Detection of fires in the toilet compartment and driver sleeping compartment of buses and coaches : Installation considerations based on full scale tests

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Detection

of

fires

in

the

toilet

compartment

and

driver

sleeping

compartment

of

buses

and

coaches

—Installation

considerations

based

on

full

scale

tests

Ola

Willstrand

*

,

Jonas

Brandt,

Robert

Svensson

SPTechnicalResearchInstituteofSweden,FireResearch,Box857,SE-50115Borås,Sweden

ARTICLE INFO

Articlehistory: Received3August2015

Receivedinrevisedform13November2015 Accepted18November2015

Availableonline2December2015

Keywords: Firedetection Buses

Toiletcompartments Sleepingcompartments Fullscaletests

ABSTRACT

Effectivefiredetectionsystemsproperlyinstalledinbusandcoachtoiletcompartments and driver sleeping compartments may save human lives and property loss. Rapid detectionallowsforearlyevacuationandextinguishmentofasmallfire,whilelateorno detectionmayallowthefiretospread.Thepurposeoftheworkpresentedinthispaperisto providerecommendationsonhowtoinstallfiredetectionsystemsintoiletcompartments and driver sleeping compartments. The recommendations also cover what type of detectionsystemismostsuited.Asabasisfortherecommendations,fullscalefiretests wereperformedwithdifferentdetectionsystems.Thefiretestswereconductedinrealistic mockupsofatoiletcompartmentandasleepingcompartment.Differentheatandsmoke detection systems wereanalyzed atdifferent positions fordifferentfire scenarios to provideinformationonhowtobestinstalldetectionsystemsinthesecompartments.Five differentscenarioswererunandthemostinterestingfindingwasthattworealisticfire scenariosinthetoiletcompartmentdidnotactivatefiredetectorsintheceilingatrealistic airflowrates.Itisveryrarethatfiredetectorsareplacedanywhereelsethanontheceiling intoiletcompartmentsonbusesandthefirewouldthenbeverylargeupondetection.

ã2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd. ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense(http://creativecommons.org/

licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1.Introduction

Firesinbusesandcoachesareverycommonandonaverageseveralbuses1worldwideareinvolvedinafireincidenteach

day.Forinstance,intheUSapproximately160busfireswerereportedeachyearbetween2004and2008[1].InAustralia thereareabout70busfiresperyearresultingininsuranceclaims[2]andinSweden,Norway,andFinlandaboutonepercent ofallbusesinservice,willsufferfromafireincidenteachyear[3,4].

Ifpassengershavereducedmobilitytheevacuationtimemaybeseverelyextended.Forinstance,20elderlypeoplediedin abusfireinHannover2008[5].Thefirewascausedbyashortcircuitinanelectricalcablenearthetoiletandspreadviathe toiletcompartmenttothepassengercompartment.Withaneffectivefiredetectionsystemthistragedymighthavebeen prevented.However,notallfireincidentsleadtofatalities,butthepropertylossandthecostduetorescueoperation,traffic jam,andcleanupcanbeextensive.Theenvironmentaleffectsofboththefireitselfandextinguishingagentsmayalsobe

*Correspondingauthor.Tel.:+46105165000,Direct:+46105165450;fax:+4633135502. E-mailaddress:ola.willstrand@sp.se(O.Willstrand).

1Inthispapertheterm“bus”referstobusesaswellascoaches. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csfs.2015.11.002

2214-398X/ã2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense(http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

ContentslistsavailableatScienceDirect

Case

Studies

in

Fire

Safety

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severe[6].Alltheseeffectsmightbemitigatedwithaneffectivefiredetectionsystemthatenablesearlyevacuationand suppressionofthefire.

