• No results found

Drying system of sewage sludge - wastewater treatment plant in Gdansk

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2021

Share "Drying system of sewage sludge - wastewater treatment plant in Gdansk"

Copied!
7
0
0

Loading.... (view fulltext now)

Full text

(1)

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT KALMAR, SWEDEN, November 5-7, 1997

18

DRYING SYSTEM OF SEWAGE

SLUDGE - WASTEWATER

TREATMENT PLANT IN GDANSK

Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak

University of Gdansk Poland

INTRODUCTION

The 'Wsch6d' wastewater treatment plant, with average flow of sewage equal to 110 000 me3 /day, is the biggest plant in the voyevodship of Gdansk. The volume of treated sewage amounts to 60% of the total quantity of sewage in the commu­ nity of Gdansk. Until 1993 treatment of sewage was carried out in the facilities that ensured only mechanical removal of contaminants. Poor sanitary conditions of the coastal water of the Gulf of Gdansk was the main reason for introducing primary chemical precipitation (dephosphatation), using coagulant called PIX. Chemical process of precipitation resulted first of all in effective elimination of phosphates, between 77.6 - 81.8% during the period 1993-95. The removal of organic matter also improved. Due to this the load of total suspended solids in 1995 decreased by 49.1% in comparison to 1992. The removal of organic mat­ ter expressed as BOD5 and CODc, equaled respactively 34.7% and 32,8%. How­ ever, after the introduction of chemical precipitation, the increase of the sludge from 600 me3 /d (before introducing of chemical precipitation) to 1100 me3 /d (after introducing of chemical precipitation) was observed. For this reason it was decided to provide support for the coagulation process with anionic polimer. The anionic polimer was introduced in 1995, which resulted in the decrease of the total production of sludge to the amount of 600 - 650 me3 /d.

Modernization of the WWTP also caused the necessity of replacing the formerly used method of dewatering on drying beds (total area of 7.4 ha) by mechanical dewatering in centrifuges of capacity of 8-25 me3 /h and maximum load of sludge of 800 kg DS/h. As a result the operation of the treatment plant became easier, though the problems with utilization of the sludge are not completely solved yet.

(2)

---

---

,�

....

��-:-· 1-. .... ,

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT KALMAR. SWEDEN, November 5-7, 1997

MANAGEMENT OF SLUDGE IN THE WWTP

The average quantity of sewage sludge collected in primary tanks (Dorra type) is 32 500 kg DS/d and the average sludge water content - about 97%. The sludge is transported by gravity force to the tank for the pumping station and next is di­ rected to four open digestion tanks of the volume 20 000 me3 each. Until July 1993 the sludge was submitted to single-stage digestion followed by dewatering and stabilization on the drying beds during the vegetation season. After the chemical precipitation was introduced mechanical dewatering of sludge in the four cocurrent centrifuges of the capacity 8 -25 me3 Id and maximal load of 800 kg DS/h each was started. The process is supported by polyelectrolite solutions. The supernantant return from the centrifuges is returned to the begining of the plant.

-· _,one! ...

-�•·

!

r---,

,.._d ... WllgJ oa.natn ,-d\t;c.._ Oj>oodigosti"' Pl,!,j:sol

c.nt,-

Slidgo4'1"'9-llld __ _ sJucQe ... .._..lolt.,.JdQo

- - - - al

---

---•-• - ---•-• - ,1ui:1g, tNdt --- ._i.r,

Fig. 1. Schematic of technological processes in the., Wsch6d" treatment plant in Gdansk.

THE UP-TILL-NOW EXPERIENCE WITH OPERATION OF CENTRIFUGES

The centrifuge station was put to operation in May, 1993. There are four cocur­ rent centrifuges, which means that the inflow of the crude and the outflow of the dewatered sludge occur in the same direction. The characteristic parameters of the centrifuges are as follows : the diameter of centrifuge basket equal to 600

Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Poland 158

(3)

�·""

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT KALMAR, SWEDEN, November 5-7, 1997

mm, the rotation frequency - 1900 [rotations/min], fineness ratio - 4.2 (the quo­ tient of the length of the basket to its diameter).

At the beginning (from March to April I 993) the digested sludges were submit­ ted to the dewatering on the centrifuges. The sludge undergoing dewatering was well digested (the average digestion coefficient was 56%). The introduction of primary chemical pecipitation caused the deterioration of the quality of digested sludge (the average fermentation coefficient was equal 36% between April 1993 and April 1995) (2). The deterioration of the quality of sludge submitted to de­ watering appeared to be the direct reason of the growth of concentration of dis­ solved organic matter in the effluent (Fig 2a & 2b).

•>

..,,,,.,,,....,

..

r,.J eo 55 50

...

