher will in this research use the term Afro-Swede with the purpose of getting an understanding and drawing attention to the situation in which they find

themselves, in a colour-blind society in the Swedish labour market.

3.1.3. Race

Race is a concept that is not discussed in a colour-blind society either in public or private contexts. This does not necessarily mean that the word has ceased to exist completely as an active factor in society and in everyday life. The avoidance of using the word race has made it harder on how to deal with issues in the society and actually solve the social problems when it comes to segregation, discrimination and everyday racism (Hübinette, Hörnfeldt, Farahani & Rosales 2012).

3.1.4. Racism

The identification of being black made by the society is according to Hübinette what connects Afro-Swedes. This develops a “black” identity through the interaction and association with the majority society. Being labelled with a black identity equally bring forward the fact of their different skin- and hair colour which in its turn led to being insulted by racist words and abuse (Hübinette, 2011; Kalonaityte, Kwesa and Tedros 2007). This identification makes this particular minority group especially vulnerable for Afrophobian hate crimes, racism and discrimination both in public and private contexts.

3.1.5. Afrophobia

In a report that was presented in 2014 Afrofobi – en kunskapsöversikt över afrosvenskars

situation I dagens Svergie [Afrophobia – A knowledge overview of the Situation of

Afro-Swedes in Sweden today] the conclusion made was that Afro-Afro-Swedes are most vulnerable to hate crimes in Sweden, highlights the fact of vargdagsrasism [everyday racism] and finally states that the Swedish neglection of race is making the situation indescribable for those exposed to racial discrimination (Mångkulturellt centrum, 2014a:5,7).



3.1.6. Segregation

Despite of how we want to be perceived, our physical body has an impact on how we are treated, considered and responded to. This affects our ability when we choose who we live with, how and where we live, our working place, the school we or our children are in. In the end, it affects our chances of getting a good life (Hübinette, Hörnfeldt, Farahani & Rosales 2012; 45-46). According to the sociologist Margareta Popoola, People of African descent in Sweden are different in relations to the other population because of their skin colour. Due to their darker skin colour they will always carry a stigma that differentiate them from the white and major population (Popoola, 1998:16).

3.1.7. Colour-blindness

Colour-blindness is a sociologic concept based on the ideology that the state and public institutions should treat all humans equal no matter of their race, ethnicity, religion, language and cultural belonginess. Both in Sweden and internationally, political libertarians have the tendency to defend the colour-blind state based of notions that non-colour-blind states is at risk to undermining individual rights, meanwhile anti-racist academics and left wing

politicians mostly defend the colour-blind ideology based on an confusion of how they think society should be and what it actually is in reality (Johansson-Heinö 2012).

3.1.8 Trust

According to Larsen (2013) social cohesion can be explained as a shared belief among the country’s citizens in a nation state that they uphold a moral society which authorize them to trust each other. Furthermore, Larsen explains that Sweden went from being a country with high-trust to an extremely high-trust country. The explanation to this, is according to Larsen, because the majority of Swedes had a shared belief about the fact that most Swedish citizens belonged to ‘the middle’ rather than to ‘the bottom’ or to ‘the top’ of the society (Larsen, 2013).


8 As humans, the sense of connectedness and belonginess beings to arise during youthhood and continues throughout an individual’s adult life. The maturing self, with successfully

maintained friendship and attachment to self-object and without any threat to self-esteem, can feel comfortable and self-confident in a larger social context than family or friends. This sense of connection makes people to maintain feelings of being "human among people" and identify with those who may be perceived as different from themselves. An individual that has to struggle to feel connected will also begin to feel different and distance him or herself from other people. The individual might try to relate to others but become frustrated or

disappointed by the failure of others to understand him or her. In extreme cases, the person can distance himself from society and live an antisocial life. During the development of belonginess frustration can have a huge effect on the individual ability to live a functionate life. At any point in developing belonginess, empathic failures or trauma can cause the person to regress to past forms of functioning to compensate for the deep lack of belonging.

Belonginess has been proven to improve social satisfaction, well-being and improving loneliness and finally to enhance leisure experiences (Kohut, 1984, cited in Lee & Robbins, 1995).

3.1.10. Belonginess at work

Mark and Smith (2012) explains belonginess as a feeling of security and being supported and accepted at one’s workplace. Previous studies have shown a significant conclusive

relationship between belonginess and work satisfaction (Spehar et al., 2016; Lynch et al., 2005). Moreover, the sense of belonginess accomplishes the psychological needs of an

individual and healthy social relationship has a huge roll of the employee’s overall well-being (Baumeister and Leary, 1995; Spehar et al., 2016).

3.1.11. The ‘others’

According to Yuval-Davis (1997) the Other is a group of people that comes from a different stock and can be viewed as a “odd” group of people, it can variety e.g. from immigrants to sexual minorities. A black person, someone that is homosexual, or someone who speaks differently. Furthermore, she highlights that the image of the others and the how to treat them


9 can be found in cultural traditions, collective memories or just with ‘common sense’ (Yuval-Davis, 1997).

