The usage of CLIL in the classroom and its influence on L2 learners’ motivation

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FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND SOCIETY Department of Culture, Languages and Media

Independent project in the major subject: English and

Education

15 credits, basic level

The usage of CLIL in the classroom and its

influence on L2 learners’ motivation

Användningen av CLIL i klassrummet och dess påverkan på elevers

motivation vid andraspråksinlärning

Alexandra Sommer & Hanna Svensson

Master of Arts in Primary Education, 240 credits Examiner: Damon Tutunjian

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Forward from the authors

This degree project is a result of close cooperation between the authors. The workload was distributed evenly and both authors have been actively involved throughout the whole

process. We conducted the observations and recorded and transcribed the interviews together and we made the analysis of the materials in full cooperation.

• Formulation of the research question

• Draft of the project and outline of project plan and methodology • Search for relevant publications and literature

• Qualitative research • Analysis of results

• In depth discussions of results • Deciding on relevant theories

_____________________ ____________________

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Abstract

In Swedish schools the education should stimulate students’ creativity, curiosity and self-confidence, as well as provide security and generate the will and desire to learn. Therefore, the aim of this case study is to investigate the area of motivation and how motivation is affected by the usage of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). Initially, the theoretical foundation for the research, including scaffolding and important theories of second language learner motivation, are outlined and defined. The Process Motivational Model (PMM), is used as a framework to investigate key aspects of motivation in language learning by using two different pedagogical approaches. Our findings show a rise in key aspects of motivation when using CLIL. The learning environment changes positively, and the learner engagement increases when the content of the lesson is fun and authentic. The major conclusions from the results of the case study are that (i) the students were more intrinsically motivated during CLIL-lessons and the L2 learners efforts improved, (ii) the combination of the curricular subject matter Geography and English increased the interest to learn, (iii) the motivation of the students that were passive or interruptive during the non-CLIL lessons increased significantly during the non-CLIL-lessons (iiii) and the feelings of competence and self-worth increased after the CLIL-lessons. This study is a qualitative case study based on observations, focus groups and a teacher interview in an elementary school in Sweden.

Keywords: CLIL, motivation, L2 motivation, scaffolding, self-determination theory (SDT), L2 motivational self-system (L2MSS), Process Motivation Model

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Table of Contents

1.Introduction... 5 2. Aim ... 7 2.1 Research question ... 7 3.Background ... 8

3.1 Scaffolding language and learning ... 8

3.2 Learner Motivation in second language learning ... 9

3.3 Self-determination theory (SDT) and intrinsic motivation ... 10

3.4 L2 motivational self-system (L2MSS) ... 11

3.5 Other motivational approaches ... 11

3.6 Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and motivation ... 12

3.7 The Process Motivational Model ... 13

4. Methodology ... 15

4.1 Participants ... 15

4.2 Materials ... 16

4.2.1 CLIL and non-CLIL lesson plans ... 16

4.2.2 The Process Motivational Model (PMM) as the research framework ... 17

4.3 Procedure ... 17

4.3.1 Observations ... 17

4.3.2 Interview with the teacher ... 18

4.3.3 Focus groups with students ... 18

4.4 Ethical considerations ... 19

4.5 Analysis of the data ... 19

5.Results and discussion... 21

5.1 Learner environment ... 21

5.1.1 Learning environment in the non-CLIL and CLIL lessons ... 21

5.2 Learner engagement ... 26

5.2.1 CLIL increased learner engagement ... 27

5.2.2 CLIL as a tool to motivate more students in the classroom ... 30

5.3 Learner identities/self ... 34

6. Conclusion ... 37

7. References ... 40

Appendix A ... 42

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Appendix C... 45 Appendix D ... 48 Appendix E ... 51

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1.Introduction

Motivation is acknowledged as a determinant factor in successful second language learning (Lasagabaster, 2010). In the classroom teachers apply motivational strategies to boost students’ motivation and therefore improve learning outcomes. Particularly, intrinsic motivation and self-confidence seem to be driving forces in learning a language (Lamb, 2017). Most research studies on motivation build on the framework of Dörnyei (2001) and on research by Dörnyei and Ushioda (2011). The study of motivation is important, as a

significant amount of research supports the fact, that teachers can influence their students’ motivation and learning outcomes (Lamb, 2017). Relationships between teacher-student and the relationships between peers are important. If both students and teachers are motivated, the students feel even more motivated and involved in the activities in the classroom (Lamb, 2017).

Motivation becomes increasingly intrinsic and learning efforts improve, if the interests of the students are taken into consideration, (Bodnar et al., 2014). This is in line with the Swedish curriculum for compulsory school, preschool class and school-age educare, LGR’11

(Skolverket 2011/2019), which states that the school should strive to be a living social community that provides security and generates the will and desire to learn. In addition, the school should stimulate the students’ creativity, curiosity and self-confidence, as well as their desire to translate ideas into action and solve problems (LGR’11).

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), is demonstrated to be effective and useful to stimulate motivation (Bower, 2019). There is a strong correlation between the usage of the CLIL approach when teaching English as a L2 and motivation (Lasagabaster, 2011). Adding CLIL to the foreign language teaching at primary levels increases the motivation and interest in learning the language (Pladevall-Ballester, 2018). Coyle, Hood, and Marsh (2010) define CLIL as a dual-focused educational approach, in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of content as well as language. The focus is not only on language education but also on the subject content. CLIL is driven by content, and this is where it expands the experience of traditional language learning. Equal attention is given to the taught

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language as to the content (Coyle et. Al, 2010). Thus, the CLIL approach increases the motivation to learn as the method exposes the students to authentic content (Pinner, 2013).

Lgr’11 (Skolverket, 2011/2019) mentions that one of the aims when teaching English is to relate the content of the learning to the learners’ own experiences and interests. Common reasons for using CLIL is to increase student motivation by cognitively engaging them through collaborative work, creative thinking and problem solving (Coyle et al., 2010). The CLIL approach provides an authentic content and therefore increases the motivation to learn. If the content is authentic, the students are interested and can relate to the material (Pinner, 2013). In the current case study, we investigate how using CLIL as a tool influences motivation in second language learning in a Swedish classroom.

We present an overview of relevant motivational theories in second language learning and we define CLIL and how it is related to motivation. This is followed by the presentation of the methodological framework used in this case study, the Process Motivation Model (PMM). The model is recommended to use for case study approaches when investigating motivation in second language learning (Bower,2019). It aims to study learner gains and motivation in CLIL contexts (Bower, 2019) and is used in this case study throughout the whole process. The PMM model builds on the leading motivational research and on three key aspects of motivation: learning environment, learner engagement and learner identities/self. The case study is a qualitative study to investigate the impact on motivation to learn English by using CLIL in the classroom. The context in which the study is conducted is to build on previous research and add the local dimension as well as in-depth evaluation on the motivational factors of L2 learners with and without using CLIL.