"'

..

30

••

05

..

.,

..

07 20 ••+-�H,�.,�,--,,-N�.,,,--�v.�••--�-�-3-+es 1.7 2,2 2,.3 2,5 �olpolyeltlcitolite - •ludga after ,.rm•ntation

- • - Np,.aration co.ni.c:..nt b)

-·­

,_,..,

(%] 45 60 40 50 35

"'

30 30 25 20 20

- •ludg• aftc,r i.nn.ntador,

-• - MPUallioncoeffiCMnt

(4)

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT KALMAR, SWEDEN. November 5-7, 1997

The measunnents of dewatering efficiency in the period between March 1993 and April 1995 included the determination of the separation coefficient. The changes of amount of dry matter as a function of various doses of polyelectrolite and various qualities of the sludge given to centrifuges were measured. The quality of sludge was determined by the efficiency of digestion and water con­ tent of the sludge. The obtained results are presented in the Fig 2a & 2b. The re­ sults showed that for the sludges of digestion coefficient over 50% the separa­ tion degree R was higher than 95%, while the doses of polyelectrolite were lower than 3 kg of polimer/ t DS. The separation coefficient for the sludges of diges­ tion coefficient between 25 and 45% was even below 80%. Dewatering of the sludge in the measunnent period was between 25 and 30% of DS. It was also found out that in order to ensure the proper operation of the centrifuges the amount of the dry matter in the sludge submitted to dewatering should be at least 3% and the load should be about 10 - 15% lower than the maximal one (equal to 800 kg DS/h) [2].

In order to decrease the doses of coagulant as well as to improve the efficiency of coagulation it was decided to support the process of primary precipitation with the anionic polimer. This allowed to decrease the dose of coagulant to the amount of 125 - 140 mg/dm3 and led to significant improvement of chemical precipitation process efficiency [3,4]. The amount of dry matter in the sludge has increased to 5-6% on average, while previously it was about 2.5 -3%. This fact influences directly the efficiency of mechanical dewatering of sludge - the dose of polyelectrolite in sludge decreased and the total amount of sludge dropped from 100 mel /d to 70 mel /d.

THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SLUDGE CONDITIONING PROCESS

The preparation of the sludge for dewatering (conditioning) includes selection of the suitable type of polyelectrolite and its dose in order to ensure the proper value of separation coefficient as well as effective dewatering and, at the same time, reasonably low concentration of contaminants (which will not disturb the sewage treatment processes) [ I]. Since the sludge dewatering station was put to operation in 1993 the measunnents have been carried out in order to determine the most effective conditions for sludge dewatering and the optimal dose of polyelectrolite. The analysis of performance of four cationic polyelectrolites A, B, C and D (the letter codes are explained in the Saur Neptun Gdansk documen­ tation) is given below .The tests were carried out from December 1995 to May 1996. The following estimation criteria were accepted:

• the dry matter of dewatered sludge � 25%

• effluent COD in the range 3000+ 4000 mgO2 /dml

• polyelectrolite dose � 3,5 g/kg DS

Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Poland

(5)

iu

., ..

◄OOOmg/1 ' ' "' ,; . A B A B a

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND Tl-IE ENVIRONMENT KALMAR, SWEDEN, November 5-7, 1997

In order to ensure the homogeneous conditions of the tests the dry matter of the sludge given to the centrifuges was about 3 + 4%, if it was possible.

In Fig. 3 the diagrams showing the averages and standard deviations of the basic parameters determining the usefulness of the polyelectrolites are presented. The parameters taken into account are the doses of polyelectrolite and the estimation criteria given above. The diagrams prove that none of the tested polyelectrolites turned out to be better nor worse than the other ones. Therefore the choice of one of the polyelectrolites depended on non-technological aspects. The average cost of transport as well as availability of service were taken into account. In ad­ dition to this the reaction time in the case of one of the electrolites was shorter than for the others. Fig. 4 presents the same diagrams as Fig. 3, but after reject­ ing the outlayer values with the Q test. In this case the effluent COD for the polyelectrolite D is lower than for the other polyelectrolites.

dose of potyelect roil e reject • CCD

3000 2000 1000 0 a A B CD C 0

DSof dewatered sludge DScrude sludge

30%··

.

20 3 2 "'' ; 10 1 "

...

.

A 8 C D

.

0 b 0 a a C D

Fig. 3 Averages (a) and standard deviations (b) of all recorded results A,B,C,D - various anion polymers tested

(6)

••

-�,

4000 , ·

·

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT KALMAR, SWEDEN, November 5-7, 1997

dose of polyelectrollte reject - COD

"' 3 3000 C

i

0 2 - mg/I 2000 1000 1: 1 , . o b 0 b a a A B CD A B C o

OS of dewatered sludge OS crude sludge

30 . 3 20 � 2

:i

1 0 1 0 b 0 b a a A B C 0

. .