3.2 Social exclusion theory

The term social exclusion originated in France during the 1970s to raise awareness to persons that were unprotected by social insurance and whom were at risk of being permanently separated from the society (Sen, 2000). The term Social Exclusion became more usual to use in Europe during the 1980s when the unemployment rate raised and became a threat to the national models of social integration (Kronauer, 1998). In 2010 the European Union (EU) declared as the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion. In April 2017, the European Pillar of Social right was established by the European Union Commission. The Pillar of Social Rights set out 20 key principles and rights in order to bring a supportive and renewed process for a better living and greater working conditions. The Pillars was structured under three categories, firstly equal opportunities and assess to the labour market, secondly, fair working conditions, and thirdly social protection and inclusion.

Chapter 1: equal opportunities and access to the labour market describes the first four principles; Education, training and life-long learning which basically explains that everyone has the right to quality and inclusive education which will acquire them with skills to be able

to fully participate in the society and labour market. The second principles describe gender

equality in both treatment and opportunities between men and women in all areas, even in the

labour market as well as in the right to equal pay. The third principle explains the right to

equal opportunities regarding employment, social protection, education and access to goods and services that are available to the public, regardless of gender, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. Chapter five: fair working conditions describes the fifth principle secure and adaptable employment which explains that regardless of the type and duration of the employment relationship, workers do have the right to fair and equal treatment in relation to working conditions, the access to social protection and training.

In November 2017, there was a Social Summit in Gothenburg whereby the Parliament, the council and the Commission raised awareness to their shared commitment by implementing a shared declaration on the European Pillar of Social Rights. Included in the implementation of the pillars is access to social protection and work-life balance as well as the right of workers to information and consultation (European Union). The meaning of the term social exclusion


10 has had a huge expanding since the 1970s and has now included all individuals and groups that are wholly or partly prevented from participating in a society or in various aspects of cultural and community life (ibid).

According to Andre (2003) Social exclusion can be viewed as a dynamic process in which involves social deprivation surrounding a range of dimensions that affects an individuals’ opportunities to have a connection with the mainstream society. Furthermore, he explains exclusion from a society as disadvantages in living conditions such as housing, income, education, employment, and well-being which leads to reducing the possibility of maintaining an appropriate standard of living and social participation (ibid). Sen (1985) claims that social exclusion is not only a resolute by a financial situation but rather by the individuals’ feelings of belonging to the society. Sen highlights that the conditions and values that define social integration variate differently by different individuals, therefore, becomes of huge importance of allowing the individual to shape his or her life according to the individual ideas and aims in order for he or she to feel that they are a part of the society and to partake in different social activities of his or her on choice. This is also because of the fact that social integration relies on the individual’s capacity to act but also on an individual’s actual actions (Sen, 1985). The feeling of social integration can be influenced by common life satisfaction, mental health status as well as in an individual’s social surroundings and though their position in the society. However, according to Popp & Schels (2008) the feeling of social integration might as well depend on their personal qualities – such as self-efficacy. Their self-efficacy could be evident to help them to cope with multiple deprivation (Popp and Schels, 2008).

According to a rapport Social Exclusion: Meaning, Measurement and Experience and Links to

Health Inequalities: A Review of Literature, by Social Exclusion Knowledge Network,

Commission on Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization the Social exclusion concept brings forward an understanding to the relationship between the processes driving inequality, power relationships and agency, and the magnitudes of disadvantage and deprivation. Furthermore, it explains that social deprivation, economic disadvantage and, democratic disqualification is interrelated and equally reinforcing, all with a clear scoop of a predominant phenomenon of social exclusion.



Social Exclusion Meaning, measurement and experience and links to health inequalities A review of literature

Mathieson, J, Popay, J, Enoch, E, Escorel, S, Hernandez, M, Johnston H, and Rispel, L, 2008;63

According to the World Health Organisation the yellow column in the left explains the socioeconomic and political context, including: the labour market, the educational system, religion, and cultural systems and political institutions. These categorise arise pattern of social structure based on the different access to economic status, power, and prestige which is presented in the red column as causes of social inequities. Furthermore, it explains income levels, education, occupation status, gender, race/ethnicity, and other factors to be

substitutional indicators of the different social positions. Finally, based on the socioeconomic position individuals and groups are shown to experience differences in the exposure and vulnerability to health-compromising conditions. One’s individual socioeconomic position determines the level of exposures and the level of vulnerability. Depending on the factor in which the social inequalities generate determines the health inequalities (WHO, 2008).