Basedonreportedfireincidentsinbusesandcoachesthefiresmostfrequentlyoriginateintheenginecompartmentorin thewheelwell[1,4].Severalstudiesoffireprotectionintheenginecompartmenthaverecentlybeenperformed[7–9],and ongoingfiredetectionprojectsforthesespacesarerunninge.g.,atSPTechnicalResearchInstituteofSweden.However,this paperfocusonfiredetectioninthetoiletcompartmentanddriversleepingcompartmentandnoextensivestudyonfire detectioninthesecompartmentshas,toourknowledge,beenreported.Inmedia,recentbusfireshavebeenreportedwhere thefirestartedinthetoiletcompartment[10,11]andinthecatastrophicbusfireinHannover2008thefirealsostartedinthe interiorofthebus[5].ThestudyreportedinthispaperwaspartlytriggeredbythenewUNECErequirement,regardingfire detectioninthetoiletcompartmentanddriversleepingcompartmentofbuses,thatcameintoeffectinJuly2014[12].The newrequirementstatesthatanexcesstemperatureorsmokeshallbedetectedinthesecompartments.

Reportedinthispaperisaninvestigationofwhattypesofdetectionsystemsaremostsuitableinthetoiletcompartment anddriversleepingcompartmentofbusesandhowtobestinstallthesystemsinthesetypesofcompartments.Themain questionsansweredbythispaperarehowdifferenttypesofdetectionsystemsplacedatdifferentpositionsrespondto differentfiresandhowtheventilationconditionsmayinfluencetheresponsetime.

2.Methoddescription

Firedetectorsystemsweretestedatdifferentpositionsinrealistictestmockupsofthetoiletcompartmentandthedriver sleepingcompartmentofbuses.Differentfiresourceswerepositionedatdifferentlocationsinsidethemockupsandtests wereperformedunderdifferentventilationconditions.

2.1.Mockups

Statisticsonheight,width,anddepthfortoiletcompartmentsanddriversleepingcompartmentswerecollectedfor 26differentbusesandmeanvalueswereusedforthedesignofthemockups[13].ThemockupsareshowninFigs.1and2. Thetoiletcompartmentsofbuseshaveingeneralquitesimilardimensionsandthelargestdifferenceswerefoundbetween toiletcompartmentspositionedintherearofthebusandtoiletcompartmentsindouble-deckerscomparedwithtoilet compartmentspositionedin thestaircase,which isthemostcommonlocation.The dimensionsofthedriversleeping compartmentswerefoundtovarymorethanfortoiletcompartments,butalsoforthesethemeanvaluesofthesurveywere used.Thedepthwasinmostcasesthewidthofthebus.Thesleepingcompartmentmockuphasdecreasedceilingheightin themiddlesectionwhichisduetothegangwayinthepassengercompartment.Thisdecreaseisnotexistentinallbusesand itcouldalsovaryinsize,butitwasincludedinthemockupbecauseitdelayssmokedistributionwhichseverelyaffects detectorsnotplacedinthedirectvicinityofthefire.

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Theventilationconditionsintoiletcompartmentsandsleepingcompartmentswereexaminedbymeasurementsintwo differentbusesandbyobtaininginformationfromaWCsystemmanufacturer.Thebusmanufacturerswerenotableto provideinformationabouttheairflowthroughthetoiletcompartmentandsleepingcompartment,butonlytheairflow entering the passenger and driver compartment. There are differences between different buses, but there are also similarities.Intoiletcompartmentsairissuckedoutviaaseparatefanandexitsunderthebus,whichappliestoallbustoilet compartmentssincethisconfigurationpreventsodorsfromreachingotherareasofthebus.Theairentersviagapsaround thedoorinmosttoiletcompartments.However,somecompartments,especiallyreartoiletcompartments,dohaveafeed fromtheairconditioningsystem.Inthemockuptheairinletwaslocatedintheupperrightcornerofthetoiletcompartment door,similartosomebuseswhichhavealargergapatthedoorhinge.Theairoutletoccurredthroughthreedifferentholes leadingtoanenclosurecontainingthefan.Twooftheholeswereairvents(mostbuseshaveoneortwoofthese)andone holewastheopeningforthetrashcan.Notallbuseshavethisconfigurationofthetrashcan,theremightbeotherlocations andsometimesatoponthetrashcan,butthiswasthoughtasthemostinterestingcasesincefiresmokefromthetrashcan mightbepreventedbytheairflowfromreachingthetoiletcompartment,withimportantimplicationsfordetection.