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2. Aim

The purpose of the current study is to investigate how teaching with CLIL effects second language (L2) motivation in a Swedish elementary school. This is done with a qualitative case study. The first part of the study provides a theoretical framework along with definitions of crucial terminology. The most relevant research on CLIL and motivation is presented. In the review, the emphasis is on the students’ motivation of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and the tools that can be used to enhance motivation.

Our aspiration with this study is to find new relevant findings that hopefully will contribute with a valuable addition to this field. Existing research on motivation and CLIL has been mainly quantitative, and researchers have recommended that more qualitative research should be conducted (Bower, 2019). The current study is an attempt in that direction and should be viewed as a case study of the motivational effects of using CLIL in the local Swedish setting. The qualitative study is a comparison of motivational effects in two English lessons, one CLIL-lesson and one traditional English language lesson.

2.1 Research question

How does the usage of CLIL in the Swedish classroom influence L2 learners' motivation? What motivational impact is there?

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3.Background

In order to meaningfully conduct the qualitative study, it is necessary to firstly outline and define the theoretical foundation for the research. In this section, scaffolding and how it helps language learners to create meaning is presented. Subsequently, an overview and background on theories of L2 motivation are described. Finally, a brief presentation of CLIL terminology and the Process Motivation Model (PMM) is outlined.

3.1 Scaffolding language and learning

According to Gibbons, language is best learned in an authentic context. The concept of scaffolding builds on the assumption that language develops as a process of making meaning. The method of scaffolding is based on the social view of learning. Gibbons (2015), who has become a leading advocate of scaffolding in language learning, bases her pedagogical approach on the work on Lev Vygotsky and emphasizes the social and collaborative aspects of language development and learning. All participants, the teacher as well as the individuals in a classroom, have active roles in the learning process. This view of learning goes hand in hand with the assumption that motivation is needed to actively participate in the learning process. The concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD), is simply the cognitive gap between what the learner can do alone and what the learner can do in collaboration with others (Vygotsky, 1978). Therefore, it is important for the teacher to know what knowledge the learner has, so that the learner can be challenged at the right level. Scaffolding in language learning is an effective way to help the learner to decrease the cognitive gap and learn. The nature of the scaffolding, or support, that the teacher provides, and choses is significant in the success of the language learning of the students (Gibbons, 2015).

Another aspect that increases the effectiveness of language learning is when English as a second language is integrated with the other curriculum subject content (Gibbons 2015). There are several reasons why this is the case. Firstly, the subject matter of the curriculum provides a meaningful learning context. From a language teaching perspective, the

curriculum provides an authentic context with a teaching focus on language as a method of learning, rather than language being something completely separated from the content.

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Secondly, simultaneous teaching and learning of both subject content and language content is a way to advance the process of the effective use of English in school. In addition, teaching language within a subject matter can support both the language and the curriculum learning reciprocally. These are some of the most important reasons for supporting, or scaffolding, the integration of language learning and the subject content. Scaffolding represents an approach for teaching and learning that builds on the language culture, understandings and experiences that learners bring to school. In a multicultural school the scaffolding tool is even more visible (Gibbons,2015).

3.2 Learner Motivation in second language learning

The work on L2 motivation began in the late 1950s and motivation was researched from the angle of social psychology. The early research focused solely on L2 motivation rather than examining what factors motivate learners. During the 1990s, together with the increasing interest in social constructivist learning theory, it was acknowledged that “motivational sources closely related to the learners’ immediate classroom environment has a stronger impact on the overall L2 motivation complex than had been expected” (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011, p 47 as cited in Lamb 2017, p 302). In his discussion of L2 learner motivation, Lamb synthesizes research upon Dörnyei & Ushioda (2011) that supports the conception that teachers could play a central role in its development.

William & Burden (William & Burden, 1997, p. 120 as cited in Bodnar et al., 2016, p 187) define learner motivation as their “state of cognitive and emotional arousal, which leads to conscious decision to act, and which gives rise to a period of sustained intellectual and/or physical effort in order to attain a previously set goal (or goals).” This can be understood as when the learner is emotionally affected in a positive way, it makes him/her motivated to pursue an intellectual or physical goal. Dörnyei & Ushioda (2011, p. 4 as cited in Bodnar et

al., 2016, p 187) explain learner motivation as the complex and multifaceted hypothesis that

is “responsible for why people decide to do something, how long they are willing to sustain the activity, (and) how hard they are going to pursue it “. We understand this definition as the learner motivation being the why, how and for how long people make the decision to do any activity. The dominating theories on motivation in L2 classrooms are presented below.

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3.3 Self-determination theory (SDT) and intrinsic motivation

One major theory on motivation, the Self-determination theory (SDT), was formulated by Deci and Ryan (1985, as in Bodnar 2016, p. 189). This theory focuses on learner-internal motivational states described by a continuum of motivational types. On one end of the continuum is amotivation, moving towards intrinsic motivation at the other extreme.

Amotivation signifies total disinterest, whereas intrinsic motivation is the condition where a L2 learner is motivated simply by an activity being enjoyable or interesting. In between are the different types of extrinsic motivations stemming from L2 learners’ beliefs, goals and values. The level and kind of motivation depends on how the task is perceived by the L2 learner. If the task is in line with the goals and interests of the L2 learner, the motivation becomes increasingly intrinsic and the L2 learner’s learning efforts increase. L2 learners will perform greater when they are intrinsically motivated or if the learning motive is more internalized. To stimulate intrinsic motivation, teachers need to provide stimulating and satisfying tasks. In addition, teachers need to create classroom environments that support the basic need for a sense of autonomy, competence and relatedness of the L2 learner (Noels 2013, as in Lamb 2017, p.313).

As stated in the section above, motivation can be extrinsic and intrinsic (Cameron et al., 2005, as in Mozelius et al., 2017 a, p 344). Ryan and Deci (1985, as in Bodnar et al., 2016, p 189) define intrinsic motivation as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfaction rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated, a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge rather than because of external triggers. Extrinsically motivated activities are activities where a person can achieve rewards or try to avoid punishment. Intrinsically motivated learners tend to be more aware of inconsistencies, complexities, and unexpected possibilities (Kapp, 2012, as in Mozelius et al., 2017 a). Frank Lepper and Thomas Malone (1987, as in Mozelius et al., 2017 a) have developed a model that breaks down intrinsic motivation into a personal and interpersonal level. This taxonomy of intrinsic motivation consists of seven components. Intrinsic motivation at a personal level is enhanced by challenge, curiosity, control and fantasy. The interpersonal level of intrinsic motivation consists of cooperation, competition and recognition. In this case study, we will discuss these components of intrinsic motivation and the possible effects of using CLIL and intrinsic motivation of L2 learning.