12 According to Putnam, social deprivation can be understood partly as a systemic denial of social capital. This means that they alienate themselves from the social networks that improve their daily life through norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness which are differently

designed and obtainable depending on race, gender, and class. The concept social capital can be explained as links, shared values and bringing understanding in a society in which enables individuals and groups to trust each other and work together (Putnam, 2000). According to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) social capital is defined as a network with shared norms, values and understandings that enables co-operation within or among groups. Furthermore, in the definition they explain networks as real-world links between groups or individuals in ways such as of friends, family, and colleagues among many others. They explain a societies’ shared norms, values, and understandings is less concrete than our social networks. However, the values in a society are subject to criticism. People often question whether their principles are evolving or inconstant; However principles like respect for peoples life and wellbeing are of paramount importance in every society, these networks give rise to trust and give the conducive environment and atmosphere for people to work together. OECD also highlight that there are different varieties of social capital that can be explained in three main categories: Bonds – which can be explained as the link to people dependent on a sense of common identity, in other words, people who are just like ‘us’ – family, close friends and people that share the same culture or ethnicity. The second one is

bridges: Links that reaches beyond a share identity such as distant friends and colleagues.

Finally, the linkages which is based on the links to people or groups which belongs to

different stages on the social ladder. Furthermore, they highlight the benefits that is connected to the social capital by social bonds – economically, emotionally, and socially. The OECD explains that bonds does not always have to be positive rather in some cases it can turn out to become a hinderance for people too. By a hinderance they mean that a tightly joined

community, for example immigrant groups who share the same ethnicity and have strong social bonds with can lead them to turn into eternal outsider from the wider society due to lack of social bridges which in its turn can hinder them from economic progress. However, they also highlight that social exclusion can works both ways, the immigrant group may exclude themselves, but they can also be excluded by the wider community (OECD, 2018).

Economic disadvantage

Economic disadvantage can be explained as specifically restrictions on how groups of people are given the ability to partake as workers, consumers, and owners. The economic


13 disadvantage can be explained by the individuals’ employment status, their income or if the individual has a low wage. An economic disadvantage in the aspect of social exclusion may affect the individuals’ health by the fact of disrespects, degradation, devaluation,

criticism/mocking, and stigma that the excluded people feel. The causes of social exclusion also determine the reactions towards the exclusion. Economic exclusion that depends on one’s identity may demand for recognition and respect (Lioz, 2015).

Democratic disqualification

Democratic disqualification specifies the limitations of certain citizens ability to have an equal expression in decisions of the nation or community. The involved rules that governs the magnitudes of social exclusion are enforced though law, government policies, informal practices. Together, these different dimensions strengthen each other (Lioz, 2015).

3.3 Use of the theoretical framework

The theoretical framework social exclusion provides and contributes to the conceptualization of belonginess to society in various forms, from a social, economic, and democratic view, and its result and consequences. This research will try to describe whether if the feelings of trust and social belonginess amongst Afro-Swedes has been affected due to the exclusion amongst them in the Swedish labour market by using the terminology of social deprivation, economic disadvantage, and democratic disqualification, and furthermore, through that view, discuss the results. It is known to the research that there are underlying assumptions to the terminology social deprivation, economic disadvantage, and democratic disqualification; However, it could be useful as a tool in order to understand the feelings and experiences of Afro-Swedes. Moreover, in a research discussion, precautions should be taken on some of the underlying presumptions of the basics of some terminologies and they should be used in an academic research to allow it to be assimilated in many ways.


14 This research is a qualitative study collecting empirical data to understand the situation Afro-Swedes face in the Swedish labour market and its consequences on their social life. The result of the analysis of the data will be presented though individual semi-structed interviews with seven participants and a semi-structed focus-group interview with another five participants. The method of Semi-structure interviews will be use hence it gives the informant the opportunity to express themselves with their own words (Valentine, 2005). The method follows a general guideline and invites a broader aspect of discussion and answers (Bernard, 2002). The method of axial coding was used to interpret the result of the thesis. The coding was shared into to levels 1) a main-level constituting the codes based on the three different categories within the analytic framework 2) a sub-level of codes which help discovers the patterns and themes within the main codes (See appendix 4). The qualitative research method is mainly chosen because it gives the researcher the possibility to gain a deeper understanding but also because this method highlights the importance to do participant observations “though an eye of the local” (Bryman, 2004; 338), which gives the researcher a more whereabout in the individual cases rather than in a generalization perspective. It also gives the ability to get a reliable result without collecting a large amount of data (Bryman, 2004; Clark, 2005).

4.1. Material

The primary data was collected by interviews. The purpose with the interviews is to ensure that the relevant contexts are brought into focus that is why the semi-structure interview were to be considered as a method for the interview, creating a interactional exchange of dialogue, potentially open-ended but yet structured and directed (David, 2008). The aim was to create interviews with men and women who are currently active in the Swedish labour market in order to get a better understanding on the effects of exclusion amongst the Afro-Swedes in the Swedish labour market. The individual interviews were supposed to be held face to face but due to the unfortunate Covid-19 pandemic and the restriction around it, the interviews had to take a switch and be held digital instead. The individual interviews were held on skype with all participants. The interviews were audiotaped. However, according to Silverman,

interviews that are being audiotaped can be weakened if the interviewer fails to note

obviously trivial, overlaps him/herself with the person being interviewed or by missing body movement. This could lead to a weaken reliability of interpretation (Silverman, 2006;48). However, this was considered by the author throughout the interviews.