In thedriver sleepingcompartment theventilationconditions differmore betweenbuses,but generallythere isa manually operated fan and some passive inlet/outletchannels. In the mockup a fan was placed in one end of the compartment suckingoutairand intheotherendthereweretwoairinlet vents.Thiswasthoughtastheworstcase conditionsincetheairflowmaydelaythesmokespreadtotheairinletsectionofthecompartment,increasingtheresponse timeofadetectorplacedinthatsection.Fanpositionsandairinlets/outletsaremarkedinFigs.1and2.

2.2.Testscenarios

DuringthetestsdifferentventilationconditionswereusedwithapproximateairflowsinaccordancewithTable1.Inthe toiletcompartmentthehighfanspeedconfigurationisthemostcommoncondition,buttheairflowdependsmuchonhow sealedthetoiletcompartmentissincethefannormallyhasafreeblowingcapacityof160–220m3/h.Foranuntighttoilet

compartmenttheairflowcouldthenbemuchhigher.Sometoiletcompartmentshavetwofanmodes,whenthetoilet compartmentisunoccupieditrunsatalowerspeedthanifthecompartmentisoccupied.Thelowfanspeedconfigurationin thetestsisprimarilyarealisticairflowforthesetoiletcompartments.

Forthedriversleepingcompartmentthetestswereperformedwithahighfanspeedmodeandwiththefanturnedoff.

Fig.2. Mockupofthedriversleepingcompartmentinbuses,seenfromtwooppositesides.

Table1

Differentfanconfigurationsusedinthetests.

Highfanspeed Lowfanspeed

Airflowthroughtoiletcompartment 60–90m3/h 20–30m3/h

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ThetestsperformedarepresentedinTable2.Eachtestwasruntwicewithverysmalldifferencesindetectiontimesand firedevelopment.Temperatures,obscurationmeasurements,anddetectiontimespresentedareaverages.

InthecigarettetestastandardcigarettefromNIST(NationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnology)wassmokedand consumedinaboutoneminute.Inthepapertestsatrashcanfullofpaperhandtowelswasignitedbyahotwire.Thesizeof theheptanepoolwas1010cm2anditwaspositionedonthefloorinthelargetoiletcompartmentspace.Theheptanepool

isnotarealisticfiresourceinthetoiletcompartment,butwasusedbecauseofgoodrepeatabilitycomparedtotheotherfire sources.Theplasticsandrubberfiresourcewaspositionedunderthesink,intheconcealedspacewherethefanwaslocated, symbolizingapump,cables,andotherelectronicdevicescontainedhere.Itwasignitedbyahotwireasforthepapertests. Themattress,polyetherfoamwithcottoncover,inthesleepingcompartmentwasignitedbyahotwirethroughthecornerof themattress.Notestwasrunlongerthanfourminutesandinsomecasesonlyforabouttwominutes.Thefirespeakedor stabilizedinthistimeandthetestswerecancelledwhennomorefirealarmswouldhavechangedtheresultsorconclusions. Temperaturesandsmokeobscurationcurvesforallfirescanbefoundinthetestreport[13].