'"

Fig. 4 Averages (a) and standard deviations (b) of results after removing out­

layers A,B,C,D -various anion polymers tested

On the basis of the results received after rejecting the outlayers as well as the re­ action time and technological and non - technological aspects mentioned above, polyelectrolite D was selected for the sewage sludge conditioning in 1996. Every year the wastewater treatment plant is carrying on the tests in order to optimilize both dewatering and primary chemical precipitation, because the cost of chemi­ cals used in these processes sums up to approximately 25% of the total operation cost of the WWTP.

CONCLUSIONS

1) The amount of the dry matter in the crude sludge should be at least 3% in or­ der to assure the proper operation of centrifuges.

2) Dewatering of the well digested sewage sludge occurs with the separation co­ efficient higher than 95% while the doses of polyelectrolite are about 3 g/kg DM.

3) The effective dewatering of sludge partly digested requires twice as high doses of polyelectrolite as in the case of the well digested one.

4) Analysis of the influence of four various cationic polyelectrolites on the de­ watering efficiency, taking into account effluent COD, the amount of dry matter in the crude sludge and in the thickened sludge, allowed to select one of the polyelectrolites only after the outlayer values were rejected.

5) Investigations should be carried out in order to find quantitative indicators allowing for polyelectrolite performance estimation.

Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Poland 162

(7)

WASTE MANAGEMENT AND THE ENVIRONMENT KALMAR, SWEDEN, November 5-7, 1997

REFERENCES

1. Bartoszewski K. - Ocena efektywnoceci mechanicznego zageszczania i mechanicznego odwodnienia osad6w - Mat. Miedzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowo-Technicznej nt. ,,Problemy gospodarki osadowej w oczyszczlniach ceciek6w" (Red. j.Bieii). Czestochowa, czerwiec 1995, : 151-160.

2. Butaj3o W. - Docewiadczenia z mechanicznego odwadniania osad6w z Gdanskiej Oczyszczalni <Eciek6w. Mat. Kraj. Konf. Nauk. Tech. nt. ,,Wykorzystywanie osad6w ceciekowych - techniczne i prawne uwarunk­ owania" (Red. J.Bieii). Czestochowa, czerwiec 1996, : 229-237.

3. Gielert M. Materia3y Informacyjne firmy Saur Neptun Gdansk. Gdansk -1992-1996.

4. Obarska-Pempkowiak H., Butaj3o W. - Efektywnocea: suwania zanieczyszczeii po wprowadzeniu wstepnego chemicznego strlcania w oczyszczalni ,,Wsch6d" w Gdaiisku - Mat. Kraj. Konf. Nauk. Tech. nt. ,,Nowe technologie w uzdatnianiu wody; oczyszczaniu ceciek6w i gospodarki osadowej" (Red. J. Bieii). Ustroii, luty 1997, : 75-82.

Figure

Fig.  1.  Schematic of technological processes in the., Wsch6d&#34; treatment plant in  Gdansk
Fig. 2. Separation efficiency of solids from primary sludge,  a)without PIX,
Fig.  3  Averages (a) and standard deviations (b) of all recorded results A,B,C,D  - various anion polymers tested
Fig.  4  Averages  (a) and standard deviations (b) of results after removing out­ layers A,B,C,D  - various anion  polymers tested

References

Related documents

46 Konkreta exempel skulle kunna vara främjandeinsatser för affärsänglar/affärsängelnätverk, skapa arenor där aktörer från utbuds- och efterfrågesidan kan mötas eller

Från den teoretiska modellen vet vi att när det finns två budgivare på marknaden, och marknadsandelen för månadens vara ökar, så leder detta till lägre

The increasing availability of data and attention to services has increased the understanding of the contribution of services to innovation and productivity in

Parallellmarknader innebär dock inte en drivkraft för en grön omställning Ökad andel direktförsäljning räddar många lokala producenter och kan tyckas utgöra en drivkraft

Re-examination of the actual 2 ♀♀ (ZML) revealed that they are Andrena labialis (det.. Andrena jacobi Perkins: Paxton &amp; al. -Species synonymy- Schwarz &amp; al. scotica while

Industrial Emissions Directive, supplemented by horizontal legislation (e.g., Framework Directives on Waste and Water, Emissions Trading System, etc) and guidance on operating

The EU exports of waste abroad have negative environmental and public health consequences in the countries of destination, while resources for the circular economy.. domestically

För att göra detta har en körsimulator använts, vilken erbjuder möjligheten att undersöka ett antal noggranna utförandemått för att observera risktagande hos dysforiska