15 However, the focus group interview were held face to face even though Covid-19 was still active, most of the participants knew each other and had knowledge about who the

interviewer were, all participants were comfortable and agreed to have it face to face, still following the governments restrictions due to the Covid-19 situation. The interview was held outside, in the interviewers’ backyard. A focus group is a small group-based interview were the discussion amongst the participants is focused on a particular issue or area of research, that is guided by a group facilitator (Wilkinson, 2006). The group facilitator has to arouse interaction between the participants in order to get the participants to discuss, debate, agree and disagree with each other to be able to create a lively and interactive discussion

(Wilkinson, 2006). The focus group interview in the case of this study will be conducted with five participants. The reason of why the method of focus group was chosen was to capture their experiences and views regarding their feelings of what they are facing in the Swedish labour market and if/how this have affected their social belongingness and trust. The

researchers aim with the focus group was to gather Afro-Swedes that are obtaining the same issue on the Swedish labour market with the hope that they might feel more comfortable discussing it together rather than with ‘a white person’ that could be mistaken for not understanding what they feel. According to Neuman (2006) the focus group is strategy for qualitative data collection that offer the researcher a relatively natural context for interviews. It gives the interviewers a chance to discuss with each other as well as with the interviewer (Neuman, 2006). Another reason was to be able to approach the research area from various perspectives. Unlike individual interviews the focus group interview is designed to bring forward different perspectives on a given topic. Moreover, the interview becomes less directive (Hennink, 2007). The focus group was led by the researcher which ensured that the group discussions remained focused on the research area.

The primary stakeholders were Afro-Swedes’ living in Sweden in the age range of 30-65. By the age of 30 it is possible to have attained a post-secondary school diploma and also have had a few years working experience, that is why 30 as a lowest age was chosen for the

interviewees. The participants of interest will be those who have at least a post-secondary school diploma and that are currently employed. This measure is decided due to understand if afro-swedes that are currently employed, are satisfied with the positions at work, and if they feel they work in a position that they are qualified to have, or even within their field of education. Effort was done to make the respondents as mixed as possible when it comes to


16 gender and occupation. There was certain measures taken in order to get in touch with the respondents, the first and foremost was by contacting the Afro-Swedes organisations in Sweden, such as Afro-svenskarnas Forum för Rättvisa [Forum for Justice for Afro-Swedes] and Afrosvenskarnas riksorganisation Riksförbund [the National Association for Afro-Swedes] and ask for permission to post a request on their social media to see if there is anyone who would be interested to be a participant. The second option is to use the snowball technique (David, 2008). The researcher held seven individual interviews as well as a focus group interview with five participants. A list of the respondents and their major features in appendix three. Before any interview was hold, the respondents were informed about the purpose of the research, the ethical consideration concerning their anonymity and furthermore the option to not answer questions they felt uncomfortable answering and to regulate the time of the interview or discontinue the interview.

Sources such as academic articles, articles, institutional reports and documents produced by Swedish and European organisations and NGOs’, documentaries and books were used to understand and discuss the terms and concepts used in this research.

4.2 Coding and interpretation of data

The choices of method have been deliberated carefully. Hence the aim of the research is to understand the effect the exclusion among the afro-swedes in the Swedish labour market has on their feeling of trust and social belonginess, it was important to understand the situation from the individual perspective in order to reach a result on if there is a shared believe and experience among the participant. In order to get a validated result of the research, it has to involve the Afro-Swedes knowledge, perceptions and interests. Therefore, the analyses of this research will be based on data produced throughout semi-structured interviews. The questions were developed according to three thematic themes which were also presented in the theory section. In the book by Moses and Knutsen (2012) they argue that those that are at one and the same time aware of their own conditionality being open to the occasion by conditions of radical inequality. Furthermore, that interpretations are a way to explain and understand the way the subject might recognize himself or herself, his/her meaning and actions (Moses & Knutsen, 2012). The interviews were coded with the axial coding method. The coding was shared into to levels 1) a main-level constituting the codes based on the three different