2.3.Detectors

ThedifferenttypesofdetectorsusedinthetestsareshowninTable3.Allsmokedetectorsarebasedonthephotoelectric principle.Thereasonwhynoionizationsmokedetectorsweretestedisduetothefactthatthephotoelectricdetectorsare morecommonamongthevehiclefirealarmandsuppressionsystemsuppliers.Onereasonforthatisincurredregulatory costformanufacturing,transport,anddisposalofionizationsmokedetectors[14].Inaddition,theaimofthetestingwasnot tocomparetheresponsetimeofdifferentphotoelectricorionizationsmokedetectors,butrathertocomparedifferent detectorplacementsand tocomparepointsmokedetectorstoaspiratingsystemsandheat detectors.Thesmoke/heat detectorshaveonesmokesensorandoneheatsensorthatactivatedseparatelyinthesetests.Alldetectorsarecommercial approveddetectorsanddifferencesinsensitivityreflectmarket.Theactivationlevelsoftheaspiratingsystemsarestatedfor themeasuringchamberandifthedetectorsamplesairfrommorethanoneplacethesmokewillbedilutedbeforeitreaches themeasuringchamber.Smokeobscurationmeasuredindecibelpermeter(dB/m)isthereductionoflightpassingthrough thesmoke.

Thetestedaspiratingsmoke/heatdetectorsusestandardpointsmoke/heatdetectorstogetherwithasamplingsystem, whichmakesitlessexpensivethantraditionalaspiratingsmokedetectorsystemsthataresensitiveenoughtousemany samplingholes.Inthetestseachofthistypeofdetectorsampledairfromoneposition,whereasthemoresensitiveaspirating smokedetectorsampledairfromtwopositions.Noteintheresultshownumberofsamplingholesandsensitivityaffectsthe detectiontimesofsmokedetectors.

Intheteststhedetectors,thermocouples(TC),andobscurationmetershaddifferentpositionsandthesepositionsare listedandexplainedinTables4and5andFig.3.EachnumberinTable5representsaseparatedetector,exceptforthe aspiratingsmokedetectorwhichusestwosamplingpointsindicatedbyaplussign.Theobscurationmeterinthetoilet compartmentceilingcoversbothposition1and2.

Table2 Testscenarios.

Test Firesource Fireposition Ventilationcondition

1 Cigarette Toiletcompartment,seatlevel Lowfanspeed

2 Paper Toiletcompartment,trashcan Lowfanspeed

3 Paper Toiletcompartment,trashcan Highfanspeed

4 Heptanepool Toiletcompartment,floorlevel Lowfanspeed

5 Heptanepool Toiletcompartment,floorlevel Highfanspeed

6 Plastics/rubber Toiletcompartment,abovefan Lowfanspeed

7 Plastics/rubber Toiletcompartment,abovefan Highfanspeed

8 Mattress Sleepingcompartment,fansection Highfanspeed

9 Mattress Sleepingcompartment,fansection Nofan

Table3

Thefourdifferentdetectorsusedinthetests.

Activation

Pointsmokedetector 0.5–1.0dB/m

Pointsmoke/heatdetector 0.1–0.15dB/m,54C Aspiratingsmoke/heatdetector 0.1–0.15dB/m,54C

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3.Results

InTable6theresponsetimesofalldetectorsinthedifferenttestsaresummarizedwhilefurthercommentsconcerning

thetestsaregiveninthefollowingsections. 3.1.Cigarettetest

Theonlydetectorinitiatinganalarminthistestwastheaspiratingsmokedetector,whichalsoisexpectedtobethemost sensitiveoneaccordingtoTable3(eventhoughtwosamplingholeswereused).Theaspiratingsmoke/heatdetectors(pos. 2and4)gavepresmokealarms,whichmeansthatthesmokeobscurationalarmlevelwasreachedbutsincethesmoke concentrationthereafterdecreasednoconfirming firealarmswereinitiated.Accordingtothesmokedetectorsandthe obscurationmetersitwasapproximatelythesameamountofsmokeattheceilingasunderthesink,butahigherfanspeed wouldprobablyhavereducedthesmokeconcentrationintheceiling,sincethesmokewouldbedrawndirectlytowardsthe fan.Nocigarettetestwithhighfanspeedwasperformedhowever.Thatmostofthedetectorsdidnotgiveafirealarmon cigarettesmokeisatleastpartlyduetothefactthatthesedetectorsaredesignedtohaveahighresistancetofalsealarms.In thisscenariothatmeansthattheobscurationduetothecigarettesmokewastoolow.Asimplerdetectormaybemore sensitivetocigarettesmoke,butcouldalsobemorepronetofalsealarmsduetoe.g.,dust.