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3.4 L2 motivational self-system (L2MSS)

Another theoretical motivation framework is called the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and was developed by Dörnyei (2009, as in Lamb 2017, p. 304). This framework suggests that the learner L2 motivation can be predicted and explained by three main elements. The first two of the L2MSS model is the hypothesis of the existence of two

possible selves. According to this a learners’ L2 motivation depends on the Ideal L2 self and the Ought-to L2 self. The Ideal L2 self, is the learners view and vision of themselves as a competent user of the L2 in the future. The Ought-to L2 self, is the learners’ belief of what others believe they ought to be like in the future. Finally, the third element of the L2MSS model is the L2 learning experience. This means the learners' perception of the whole learning process. Learner’s motivation to study an L2 can be enhanced if the learners establish stable and clear perceptions of themselves as future users of the L2.

3.5 Other motivational approaches

In addition to the mentioned theoretical frameworks presented above the following two theories are worth mentioning. Examples of other prominent theories of motivation are the Social cognitive theory (Bandura 1997, as in Lamb 2017, p. 313) and the Flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, as in Lamb 2017, p. 314). The Social cognitive theory states that when the learners feel capable of doing classroom tasks and mastering different features of the L2, their motivation to study will be affected. Teachers can enhance learners’

self-efficacy through maximizing the chances of success in L2 tasks and providing an emotionally rewarding classroom environment (Mills 2014, as in Lamb 2017, p. 313). The Flow theory suggests that motivation and performance can be increased when academic tasks are provided at an optimal level of challenge and interest. This, conjointly with the possibility for the learner to influence the task, can create a sense of “flow”. The flow is to be understood as engagement and enjoyment of a task, often unconscious.

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3.6 Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and

motivation

Coyle, Hood, and Marsh (2010) define Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) as a dual-focused educational approach, in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of content as well as language. The focus is not only on language education but also on the subject content education. CLIL is driven by content, and this is where it expands the experience of traditional language learning. Equal attention is given to the taught

language as to the content.

In this holistic view the different parts of CLIL can be described through the 4Cs Framework. The 4Cs are content (subject matter), communication (usage and learning of the language) cognition (thinking skills) and culture (developing intercultural understanding). Effective CLIL is a result of the progression in knowledge, skills and understanding of the content, engagement in the cognitive processes involved in the learning, interaction in the

communicative context, and adequate support in vocabulary and phrases. Having an intercultural awareness as a standing point in conducting language teaching with CLIL, underlines the relevance of the cultural aspect in learning and relating the learners own experience to his or her surroundings. When teaching through CLIL, it is important to have a balance between these components and consistently keeping them in mind when planning lessons and units (Coyle et al.,2010).

When the learner participates voluntarily and learns the content via an additional language, it has a positive effect on the overall motivation towards learning (Coyle et al., 2010).

Therefore, CLIL and motivation are closely connected as there are cognitive and motivational benefits when using this method. Coyle et al. (2010) argue that the usage of CLIL creates the adequate levels of authenticity in the classroom. The learners are exposed to language

learning and subject matter simultaneously, so the predominant reason is not merely learning the language. This increases the sense of authenticity. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), is demonstrated to be effective and useful to stimulate motivation (Bower, 2019). Adding CLIL to the foreign language teaching at primary levels seems to lead to higher levels of motivation and interest in learning the language (Pladevall-Ballester, 2018).

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A recent study showed, that when adding CLIL to the foreign language teaching at primary levels this led to higher levels of motivation and interest in learning the language (Pladevall-Ballester, 2018). This was a longitudinal, quantitative study from four primary schools in fifth and sixth grades. The results supported that the motivation was promoted and

maintained over time by adding CLIL to the learning experience. Another study on CLIL and motivation revealed that there is a strong correlation between the usage of the CLIL approach when teaching English as a L2 and motivation (Lasagabaster, 2011). 191 English language learners responded to a motivation questionnaire and motivation in English as a foreign language and CLIL was compared. Coyle et al. (2010) define CLIL as a dual-focused educational approach, in which an additional language is used for the learning and teaching of content as well as language. The focus is not only on language education but also on the subject content. CLIL is driven by content, and this is where it expands the experience of traditional language learning. Equal attention is given to the taught language as to the content (Coyle et. Al, 2010). Thus, the CLIL approach increases the motivation to learn as the

method exposes the students to authentic content (Pinner, 2013). Coyle (2011) has developed the first model for investigating motivation in CLIL settings. It is based on three aspects on motivation, learner environment, learner engagement and learner identities/self.

3.7 The Process Motivational Model

During the learning process about motivation we came across a new framework that acknowledges the complexity of motivation in the context of language learning. Bower (2019) has developed this framework for evaluation and research to explain motivation in language learning. This framework is a methodological framework to support the

investigation of motivation in second language learning. It is recommended to use for case study approaches, which this study is. The model is called the Process Motivational Model (PPM) and builds on the work of leading motivational researchers, such as Dörnyei and Usioda and Coyle, that are explained in detail above. It is important to stress that this

framework is not intended to redefine motivation, it is simply a recommended framework to systematically investigate motivation. The PMM can be used to investigate any pedagogical approach in language learning contexts and the range of motivational factors. The focus in the framework is on key aspects of motivation and their principal characteristics. These key aspects are learning environment, learner engagement and learner identities/self. The learning

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environment is studied from three perspectives: teacher specific, course specific and group specific. Examples of principal characteristics that are studied here can be authority type of the teacher, learner independence, appropriate challenge, confidence, stimulating course content and the nature of interaction of the group. The second aspect, learner engagement investigates perceived value of activity, learner attitudes towards language learning, learner perceptions of their learning and engagement in learning tasks. Examples of this is personal relevance, intrinsic values attributed to the activity, learner perceptions of progress and effort and response to tasks and willingness to engage and communicate. The last key aspect of motivation in the PMM is learner identities/self. Here self-concept and mastery of the task are investigated. Examples of principal characteristics to investigate here are the awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses in the language, self-worth, the own understanding of how the learner is motivated, feeling of competence and values related to learning and languages. Bower (2019) recommends this framework specifically for qualitative research such as case studies. She claims the framework is flexible enough to be used in the investigation of language learning in other national contexts. In our study we have utilized the PMM with an effort to develop the research base in this field.

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4. Methodology

This section of the study presents a description of how the study is conducted. We used triangulation to ensure validity and reliability of the study. According to Gray (2014) reliability is improved by triangulation for most qualitative approaches. As both of us observed the lessons, the observer bias was reduced by investigator triangulation. We have employed different data collection techniques within the same method: observations, teacher interview and focus groups. This method is referred to as methodological triangulation (Gray, 2014).

The methodology used in this study is qualitative. The aim is to conduct an in-depth investigation with a rich detailed description, which is only possible with a qualitative

research method. The study is conducted in the natural setting of the students and the teacher, which gives the study a natural and holistic representation of the phenomena of motivation studied. The qualitative method used is a case study at one elementary school in Sweden. We were interested in comparing two teaching methods and not comparing two schools.