17 categories within the analytic framework 2) a sub-level of codes which help discovers the patterns and themes within the main codes (See appendix 4). Even though the coding categories came from the theory the coding were developed and established throughout the research as a result from the interviews and the coding-process itself. The first level 1) social deprivation which discuss the reduction or prevention of an interaction between an individual and the rest of the society, 2) economic disadvantage which further explains the consequences of the social deprivation 3) democratic disqualification which specifies the limitations of certain citizens ability to have an equal expression in decisions of the nation or community, these categories were used to form the interview questions and furthermore, used as a guideline throughout the research. The Second level of coding were used based on the

findings during the interviews. The coding was used to identify if there is a shared believe and experience among the participant (Charmaz, 2000, Mikkelsen, 2005). Moses and Knutsen explains that every research tool, like in this research would be interviews is involved to particular versions of the world and to knowing and understanding that world. These methods are used to understand the intended purpose. No method that is used in a researched is self-validating rather an instrument to make research in the world traceable to examine, still, dependent on an epistemological justification (Moses & Knutsen, 2012). Constructivism is a term which helps identify the basic principles; that reality is socially constructed. The constructivist perspective could be described as something that is changeable though the knowledge and human mind. Furthermore, the constructivist perspective recognizes that there is no such thing as knowledge in “the world” independent of the knower, but only knowledge we construct for ourselves as we learn. The perspective includes both how people learn and to the nature of knowledge (Moses & Knutsen, 2012).

Chapter 5 Empirical analysis

The following chapter presents the major findings of the research and is the part of the thesis where the research question is answered in an analytic way with the help of the major

findings. The findings are coded according to the main factors that contribute to social belonginess and trust based on the three main aspects of the social exclusion theory. The findings are grounded on the semi-structured interviews and the focus group interview.



Social Exclusion, Race and the Experiences of a Minority Ethnic Group

5.1 Social deprivation

According to the interviews that were gotten from those involved in this research it is recorded that social deprivation has a lot of socio- psychological effects in their lives in several ways. One of the problem that was common for all participants were that social deprivation has posed a poor quality of life, segregation, and isolation from the Swedes in the majority of the Swedish population which was noticed among all seven Afro-Swedes that were interviewed. Out of seven, only two of the participants said to have what they called,

better positions at their workplaces. One of the participants mentioned: “It took me 12 years to get a job that is more related to my academic field and has a higher status then that of cleaning jobs and dishwashing jobs.” (Jeff) Yet they said they were overqualified for the

position. The meaning of better positions according to them, was the fact that they were not working as cleaners or dishwashers. They mentioned that the majority of Afro-Swedes that they know, even those with university master’s degree in Sweden were mainly working in cleaning companies or dishwashers at hotels and restaurants. In other words, they have low-standards jobs.

“ I have my bachelor degree from my home country and ever since I got familiar with the Swedish language 12 years ago I have been apply for a job within my academic field of behavioural science but I did not really succeed until I decided to do a master degree in here in Sweden. Once I finished my master’s degree, it took two months and I got a job related to my bachelor’s degree in behavioural sciences. My master’s degree from Malmö University was not in any way related to the working position I got as a stödpedagog (support educator) for young people with disabilities” (Jeff)

Amongst the five participants in the focus group interview, five of them had their master’s degree done in Sweden while four of them had their bachelor’s degree done in their home countries in the sub Saharan Africa and the fifth one had his entire education done in Sweden. They all explained a similar pattern: four of them had been working as dishwashers or

cleaners but once they got a master degree from a university in Sweden they felt that they became more attractive on the Swedish labour market, three of them were still not working within their academic field rather still remained with the cleaning and dishwashing jobs. Being more attractive on the labour market was explained as that at least it became easier for


19 them to get a job. However, still remaining in the low-status range. They felt that Swedes were unsure and had a lack of trust towards their degree from their home country even if it had been translated, which four of them had made, with the help of Universitets- och högskolerådet, (UHR) the university and college council. Why there is an insurance among employers due to their foreign education was one issue that they five participants did not understand, hence they were not even going to work within the field of education but rather as cleaners. One of the participants thought that maybe a foreign degree could bring feelings of uncertainty of the employees’ capability to work. Furthermore, they discussed the “reaction” when they walked into an interview as a black person. “I had my last name changed to Olsson

which is my mother’s maiden name because I felt that I were not called for even an interview with my previous last name. Once I changed my last name, I found out I became more

attractive to most of the job I applied, which was within mostly within restaurants and waitress jobs. During the phone call they could not judge me based on my skin colour and most of the calls were very pleasant, however I could see the chock on their faces when I walked into the interview room. I was not who they expected me to be.” (Dan). Majority of the

participants and the focus group felt that one of the explanations to why Afro-Swedes are over-represented in low status jobs is their skin colour. Three out of five in the focus group and five out of seven among the interviewers all said they were assigned lower positions and explained that it took a lot more effort and hard work for them to upgrade themselves at work to a higher position. Many of them had stand by and watched other people who came in new at their workplaces and just after a short time they were able to upgrade themselves and became managers and got higher wages and positions because they bonded with the boss. The feelings among the participants in the focus group interview were more or less different when discussing the ability to grow in their workplaces and how it felt watching newcomers to grow way beyond themselves. The discussion commuted between “I do not really think much about

it or allow myself to be brought down because of it, I know I do not belong here” and “it is my right as a human being to be fairly treated and giving the same opportunities as others in the country, I should not have to be mistreated and not be able to invest in my future because they have assumptions of who I am or more definite because I have a different skin colour”.