3.2.Papertests

Alldetectorsintheconcealedspaceunderthesinkwereactivatedinthepapertests,butnoneofthedetectorslocatedat theceilingactivated.Thesmokedetectorsactivatedalreadybeforetherewerevisibleflames.Themaindifferencebetween the low fan speed and thehigh fan speed test was that withthe low air flowsome smokeentered themain toilet compartmentspaceafterawhile,whichwasseenbytheobscurationmeterandthethermocouplesattheceiling,butforthe highairflownosmokeorheatenteredthemaintoiletcompartmentspace.Fig.4showshowtheflamesareheldbelowthe trashcanopeningbytheairflow.

3.3.Heptanepooltests

Intheheptanepool teststhedifferencebetweenthelowfanspeed andhighfan speedtestwasverysignificant.A comparisonofthetemperaturegraphsinFigs.5and6 showsthatthesequenceisalmostreversedsuchthatthepositionof highesttemperaturewithlowairflowalmostbecamethepositionoflowesttemperaturewithhighairflow.Thefirewas positionedontheairinletsideandwithlowairflowthetemperaturewashighestonthissideoftheceiling.Athighairflow mostofthesmokewassuckedoutviatheairventsandtrashcanholebeforereachingtheceilinginthetoiletcompartment. Thedetectorsattheceilingwereabout20sfasterthanthedetectorsunderthesinkwiththelowfanspeedconfiguration,but

Table4

Explanationofpositions.

Toiletcompartment

1 Ceilingleft(fan/trashcanside) 2 Ceilingright(airinlet) 3 Attheopeningofthetrashcan

4 Undersink(intheconcealedspacecontainingthefan)

Sleepingcompartment

5 Ceilingfansection

6 Ceilingmiddlesection 7 Ceilingairinletsection 8 Ceilingabovefireorigin

9 Wallabovefan(half-heighttotheceiling)

Table5

Positions of detectors, thermocouples and obscuration meters in the mockups.

Positions Pointsmokedetector 1,2,4,5,7,9 Pointsmoke/heatdetector 1,2,5,6,7,8 Aspiratingsmoke/heatdetector 2,4,6 Aspiratingsmokedetector 1+4,5+9 Thermocouples(TC) 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

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withthehighairflowitwasaboutthesameresponsetimesforalldetectorsexceptthosepositionedontheairinletsideof theceilingwhichwerenowabout20sslowerinresponsetime.Notableisthatthehigherairflowdoesnotaffectthe aspiratingdetectorsasmuchasthepointsmokedetectors.Thereasonthatthethermocoupleunderthesinkstartedsome degreeshigherthantheotherswasthatthefiretestswererunwithshortintervalandsomeheatremainedintheceilingof thissmallconcealedspace.

3.4.Plastics/rubbertests

Theresultsoftheplastics/rubbertestsweresimilartotheresultsofthepapertestsinthetrashcan,whichmeansthat withhighairflownoheatorsmokeatallenteredthemaintoiletcompartmentspacewhilewithlowairflowthesmoke brokethroughtheair-barrier.Theonlydifferencewasthatthesmokeproductionwassomuchhigherthaninthepaperfire thatalsothedetectorsintheceilingwereactivatedquitefastinthelowfanspeedtest.

Fig.3. Drawingonpositions.Firepositionsaremarkedforpaper(trashcan)andplastic/rubberfireintheconcealedspace,heptanepoolfireonthefloorand cigarettethroughthewallinthetoiletcompartmentandthemattressfireinthesleepingcompartment.