Therefore, limiting the study to one school was sufficient.According to Mackey and Gass (2016), qualitative methodology in the academic field of language research is becoming increasingly recognized. Mackey and Gass (2016) list situations, when a qualitative research method is suitable. As this is a case study, we focus on observing and interviewing few participants more intensively. Our study is process-oriented with many open-ended questions, which makes the qualitative approach favorable.

4.1 Participants

The data was gathered from an elementary school located in a Swedish city. A majority of the students do not have Swedish as their native language, they speak an additional language in their home environment. 330 students attend the school from grades 0-6. Two classes of the fifth grade of the school, 5A and 5B, were observed during two English lessons each. Both classes were subjected to both lessons, one CLIL lesson and one non-CLIL lesson. In total 33 students participated in this case study, 16 boys and 17 girls. The lessons were conducted by the regular English teacher employed at the school. The participation was voluntary and only students with signed consent forms by the legal guardians could participate (Appendix A).

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Another participant of the study was the teacher, who participated in one semi-structured interview after all four lessons were completed. The teacher, Anna (not the real name), is an experienced teacher with competence to instruct English, Social Sciences, Science studies, Art, Swedish and Swedish as a second language. Anna has worked as a teacher for 31 years and 11 years at the school studied.

4.2 Materials

4.2.1 CLIL and non-CLIL lesson plans

Two lesson plans were prepared (Appendix B and C). One was a textbook based lesson and the other was based on CLIL. The purpose of the study was to investigate the motivational factors in the English lessons using two different pedagogical approaches, the CLIL and the non-CLIL lesson.

We created two lesson plans and provided the regular teacher with those a few days before the lessons. The non-CLIL lesson plan (Appendix B) is an English lesson based on the regular textbook and workbook that the students normally use in their English class. The lesson was planned for 55 minutes and the text that was read was called “Ireland- Uncle Michaels Magic”. The first half of the lesson was spent on explaining new vocabulary and listening and reading the text. The second part of the lesson consisted of exercises in the workbook. The exercises were related to the text in the textbook and some of them were done in pairs. The CLIL- lesson plan (Appendix C), is an English and Social Sciences lesson that covers the curricular subject geography combined with English language learning. The lesson was about the countries in Europe and the students were expected to work in pairs. Each pair was assigned a European country and developed a quiz about the country to present in front of the class. The task was to construct at least five sentences with information about the country without revealing the name. Each pair received a question sheet and looked for the answers on their Chromebooks. The question sheet and example of sentences was handed out during the lesson and a vocabulary sheet with difficult words was provided and explained into the introduction of the task. At the end of the lesson, each pair listened to their peers and

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guessed which country it was. The 4Cs Framework, as described in the Background of the current study, was applied in the planning to make sure that the holistic approach of the CLIL elements are covered (Coyle et al, 2010). The 4Cs are: content, communication, cognition and culture. The CLIL-lesson plan was designed to contain all aspects that are typically included in the CLIL method of teaching. Both lesson plans contained scaffolding to support the learners.

4.2.2 The Process Motivational Model (PMM) as the research framework

When constructing the interview questions for the teacher interview (Appendix D) and focus groups (Appendix E) the framework of Bower (2019), the Process Motivational Model (PMM), was used as a tool. The PMM model is described in detail in the background of this paper. All questions and field notes in this study were grouped according to the three

motivation categories of the model: learning environment, learner engagement and learner identities/self. The model was used as a system to provide a comprehensive, coherent approach to structure the results of the study, as well its preparations. In the results and discussion section, as well as in the conclusion section of this case study, the results are structured according to the PMM and the three categories.

4.3 Procedure

4.3.1 Observations

The purpose of the observation was to observe the L2 learners' motivation during each of these lessons. The scope of the observations was to observe activity, classroom interaction and communication patterns during the different lessons. The authors observed and noted the behavior with the support of field notes. The notes indicated the exact location, time and number of participants. Real names were not used to ensure anonymity. The two lessons were mirror lessons and each class had the same learning experience provided by the teacher. As we studied two different classes, the subsequent observations offered more details. The observations were done by both of us, in order to get a fuller picture and to complement each other's data.

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4.3.2 Interview with the teacher

One teacher was interviewed for one hour at the school where the study was conducted. The teacher, Anna, is the teacher who taught all the lessons that were observed. The teacher is the regular English teacher of both classes and the teacher knows the students well. Interviewing Anna was meaningful from a research perspective as it was valuable to compare the L2 learners’ motivation during the two different lessons from a teacher perspective. The interview was held in Swedish and was semi-structured with open ended questions. All questions (Appendix D) were based on the PPM model and were constructed to make the teacher reflect on the effects of the different methods used in the lessons. The interview was recorded, with the teacher’s consent, with a Dictaphone and transcribed immediately after the interview.

4.3.3 Focus groups with students

The study consisted of four separate focus group sessions after every lesson with three students from each class participating. In total six students, three girls and three boys,

participated in two focus groups each. One focus group was held after the lesson based on the textbook, and the other after the CLIL-lesson. The teacher recommended students for the focus groups. All focus groups were conducted in the school and each focus group lasted approximately 30 minutes. The questions during the focus group sessions were semi-structured and based on the developed interview guide (Appendix E) based on the PMM model. Adjustments of the questions were done in order to make them understandable and easy for the age group. All students were between eleven and twelve years old. The same questions were asked several times at different stages of the interview in order to confirm that they were fully clear and to avoid bias. Later on in the interviews, the students were more comfortable to answer questions which was another reason to go back to some of the relevant questions in this study. Hallin and Helin (2018), argue that there is a risk that children answer questions in a manner to please the interviewers. This is an additional reason for asking the same or similar questions during different times of the focus groups. As the students are more fluent in Swedish, and to make sure that valuable reflections and answers were not lost, all focus groups were conducted in Swedish. The focus groups were recorded with a Dictaphone, with a consent form from the legal guardians, and transcribed after.

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4.4 Ethical considerations

The current study has considered the ethical guidelines for conducting research developed by the Swedish Research Council (2017). The requirements are the following: the consent requirement, the confidentiality requirement, the information requirement and the

requirement of usage. As the participants of the focus groups are minors, all legal guardians had to sign a consent form, in order to be able to participate in the study (Appendix 3). The consent form contained information about the purpose of the qualitative study, the anonymity and optional participation, and the methods used in the research. In addition, the consent form stated that the research outcomes are confidential and to be used solely for research purposes. Before the focus groups all participants were once again reminded and informed about the aim of the study and the participants rights.

Throughout this case study, The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has been followed and all requirements on data collection and anonymity have been respected (Malmö Universitet, 2020). In the field notes from the observations as, well as in the transcriptions of the focus groups and teacher interview, no real names are used. The name and the location of the school where the study was conducted is not mentioned in the study. As the information gathered in the study is not particularly sensitive and the confidentiality requirement is fully met, there was no need to report the study to the Swedish Data Protection Authority

(Datainspektionen, 2016).