This specific topic lead to a very intense discussion with a lot of disagreement, changing of tones and body languages between the focus group participants, mainly because of the two very different views and feelings. Putman (2000) explained that social deprivation partly can be understood as a systemic denial of social capital which leads to a less privileged social network. The social network plays huge role of being a part of the society and helps improve


20 one’s daily life though norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness. The intense discussion with the focus group obviously proved that being denied growing at your workplace creates a larger distance between ‘us’ and ‘them’. The participant that felt that they do not belong here and had the attitude of ‘I will not allow them to bring me down’ did as well express that she/he will distance themselves from “those kind of people”. Previous studies have shown a

significant conclusive relationship between belonginess and work satisfaction (Spehar et al., 2016; Lynch et al., 2005). Moreover, the sense of belonginess accomplishes the psychological needs of an individual and healthy social relationship has a huge roll of the employee’s

overall well-being (Baumeister and Leary, 1995; Spehar et al., 2016). As a conclusion of the intense discussion it was obvious that they participants agreed on being unfairly treated and giving less opportunities to grow contributes to a lesser social network and continues to deprive Afro-Swedes to having the sense of belonginess.

Out of seven, six participants felt that they were Judged before they get to know me in which they explain as understanding that swedes felt the fair of the unknown. Mark and Smith (2012) explains belonginess as a feeling of security and being supported and accepted at one’s

workplace. In the interview one participant mentioned “In most of my experience, Swedes are

always restricted towards me, both in ways of communication but it also shows in their body languages that they feel uncomfortable. Once they really get to know me and see who I really I am and forget about my skin colour I can see that those restriction are changing and they become more openminded to what I actually can do” (John).

“There is lack of trust, and I think it is because of history, the history that is known by whites about black. I once went for an interview for a job within my own field of education, I got a question about explaining how to do a certain assignment within that field, I explained that I took my bachelor degree in my home country back in Africa and I could immediately see the uncomfortably in the interviewers eyes, I explained they assignment, how we were taught and what the results became. The interview ended shortly after that and I didn’t hear from them again.” (Sarah) In the same way, many of the participants explained that they felt that they

are still struggling to free themselves from the negative legacies of their colonial past. Some of the participants believe that due to the history of black -people, or at least, what Swedes think they know about black people, it has made them to become stereotyped and kind of stigmatized because of their darker skin. All of the participants both in the individual


21 a general low view on Africa and furthermore on Africans or people or African decent as people of low-status and more or less uncapable of succeeding in life. Many explained that once their colleague at work got to know them on a more basic level, or saw that there actually had knowledge and could be a liability at their work placed, they could also see and feel that the view upon them changed a little bit, yet there will always be a sort of restriction.

“I felt uncomfortable at first, I could feel being judged. However, it is not unusual or new to me. I have more or less become use to it being a part of my life. Once I had worked there for some time and my colleagues could see that I am not that much different from them apart from my skin colour, we became friends even outside of the workplace. I remember one incident: we went to the beach along with our families and I was playing with the kids and all of the sudden my workmates wife said ‘you are kind of familiar to be a black man’.” (Chris)

Successfully maintained friendships without any threat to self-esteem can bring comfortability and self-confident in a lager social context than family or close friends. Feeling a sense of connection makes individuals to maintain the feeling of being human among other people alongside make them to be able to identify with those who may be different from themselves. The contradiction to that, that is if an individual have to struggle to feel connected to the mainstream there is a chance that he or she might begin to distance him and herself from other people, different from themselves. The individual might try to relate to others, but the lack of understanding of others towards him or her can turn into frustration or disappointments. A belonginess frustration can have a huge effect on the individual’s ability to live a functionate life. “At some point you just reach to the point where you just do not care anymore. Being

different, stigmatized and social not accepted, is of course frustrated, but once we give up, we become useless to ourselves, and at the end of the day is only us that will lose.” (Chris)

Belonginess has proven to have a huge improve of social satisfaction, well-being and to enhance social experiences.

Due the meaningful activity, social contact, and to avoid financial activity, employment is a powerful tool in life. Discrimination and racism at work can result in stress and a low self-efficacy for the employed person. Discrimination can take form in many different ways; limited promotion prospects, failed to perform because the objectives are unreachable, among many others. Social deprivation sets out your social capital. “Being excluded from the labour

market removes your trust towards the country. Why should we not have the same

opportunities as everyone else? Why is our skin-colour such an issue for the white people?” (Gloria). Social capital according to Wacquant (1992), the informal social capital plays a


22 huge roll in once health and prosperity. Ingenious social ties are grounded on interpersonal networks conversation, trust, and obligations (Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992).