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3.5.Mattresstests

Inthemattressteststhefirewaspositionedinthefansectionofthesleepingcompartment,suchthatthesmokehadto moveagainsttheairflowtoreachtheairinletsection.Themaingoalofthistestwastoseethetimedifferencebetween detectioninthefansectionandintheairinletsectionwithandwithouttheimpactofafan.Contrarytoexpectations detectionintheairinletsectionwasfacilitatedbythefan,duetothefactthatthefancausedcirculationinsidethesleeping compartment.Thetimedifferencebetweendetectioninthefansectionandtheairinletsectionincreasedfromabout10sto about20swhenturningoffthefan.

Themattressfiresourcewasanalyzedfurtherregardingtoxicelementsinthefumes,seerightsideinFig.7.Themattress was ignitedunderthehoodoftheconecalorimeter[15](withtheconicalheaterremoved)andthetoxicfumeswere analyzedwithaFTIR-spectrometer(FourierTransformInfraredSpectroscopy).Highlevelsofcarbondioxide(CO2),carbon

monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and nitric oxide (NO) were detected from the mattress. As expected, the concentrationoftoxicelementsinthefumesfollowedthesmokeobscurationcurve,whichmeansthattheymayberelated totheobscurationmeasurementsinthesleepingcompartmentmockup.Theshort-termexposurelimitssetoutbythe occupationalhealthauthorityinSweden(“Arbetsmiljöverket”)[16],i.e.,acceptablelevelsfor15minexposure,werereached atabout0.5–3dB/msmokeobscurationforthemattressfiresource.Thisisthepointwheremostsmokedetectorsinitiatean alarm(includingentrydelayandprocessingtimeofthedetector).At10dB/msmokeobscuration,reachedinthetestsafter 1.5–2minfromtheignition,highlevelsoftoxicsubstancesweremeasured:about5%CO2,800ppmCO,70ppmHCN,and

250ppmNO.Thisisabout5–8timeshigherthantheshort-termexposurelimitsandaccordingtotheNationalInstitutefor Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH) theselevels areimmediately dangeroustolife and health. TheirlistedIDLH (ImmediatelyDangeroustoLifeandHealth)valuesofthementionedsubstancesare4%ofCO2,1200ppmofCO,50ppmof

HCN,and100ppmofNO[17].Theresponsetimesofthedetectorsinthesetestswerearound60s,whichdonotgivemuch timeleftforevacuation.

Table6

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4.Discussionandconclusions

AccordingtothenewUNECEReg.no.107requirementsmokeorheatdetectorsshallbeinstalledintoiletcompartments anddriversleepingcompartmentsofbuses.Theperformedtestshaveresultedinvaluableinformationofwhattoconsider wheninstallingthesedetectors.Smokedetectorsaregenerallymuchfasterthanheatdetectors,whichisalsoconfirmedin alltestsperformedinthisstudy.Intheteststhefireshavedevelopedquiterapidly,butforslowgrowingfiresthebenefitof smokedetectors compared to heat detectors willbe even greater. There are locations where heat detection maybe considered,e.g.,intheconcealedspaceunderthesinkintoiletcompartmentsorclosetothetrashcanwherethedetectoris expectedtobeintheimmediatevicinityofthefire.Inboththepapertestandtheplastic/rubbertestthetemperatureinthe concealedspaceunderthesinkwasover100Cafteroneminute.Inverynarrowspacesandinothercircumstanceswhenthe detectorisclosetothepotentialfiresourceheatdetectorswillalsoreactrelativelyquickly,althoughsmokedetectorswill mostoftenstillbefaster.Thebenefitsofusingheatdetectorsinthesespacesarethattheyareusuallycheaperandmore robust.Theymayalsorequirelessmaintenanceandinspectionsthansmokedetectorsthatmustbeinspectedregularlyto ensureproperfunctioning.However,heatdetectorsshouldonlybeusedasacomplementtosmokedetectors.