4.5 Analysis of the data

Field notes from each lesson observation were analyzed in detail directly after the lesson was held. All focus groups and the teacher interview were transcribed immediately after ending the focus group/interview. This allowed to compile an overview of the answers and reactions of the participants, as well as their own reflections. After completing the transcriptions and organizing the field notes, the data was analyzed based on the PMM model. The findings were sorted into the model categories learning environment, learning engagement and learner identities/self. The PMM model ensured that the answers and observations could be

connected to the research question regarding the usage of CLIL in the classroom and its influence on L2 learners' motivation.

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5.Results and discussion

In this section the key results of the study are summarized, analyzed and discussed. The findings are grouped according to the Process Motivational Model (PMM) with the

subsections, learner environment, learner engagement and learner identities/self. The three key aspects of motivation of the PMM were researched via observations, focus groups and teacher interview as described in the method section. The PMM model was used in the whole process of the study, including preparing the questions and explaining the findings in a comprehensive and coherent way.

5.1 Learner environment

Learner environment is one of three key aspects of motivation. In the observations, focus groups and the teacher interview we studied the learner environment from three angles: course specific, group specific and teacher specific. When looking at the learner environment from a course specific point of view, we looked at aspects such as course content, relevance to learners needs and time of day. In the group specific section, the study focused on finding information about the setting of the classroom, the working environment and learning culture. Finally, the teacher specific part aimed to study the task presentation, feedback and teaching methods. Below, the learner environment of the students that participated in the study is presented. Thereafter the learner environment of the non-CLIL and CLIL lessons are described, compared and discussed.

5.1.1 Learning environment in the non-CLIL and CLIL lessons

The teacher seemed to enjoy teaching English and used a calm and soft voice during all her lessons. The students stated in the focus groups that they think that Anna enjoys teaching English, and the teacher confirmed this in the interview. Positive encouragement by the teacher during the non-CLIL lessons was observed and the students had the perception that the teacher supported them. We observed that the teacher used motivational strategies to keep students motivated during the non-CLIL lessons. Examples of such strategies were positive encouragement and scaffolding of the tasks. Positive encouragement by the teacher during the CLIL lessons was not observed to the same extent. The reason for this may be twofold.

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One may be that the teacher thought that encouragement was not necessary as the CLIL-lessons proceeded smoothly and the students were motivated enough. The other reason may be that the teacher forgot to provide positive encouragement as the CLIL-lesson was not the regular way to teach English in the classroom. The CLIL-lesson would have had a different outcome, had the teacher implemented the same motivational L2 strategies during the CLIL lessons as during the non-CLIL lessons.

During all lessons the teacher walked around the classroom and supported the students to get started. Instructions in 5B were provided exclusively in English in both non-CLIL and CLIL, in class 5A the teacher used Swedish as well as English to explain the task. 5A had great difficulties getting started and needed significant support during the non-CLIL lesson. 5B started to work rather quickly without interruptions and seemed used to work in this manner. The teacher interview and the focus group revealed that this seems to be correlated to the relationship that the teacher has built with the students of 5B over a long period of time. According to Gibbons (2015), the method of scaffolding is based on the social view of

learning and it is important for the teacher to know what knowledge the students have, so that the learners can be challenged at the right level. As the teacher has a solid relationship with 5B, it makes sense to assume that she knows the students in 5B better than the students in 5A. Therefore, she can support them better to get started with the appropriate scaffolding tools.

During the non-CLIL lesson the students of 5A found it hard to concentrate as the volume was loud. The observations showed a much higher noise volume in class 5A than in 5B. 5B participated and was focused throughout the non-CLIL-lesson. They followed the text and even corrected the teacher when she skipped a paragraph as she was reading out loud. Students of 5A made comments and interrupted the non-CLIL lesson, whereas in 5B the teacher could conduct the lesson without interruptions.

The classrooms during the CLIL lessons were both calm with a good working and learning environment. Remarkable in the observations of the learning environment climate, was the change of the behavior of 5A during the CLIL-lesson. The class was cooperating and participating during the whole lesson. The results from the focus groups revealed that the

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students are of the opinion that the CLIL-lessons provided a better working environment because they found the lesson more fun. An example of this is the following quote from the focus groups directly after the CLIL-lesson.

“Alltså det är roligare än vanliga lektioner. Alltså, vi får lära oss nya saker och sånt. Annars läser vi bara i boken.” (Clara)

[It was more fun than regular lessons. We got to learn new things, normally we just read in the book.] (Clara)

“Det var tystare än vad det brukar vara.” (Clara) [It was more quiet than it usually is.] (Clara)

“När man gör någonting roligt så slipper man kaoset.” (Cosan)

[When you do something fun there is no chaos in the classroom. ] (Cosan)

According to Deci and Ryan (1985, as in Bodnar 2016, p.189), who formulated the first major theory of motivation, the Self-determination theory (SDT), intrinsic motivation is the condition where the L2 learners are motivated simply by an activity being enjoyable and interesting. The study showed that the students were more intrinsically motivated during the CLIL-lesson as they found the task more fun. The students were stimulated by the task and therefore the motivation became more intrinsic and the L2 learners’ efforts increased. To increase the motivation of the students, teachers should create learning environments where tasks are stimulating and satisfying (Noels 2013, as in Lamb 2017, p.313). CLIL and motivation is closely connected as content learned via an additional language seems to be perceived as fun. As the students participated voluntarily in the CLIL-lesson, one conclusion was that the fun aspect had a positive effect on the overall motivation towards language learning.

The researchers observed that when students communicated with each other in the classroom during the non-CLIL lessons, the communication was off-topic and in Swedish. A significant difference was observed in the CLIL-lessons, where the students communicated with each other on-topic about the task and cooperated. During the non-CLIL lesson the students were supposed to work in pairs when working in the workbook, but the observations reveal that

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many of the students did the work individually instead. Class 5A did not seem used to work in pairs and they did not seem to understand the instructions of the non-CLIL lesson. During the CLIL-lesson, the situation was different and the students in 5A cooperated, respected the rules and did not interrupt the teacher or each other.

According to Gibbons (2015) language develops as a process of making meaning and is best learned in an authentic context. The CLIL-lesson in the study provides an authentic context and a collaborative aspect of language development and learning. The CLIL-lessons

conducted in this study provide such a context by combining the second language, here English, with the curricular subject Geography. To exemplify, a dialogue from the classroom, when asked by the teacher to comment on the CLIL lesson, is presented below. The dialogue shows the reflection that the student made, that the learning took place between the students in the classroom.