“The fact that we cannot live up to the standards that we should actually be capable of, drives us away from the Swedes. It draws a line between us and them and automatically turns us in the become the “others”, the weird and the different. We will always remain the stigmatized group because our colour will never be able to hide, not that that’s what we want, but it also means that we will always be labelled.” (Julian)

The social capital was another discussion in the focus group that aroused a lot of feelings. Being excluded on the labour market has a huge impact on the bridges and linkage in life that is supposed to reach and be linked to colleagues and people beyond those with whom you share a common identity with and which belongs to different stages on the social ladder. To be excluded from the labour market does not only deprive you of your self-efficiency but reduces the willingness and strength to involve yourself with swedes, mainly cause you know that you cannot (unless by luck) reach to their level of work, housing and income.

5.2 Economic disadvantage

“Where do we draw the poverty line? We might belong to the middle-class because we have a job, we can pay our house rent and buy our food. But the fact that you have spent years in school, to the extent that you read a master’s degree and yet you have to clean other people’s toilet, is really frustrating and insulting. How are we supposed to feel as a part of the society when we are constantly seen as the “others” and the less privileged? I would have bought the idea that you work as a cleaner while you are studying and even for some time after you finished your studies while applying for jobs within your academic field, but for the fact that most afro-swedes get stocked there for years and years and cannot grow becomes really problematic and without a doubt arouses feeling towards the whites.”

All participants agreed on that it does not really matter within which area of academic field you belong as an Afro-swedes, the fact that you are excluded from the labour market is a constant fact. Whether you are an engineer, nurse, psychologist, or teacher you will always be the last option chosen. If you are chosen, you will be given a lower position. The participants


23 once again describe it as swedes lacks trust in afro-swedes capability to complete or handle their duties and assignment at work correctly. When discussion the concept of economic disadvantage the explanation above stands a straight. “of course, if we are assigned the

lowest positions or assignment it will also tell on our wages. You simply would not pay a cleaner the same wage as you pay a teacher. So, by struggling to work our self’s up and get a job within our academic field (which normally take years) we are placed in an economic disadvantage.”

The economic disadvantage does not only make them unhappy at work but in life in general. It brings feelings of worthlessness and sense of being miserable. “At the same time, I do not

blame the Swedes, I do not belong here, it is not my country. I caused this to myself by leaving my own home country.” In the focus group interview the job opportunity was also discussion

in a way to understand if there was any difference between men and women. It was obvious that women felt that it was harder for them to integrate into the Swedish society, which also meant that it became harder from them to get into the labour market (note: till in the low-status jobs). Even the men in the focus group agreed unto that fact. However, when it comes to higher positions or high-status jobs, they felt that the chances became the same for both men and women.

The fact that Afro-Swedes are over-represented in lower positions and lower status jobs does lead them to an economic disadvantage (Länstyrelsen, 2018). Low status jobs also mean low wages. The position you have at work is described by the participant to determined what position you get in the society (social class) which in it is turn leads to effecting your life in many ways; where you live, with whom you socialize with, which school you places your children in and so many other aspects. In its’ whole, it determines your social class, your social capital and moreover your social network.

“being excluded from the labour market, in some way make you feel useless, that you cannot provide for yourself, even if you have a house and are able to put food on the table daily. The feeling of uselessness can be explained as a feeling of not being able to get a job within your academic field making you to doubt yourself in so many ways, even if I deep in my mind know that it has nothing to do with what I am actually capable of doing, rather it is because of my skin-colour”



5.3 Democratic disqualification

Social exclusion can be explained as something that is enforced though law, government policies and informal practices. This can be explained e.g. though the removal of the term race. Most of the participants felt that the removal of the term has complicated discrimination at ones’ workplace. They expressed that it has made it more difficult to prove inequalities and bulling that are cause due their race. However, the participants in the focus group did not reach to an agreement when it came to whether or not the term race makes any differ in their situation. Three of the participants felt that it did not make any difference if their skin-color where recognised as race or ethnicity, while others meant that ethnicity is linked with culture and identification and not by skin-color. Furthermore, the discussion continued to the subject of equal opportunities regarding employment regardless of racial or ethnic origin whereby the participants in the focus group felt that there is a gap in the judicial system that need to be take into consideration by the Swedish government. The participants all agreed that the issue of discrimination on the labour market due to their black skin is not new to Sweden and therefore, they expressed a huge disappointment on the fact that nothing had been done to stop the discrimination in the labour market and furthermore, to understand what

consequences it has to pretend being a country of colour-blindness while confessing that there is a huge discrimination going on. With that said, it draws us back to the European Pillars of Social rights which among others was structured to bring forward equal opportunities and asses to the labour market and equal opportunities regarding employment regardless of racial or ethnic origin. The result from the interviews proves that this is not really the case when discussing a minority group such as Afro-Swedes. Democratic disqualification was explained in the social exclusion theory as a limitations of certain citizens ability to equal expression in decisions of the nation or community. In the focus group interview, the concept