Intoiletcompartmentsitiscommontoinstallasmokedetectorintheceiling,butthetestsclearlyshowsthatwithan operatingfanitcouldbedifficulttodetectatrashcanfireorcablefiresolelywithadetectorintheceiling.However,thefan maybemalfunctioningresultinginthesmokebeingtransportedupwardsandnotintotheconcealedspace.Insuchcasea detectorintheconcealedspacewouldbeoflimitedusewhileadetectorintheceilingwouldbemoreeffective.Theremight alsobeotherfirescenariosthanthosetestedinthiswork.Thereforeadetectorintheceilingisusefulasapartofanintegral detectorsystem.Thisstudysuggestthatthedetectionsysteminbustoiletcompartmentsshouldconsistofatleastasmoke detectorintheceilingandheatorsmokedetectorintheconcealedspaceofthefan,especiallyifthisspacealsocontainsthe

Fig.4.Paperfireinthetrashcan,seenfrominsidethetoiletcompartment.

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trashcan.Twodetectionpointslikethisisverycommonintoiletcompartmentsofairplanes[18].IntheHannoverbusfire with20casualties[5]thefirestartedinacablesomewherebeneaththetoiletandeventhoughafiredetector,regardlessof position,wouldhavebeenafirststepofimprovement,thepositioncouldhavebeencriticalforachievingenoughtimefor evacuation.

Ifsmokedetectorsareusedinmanyspacestheuseofaspiratingsystemscouldbeconsideredinsteadofpointsmoke detectors.Thebenefitofthisapproachisthatonlyonedetectorisneededandthesystemsamplesairfrome.g.,boththe ceilingandotherspacesinthetoiletcompartment.Moreadvancedaspiratingsystemscouldpotentiallyalsosampleairfrom differentlocationsaroundtheentirebus.Anaspiratingsmokedetectorinthetoiletcompartmentceilingalsohasagreat advantageinthatthedetectorishiddenandprotected.Accordingtothebusoperatorstheyhaveproblemswithpassengers pullingdownthedetectors.

Anotherimportantdesignconsiderationwheninstallingdetectorsinthetoiletcompartmentceilingistheneedtoavoid theairflowfromtheairinlet.Thetestshaveshownthatthedetectiontimemaybedelayedconsiderably,andthedelaytime maybeevenlargerforslowgrowingfires.Notableisthatthehigherairflowdoesnotaffecttheaspiratingdetectorsasmuch asthepointsmokedetectors.

Inthesleepingcompartmentteststheresponsetimedifferencebetweendifferentdetectorplacementswasrelatively small,whichindicatesthatonedetectormaybesatisfactory.However,forrapiddetectiontheuseoftwosmokedetectors shouldbeconsideredifthedecreasedceilingheightinthemiddlesectionisconsiderable.

Theconclusionsabovearebasedonthepresentedtests,whichincludeassumptionsanddesignparameterswithadegree ofuncertaintyandvariability.Eachfirescenariowasruntwiceandthetemperaturedeviationscouldforsomefirescenarios bemorethan50C,butforstablefiresastheheptanepoolfireitwasnotmorethan10C.However,inallteststhe

sequencesinwhichthedetectorsactivatedandifthedetectordidnotactivatedwerethesameforbothtestsanditisthis informationthatisusedfortheconclusions.Ifthedesignparametersarechangedtheresultcouldbedifferent,butthetests were performed such that the conclusions should be relevant for most toilet compartments. Regarding important parametersasairflowandlocationofairinletandoutletthetestsarefocusedonthemostinterestingconfigurationsofthose

Fig.6.Temperaturesofthermocouples(TC)inTest5:heptanepoolfire,highfanspeed.

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thatarecommon.However,wheninstallingdetectorsincompartmentsverydifferentfromtheconfigurationsofthesetests, itisimportantthatthecompartmentisfurtheranalyzedwiththeconclusionsinthispaperinmind.

Acknowledgment

ThisworkwasfinancedbytheFFIprogramoftheSwedishGovernmentalAgencyforInnovationSystems,VINNOVA. References

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