“Det var intressant att lära sig om ett nytt land och jag lärde mig mycket!” (Clara) [It was interesting to learn about a new country!] (Clara)

“Lärde du dig inte om Italien, vårt land, också?” (Cosan) [Did you not learn about our country, Italy, as well?] (Cosan)

Class 5A seemed to have a culture that allows the students to be mean to each other and laugh at each other when making mistakes. In contrast, in class 5B, the students seemed used to supporting each other in their work and asking each other for help. A more allowing climate to make mistakes and ask questions was observed. When asked the question how it feels to make a mistake in English during the lesson, students from 5B said the following:

“Alltså det blir ingen stor grej om man säger fel.” (Erik) [It is not a big deal if you say something wrong] (Erik)

“Varje gång man gör fel, så blir man bättre.” (Måns) [Every time you make a mistake you get better.] (Måns)

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The allowing culture to make mistakes was even more visible during the observations of the CLIL-lesson. When a student in the focus group after the CLIL lesson in 5B was asked how it feels when you make a mistake, the response was:

“Fel? Då ska man skratta åt sig själv och gå vidare.” (Erik) [Mistake? Then you just laugh at yourself and move on!] (Erik)

The same question was asked to the students in the focus group of 5A and they answered the question quite differently:

“Det känns lite….alltså när man säger fel brukar några ibland skratta.” (Clara) [It feels a bit….When you say something wrong some people laugh.] (Clara) According to the teacher, class 5A can be a bit inhibited and not dare to speak out loud.

“I 5B är det ju tillåtet att prata och säga fel. Det är det i den andra klassen också men de kan vara lite hämmade, de vågar inte prata, de vill inte” (Anna)

[In class 5B it is ok to talk and make mistakes. In the other class also, but they seem to be more inhibited, not daring to speak, they do not want to.] (Anna)

”Det finns en tradition eller kultur i 5A att man kan vara taskig och skratta åt varandra när någon gör fel. I 5B har jag tryckt på ständigt att det är OK att säga fel, det är då man lär sig. Och vi hjälps åt, vi lär oss tillsammans!” (Anna)

[There is a tradition or culture in 5A that it is OK to be mean and laugh at each other when someone makes a mistake. In 5B i have stressed the importance that it is OK to make mistakes and that is when you learn. If we help each other, we learn together.] (Anna)

Class 5B is used to work multimodally at times. As an example, the students mentioned their work with the Children's Right Convention of the United Nations. They covered this topic in Social Sciences, Swedish as well as in English. Another example, that was mentioned in the focus groups, was the production of film posters in the English lessons. At the same time, they were working with the topic of advertising posters in the Swedish lessons. However, the normal practice seems to be non-CLIL lessons, based on the textbook and workbook. When students were asked what a typical lesson looked like one response was:

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“Den vi hade förra gången (non-CLIL). Ja, det är typ en mer normal lektion. Men sen har vi också olika, ibland kommer det någon gång asså lite annorlunda, något som fler tycker är lite roligare.” (Erik)

[The one we had last time (non-CLIL). That is more normal, sometimes we do something different, something more people think is fun to do.] (Erik)

In the CLIL lesson, the learning environment of class 5A seemed to change positively with a more accepting and positive climate in the classroom. The students did not seem shy to speak in front of the class. The analysis of the results show that the students are aware of the study environment impacting the learning. The CLIL-lesson seemed to have a positive impact on the general learning environment in the classroom. The teacher was the same, only the teaching method changed. We conclude, that the CLIL lesson plan motivated the students to change their behavior. The subject matter, the content, was an important part of the 4Cs framework of CLIL and seemed to increase the sense of authenticity, an important aspect of motivation (Coyle, 2010). In short, increased motivation changed the learning environment of the classes in a positive way.

5.2 Learner engagement

The second subsection of the PMM is learner engagement. It was studied from the learners perceived value of the lesson, the attitudes towards language learning, the engagement in the learning tasks and the learner perceptions of their learning.

The general attitude of the participants in the focus groups towards learning new languages, was that it was perceived as fun and it made communication to people from other countries possible. The overall result indicates that the students feel they learn the same amount of English during the CLIL lesson as in the non-CLIL lesson. However, the L2 learner motivation increased during the CLIL lesson. According to Coyle et al. (2010), effective CLIL is a result of the progression in knowledge, skills and understanding of the content, engagement in the cognitive processes involved in the learning, interaction in the

communicative context and the adequate support in vocabulary and phrases. We argue that even though the students responded that they learned the same amount of English, the overall

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motivation towards learning was higher and the progression was broader than learning solely the language. Instead, with CLIL, the students received a holistic learning experience where they gained knowledge in language and curriculum content simultaneously.

5.2.1 CLIL increased learner engagement

The learner engagement during the CLIL-lessons increased. The observations showed that the students seemed to be enjoying the task. The students seemed enthusiastic and eager to get started. The analysis of the focus groups and observations show that everyone participated actively in the lesson. All students were active in their groups and communicated about the task. The students seemed eager to read and present their sentences and to guess each other's country in the Quiz. During the non-CLIL lessons the communication was off topic and rarely related to the task in both classes observed. A general observation was that the students did not seem focused. In 5A many students did not follow the text in the textbook and did not participate in the task to work in the workbook. One boy in 5A, here Olle, was making disturbing noises and interrupted the teacher continuously. At one point he yawned loudly and said “Jag fattar ingenting!” [I don’t understand anything!]. The boy ended up leaving the classroom. Another boy in 5A, here Pelle, with special needs and a present assistant during all lessons, left the classroom after only a few minutes. In class 5B the students seemed to listen and engage to a larger extent than 5A, but significant excitement and enthusiasm could not be observed. In 5B there was one boy, here Nisse, who did not participate in the lesson at all.

According to the teacher, the engagement of the students increased in the CLIL-lesson. The teacher was asked how she could tell that the students engaged more in the CLIL-lesson than the non-CLIL lesson. When asked if there was a difference in the engagement between the CLIL and non-CLIL lesson, the answer was clear.

“Engagemanget. Att det blev ibland väldigt tyst och koncentrerat i klassrummet. Och sen väldigt pratigt, när de var engagerade också men att det liksom, det var en process som började hända. Ja, de drevs ju uppgiften, det var det pratet handlade om. De hade ett syfte, ett mål att presentera och göra de här meningarna.” (Anna, teacher)

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[The engagement. The classroom became very quiet and focused at times. At other moments, they were very chatty, when they were engaged. It was a process that was happening. They were driven by the task, and that is what the communication was about. They had a goal, to construct and present the sentences.] (Anna, teacher)

As the teacher had the opinion that the students in the CLIL-lesson were driven by the task, this supports the notion that language teaching is more effective when it is integrated with other curriculum subject content (Gibbons, 2015). The task in the CLIL-lesson that was part of the subject matter of the geography curriculum, was meaningful to the students and provided an authentic context. Pinner (2013) defines authentic language where something other than simply the language is discussed. According to him, authenticity needs to include the context of the learners, so that the materials used are relevant to the students. That way, the level of engagement of the students can be increased. The results of the study reveal that the students were motivated in the CLIL-lessons, where the subject content of geography was integrated in the language learning. We conclude that the increased motivation was in part due to the authenticity of the task in the CLIL-lessons. In the task in the non-CLIL lessons, which covered a fictional text with no curriculum relevance from other subjects than solely English, the students were less engaged. To the teacher it was apparent that the increased engagement of the students in the CLIL-lesson, was a result of the whole learning process. Another finding is that a large degree of the engagement that could be seen in the students as well as in the teacher, during the CLIL-lessons, was correlated to the fun of the task. As described in the background, intrinsic motivation is when one does something for mere inherent satisfaction rather than external factors. Lepper and Malone (1987, as in Mozelius et al., 2017 a) developed a model that breaks down intrinsic motivation into seven components. These components are challenge, curiosity, control, fantasy, cooperation, competition and recognition. When comparing the non-CLIL lesson plan with the CLIL-lesson plan, many of these components were included in the CLIL-lesson plan. This case study shows that these components in the CLIL-lesson were the reason why the CLIL-lesson made the students more intrinsically motivated.