colour-blindness was discussed. All participant agreed on that Sweden as a country do see colour,

and at must time, they see colour as a hinderance. The discussion involved a lot of feelings and at some point, even anger. One said that, due to the concept of colour-blindness in which the Swedish state really believe they practise, it makes it harder for afro-swedes to raise awareness of issues of racism and discrimination, both in the labour market but also in our personal life. The fact that there is a lack of understanding from the Swedish policies when it comes to concepts such as colour-blindness and the word race, created a lack of institutional trust amongst Afro-Swedes.



Chapter 6 Discussion of result

When discussing a concept such a social deprivation it was obvious that the interviewers felt excluded from the majority population in Sweden. Andre (2003) explained that social exclusion can be viewed as a dynamic process of having a connection with the mainstream society (Andre, 2003). According to Bryne (2000) in explaining the nature of the term social exclusion, he clearly states that it is a part of the social structure rather than individual characteristics as opined by the underclass theorists. Viet-Wilson (cited in Bryne, 2000) also made a salient difference between the strong and weak part of the term, which is very important in the development of important intervention rules. The weak version centres on refusal to accept those considered to have features that inhibits them from being united or unsegregated into the society. In reference to this race or the experiences of the minority ethnic divisions, this weak focus has place excessive emphasis on the cultural features of the minorities to explain exclusion. (Arshad, 2001; Landon,2001).

However, it is paramount to mention that in interview results that was collected, it is evident that the three varieties of the social capital were highly influential in the lives of the Afro-Swedes living in Sweden which are: bonds ,bridges and linkages. On one hand it may play a major positive role in enhancing their life pattern while in the other hand it might be a hinderance. Majority of the participants of the interviewed said to be tied down in one bond or the other, in regard to this it might result in many Afro-Swedes tend to cling to their towns men, family members, and most especially people whom they believe they share the same identity and culture with, solely because they believe they will understand them better, they believe that they have a common culture together and also that since they are somehow alienated from the society the last option is to cling to those whom they believe as their own. However, this bond created out of social alienation might look good if not critically observed and examined, but in a society like Sweden it might have other issues attached to it. From the investigation of this research it’s obvious to see that when one has alienated himself or herself from the society and cling to his family or town members because of same culture or same language and believing they will have more help from them and be treated better and accepted for who they are, it make both parties to lose out in vital social life pattern and advantages attached to knowing how the system really works and how the culture of the society around them evolve and work. If they only cling on themselves, they will be blindfolded from how the society itself is and will be living backwards without adding a value to the social life in


26 the society. However, there is no denial that the gratification gotten from the bond necessarily does not totally fill in the gap and the loophole of alienation from the Swedish society rather it heightens the problem in time to come in future because they will be left out in the society, and will hinder their social status from growing and will be seen like foreigners at the end of the day. In the same way, bridges can turn them into eternal outsiders from the wider society. However, according to the interviewers that is not the case for Afro-Swedes. They explain themselves as social, educational, and integrated, that want to be a part of the society but are being excluded by the Swedes. Mainly because they are been seen as the “others”.

It is not a deniable fact that family and community backgrounds play a vital role with regards to factors like human capital investments and individual ability in determining the

individual’s potentials and achievements. Therefore, a vital part of racial inequality in this sense comes from the way geographic and social alienation along racial lines which is promoted by the stigmatized and condemned status of blacks, hinders the growth of their full human potential. In other words, social connectivity and an overlong of historical influences interconnect to form the chance and opportunities and shape the prospects of the individual. In social life, everything that is of utmost importance has an informal dimension: Thus the luck ,talent and the effort of an individual are very important and also the achievement of a person also results from the social background, cultural association and communal linkage to which he or she is part of.

As mentioned earlier, economic disadvantage can be described as restrictions on how a group of people are given the ability to participate as for the case of swedes, workers. Afro-Swedes does face an economic disadvantage as explained by Lioz (2015) by the individuals’ employment status and his or she low income. Majority of the participants in both the

personal interviews and the focus group interview explained that they do not work within their academic field and most of them worked within what is defined as the ‘low-status’ labour market. In its eternal it means that they also have a lower income. Obviously, the economic disadvantage has affected Afro-Swedes feeling of social belonginess in the sense that the feel segregated, devaluated, and mocked. The discussion on social exclusion tends to surrender around the economic and social integration with not much said about the political exclusion. The deprivation of power of the socially excluded groups and individuals have resulted them to have their social and economic needs not being satisfied and not being met. While reviewing what one of the participants of the interview said “due to the concept of


Figure 1. Diagram over the axial coding and the codes used in this research. (The Black colour  emphasizes the three main categories from the theoretical framework)


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