The increased engagement in the CLIL-lesson can be explained with several motivational theories. According to the Flow Theory, the increased motivation of the students could be caused by an interesting and challenging task at an optimal level for the students. The

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engagement and the enjoyment of the task represent the flow in the Flow theory and is often unconscious (Lamb, 2017). In the SDT motivational theory, the fun of the task increases the L2 intrinsic motivation of the learners. This is in line with the concept of constructing CLIL-lessons, where the engagement in the cognitive processes involved in the learning, is an important element (Coyle, Hood, and Marsh, 2010).

The teacher, Anna, also noticed that the students wanted to participate in the CLIL-lesson. “Det tyckte jag att jag såg bevis för. Engagemanget.”

[I could see evidence of participation. Involvement.]

Another result of the study is that the teacher was more motivated during the CLIL-lesson. The teacher responded in the interview that the CLIL lesson appealed to her to a larger extent than the non-CLIL lesson. When she was asked how she felt after the lesson she claimed to feel more motivated and fulfilled as a teacher. The reason she gave for this, was the increase of the on-topic activity of the students during the CLIL-lesson.

“CLIL lektionerna var ju de lektionerna som det var mest aktivitet och som var roligast, även för mig. Man smittas av deras lust, deras arbetslust och det precis som allt annat skapar också ringar på vattnet. Det gör att jag blir en bättre lärare och möter dem på ett bättre sätt eller ett mer nyfiket sätt.” (Anna, the teacher)

[ The CLIL-lessons were the lessons with the most activity and they were the most fun, even for me. You get affected by their desire to work and just like anything else it creates synergies. I become a better teacher and can meet them in a better and more curious way.] (Anna, the teacher)

According to the results of the focus groups, the CLIL-lesson was perceived as more exciting and fun compared to the non-CLIL lesson. The reason for this may be that the students felt they learned something new and the task of the lesson was more fun, easier to learn and more interesting that the regular textbook/workbook lesson design. The results of the focus groups indicate that the students perceived that they learned English, as well as geography during the lesson. The students also mentioned that they would remember the new words after the lessons and that they wanted to participate and work on the tasks.

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When asked to compare the two lessons one student in 5A said the following:

“Alltså, det var roligare idag. Och lättare att lära sig. Du förstår typ mer. Jag lärde mig nya grejer om landet vi hade.“ (Clara)

[It was more fun today. And easier to learn. You understand more. I learned more things about the country.] (Clara)

When the same student was asked if she learned any English during the CLIL-lesson she said:

“Jag tror det. Ja, jag lärde mig några saker om länder.” (Clara) [ I think so. I have learned new things about countries.] (Clara)

Both focus groups preferred the CLIL-lesson over the non-CLIL lesson and expressed a positive attitude towards the CLIL-method to conduct English lessons. They mentioned that they prefer the CLIL way of working, because more students think it is fun. The general reflection of the students was that they were more focused and eager to start the task when something was perceived as fun.

“När någonting är roligt vill man börja på en gång!” (Sandra)

[When something is fun, you want to start working immediately!] (Sandra)

5.2.2 CLIL as a tool to motivate more students in the classroom

In 5A, the boys Olle and Pelle, who were interfering during the non-CLIL lesson, seemed to be more involved and focused during the CLIL-lesson. Pelle, who left the classroom during the non-CLIL lesson, worked in a group of three without any problems. The focus group of 5A confirmed, that Pelle does not usually participate actively in the English lessons. In 5 B, Nisse, who was passive and uninvolved during the non-CLIL lesson, seemed to like the task and was immediately engaged and active during the CLIL-lesson. Nisse asked the teacher for help several times during the lesson and the teacher helped and supported him. He

participated enthusiastically and seemed very content after his reading. Nisse stated in the focus group that he felt eager to participate in the CLIL-lesson. It was more fun and therefore, he wanted to learn more.

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Forskarna: “Så när det är roligare så lär man sig mer?”

Nisse: “Nej, jag menar man vill lära sig. Jag tyckte det var roligt att få reda på mer. “

Nisse: “When it is more fun, you want to learn more. “

Alexandra and Hanna: “So do you learn more when it is more fun?” Nisse:” No, I mean you want to learn. It was fun to find out more.”

The teachers' perspective on the increased participation of Nisse during the CLIL-lesson was that Nisse seems to be under stimulated during the regular non-CLIL lessons.

“När det gäller Nisse, så tror jag att textbook/workbook lektionen var alldeles för lätt för honom. Han behöver utmaningar. Och det är det jag tror.” (Anna) [When it comes to Nisse, I think that the tasks in the textbook/workbook lesson were too easy for him. He needs to be challenged. And that is what I think.] (Anna)

The fact that the students, who were either passive or interruptive during the non-CLIL lessons, changed their behavior drastically in the CLIL-lessons, is an important finding of the study. Especially those students showed signs of significantly increased motivation during the observations. In the focus groups the participants noticed this change as well. This shift in motivation could be explained with the mechanism that has been mentioned above, regarding the authenticity and fun of the task. Those elements seem to be of greater importance to motivate students, who need more support and challenges to participate effectively in lessons at school. As the LGR’11 (Skolverket 2011/2019) states, all children's needs should be met at their level. We find that the CLIL approach to teach languages may be an effective tool to provide the right support. This could lead to more children participating and engaging in the language lessons.

All participants of the focus groups stated that the CLIL lesson was more fun than the non-CLIL lesson. The analysis of the focus groups indicates that one of the reasons for this was the possibility to cooperate with peers, and that new knowledge about the countries increased

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the willingness to learn. Below, some of the comments from the students who participated in the focus groups on how they felt after the CLIL-lesson are presented.

“Kul! För man fick reda på mer om landet. Sen så fick man reda på många saker.” (Nisse)

[Fun! You get to know more about the country. You found out many things.] (Nisse)

“Det var roligt och spännande. Det var nya saker som vi lärde oss. Alltså, vi lärde oss om länder. “ (Cosan)

[It was fun and exciting. We learned new things. We learned about countries.] (Cosan)

“Alltså, det var roligare än vanliga lektioner.”(Clara) [It was more fun than normal lessons.] (Clara)

When asked a more general question why English is fun, the result of the analysis of the focus groups conclude that you learn without noticing that you are learning. As an example, the students mentioned English films and series, games such as Minecraft, and social media such as YouTube or Facebook. They mentioned that they actively look up words they do not understand and learn that way. One student learned English from playing Minecraft, he used Google to find words he did not understand. In his opinion, it is much more fun to learn from a game because then he can advance in the game and beat his friends. He claimed to

remember the words that he learned from the game.

“När du spelar ett spel som du gillar, du lär dig spelet.” (Cosan) [When you play a game that you like, you learn the game.](Cosan)

“Att man lär sig, det är nytt. Det blir kul för jag tycker om att kolla på film och serier, och samtidigt lär man sig nya ord. Man lär sig utan att man märker det!” (Erik)

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[You learn, it’s new. It becomes fun because I enjoy watching movies and series and at the same time, I learn new words. You learn without noticing it!] (Erik)

The teacher, Anna, stated in the interview that the purpose and context of what you do in the lesson and how it is connected, is very important.

“Jag tror att det är jätteviktigt för mig som person och pedagog, att det vi gör dels att det blir någonting, om det sedan blir en pjäs eller en bok eller om det blir någon som läser upp någonting. Målet och slutprodukten är viktigt. Att man inte bara hastar över den.”

[I think it is important to me as a person and as a pedagogue that what we do leads to something. Whether it is a play, a book or a presentation. The goal and the end product is important. That you do not rush through it.]

As a positive example the students in the focus groups and the teacher mentioned the poster project where two subjects, Swedish and English were integrated. The teacher, Anna, seemed to agree with the students about the fun aspect of the lessons.

“När vi gör det tillsammans, så har vi roligt samtidigt som vi lär oss…man lär sig ju mer om det är roligt.”

[When we do it together and have fun is where learning takes place...you learn more when it is fun.]

The view that the teacher has on collaborative learning is in line with the concept of modern pedagogical approaches and LGR’11. Gibbons (2015) builds her theories on language learning on the social and collaborative work of Lev Vygostsky. All participants, here the students between each other, and the teacher with the students during the CLIL-lesson, participated actively in the learning process. This is another important brick in the CLIL method. Interaction between the students in the communicative context is evidence of effective CLIL (Coyle, Hood, and Marsch, 2010). The teacher was of the opinion that the learning takes place together and when it’s fun. Fun is an important element of motivation and according to Ryan and Deci (1985, as in Bodnar et al., 2016, p 189) fun motivates a person intrinsically. The results of the study clearly suggest that learner engagement seems to

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increase when the content is fun and authentic. Another positive outcome of the study is that the teacher as well as the students are motivated by the CLIL-approach of conducting second language learning in the classroom.

5.3 Learner identities/self

The third and last subsection of the PMM is about learner identities and the learners’ perception of self. We studied the learner identities and the perception of self by observing and asking the students and teacher about students' self-concept and mastery of the English language. This was done in order to gain a deeper understanding of how the learners are motivated and how their self confidence in the English language might change depending on using CLIL or not.

All students in the focus groups agreed that it is important to know English. Also, they all responded that they like to learn new languages and that they want to learn additional languages later. The reasons mentioned as to why English is important, were that English is spoken all over the world and that it is a language that many people communicate in. Some of the comments from the focus groups were:

“Engelska är väldigt viktigt. När jag var utomlands tyckte jag synd om folket

där för de kunde inte snacka engelska.” (Erik)

[English is very important. When I was abroad, I felt sorry for the people that could not speak English.] (Erik)

“Om man har en vän som bara kan engelska eller ett annat språk som hemspråk, då är det bra att kunna engelska. Eller om man har en internetkompis.” (Astrid)

[If you have a friend that only speaks English or another language at home, it is good to know English. Or if you have a friend on the Internet.] (Astrid)

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To outline how the learner L2 motivation of the students could be explained, we find that the motivation framework, developed by Dörnyei (2009, as in Lamb 2017, p. 304), the L2

Motivational Self System (L2MSS), is a suitable method. In the L2MSS model there are three possible selves of every person that influence motivation. Those are the Ideal L2 self, the Ought-to L2 self and the L2 learning experience. The framework is explained in the

background of the current paper. In general, the students in the focus groups expressed that English is important and that they want to learn it. The Ought-to L2 self, seems well rooted with the students and their values and beliefs are that learning languages are important. The Ideal-L2 self represents how the students look at their competence of English in the future. The results of the study show that the students in the study see themselves as competent future users of English. The difference occurs when the students assessed their current ability of English after the non-CLIL and the CLIL lesson. In the focus groups after the non-CLIL lessons the students perceived their competence of English as being worse than after the CLIL lessons. When asked if they are good at English after the non-CLIL lesson some of the students responded the following:

“Nej jag kan inte jättemycket. Jag kan vissa ord och kan snacka vissa meningar, men jag kan inte så flytande.” (Astrid)

[No, I do not know a lot. I can speak certain words and some sentences, byt I am not very fluent.] (Astrid)

“Mittemellan. Jag tror jag behöver större ordförråd.” (Erik) [Average. I think I need a better vocabulary.] (Erik)

When the participants in the focus groups were asked how they assess their knowledge of English after the CLIL lesson, all students in the focus groups replied they feel good about their English skills. The conclusion that we make, is that the feelings of competence of the students and their feeling of self-worth is increased. Cosan, a student, commented on his feelings about himself after the lesson.

“Mer duktig.” [More skilled.] “Mer fokuserad.” [More focused.]

“Jag vet inte, men det känns nu bättre.” [I don’t know why, but it feels better now.]

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Another result that stresses the importance of feelings of competence and of a positive self-awareness and confidence are the reflections that the students made. They seemed to make the connection that if the self confidence is low, the motivation to learn becomes low and the learning outcome is therefore also low.

“För att man lär sig lite bättre. För om man inte är så bra på det kommer man tycka det är tråkigt, om man inte är så bra på det. “(Clara)

[ Because you learn a bit better. Because if you are not good in English, you will think it's boring, if you are not so good at it.] (Clara)

“Man har mest lust när det är något man är bra på.” (Erik)

[You feel like it more if it is something that you are good at.] (Erik)

“Ha kul man ska ha kul...inte bara sitta på stolen och kolla.” (Cosan)

[Have fun, you have to have fun...not just sit on the chair and stare.] (Cosan)

“För man tycker det är kul, så är man fokuserad” (Clara) [Because if you think it is fun, you are more focused.] (Clara)

The students of the focus groups seemed to understand how they are motivated and the aspect of cooperating with a peer and having fun was a recurring comment from them. In this study, the students' self-concept and perception of mastering the language is significantly higher after the CLIL lessons than after the non-CLIL lessons. We conclude, that if the students think positively about the whole learning process and have a high belief in their own ability and competence of the English language, it may lead to higher motivation. The researchers conclude that the usage of CLIL can have a positive impact on the students’ motivation to become competent current and future users of the L2.

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