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Orebro University

Swedish Business School at Orebro University Informatics,

Course: Thesis - VT11 Campus IK4003

Supervisor: jenny Lagsten

Examiner: Anders Avdic

Spring semester 2011

Thesis title:

How to make use of knowledge embedded in development practice by using ICT to sustain rural development?-Case Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan

Author: Liaqut Ali

Date of Birth (80-08-30)

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Abstract

The process of rural development is a participatory set of development activities. During this process, these sets of development practices generate different forms of knowledge. Modern means of information and communication technology fosters development activities. The ICT has become an interest to the government agencies, NGOs, and Donor agencies to develop rural areas. However, the Sustainability in rural development remains a question for the stakeholders of the development process. This paper takes a case study of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan for sharing knowledge among different stakeholders that are involved in the development activities. The study takes a literature review to collect concepts from 10 selected frameworks connected to the rural development process. The study finds ICT tools such as LAN, Internet, and Database management system and web technologies to create a knowledge repository to store and share knowledge on rural development activities. The study concludes that information sharing on socio, economic and environmental development in a rural area is a step in sustaining the rural development process. It proposes a knowledge network using ICT a communication way to share and use knowledge on rural development activities in order to sustain the rural development process in the case of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. Key words: knowledge management, sustainable development, rural development, ICT

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Contents

1.  Introduction... 6 

2.  Case Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan:... 6 

2.1  Local Government... 7 

2.2  Local support Organization (LSO)... 7 

2.3  Local Community... 7 

2.4  NGO’s... 7 

2.5  Donor Agencies... 8 

2.6  Civil Society... 8 

3.  Knowledge Management in sustainable rural development... 8 

3.1  Rural development ... 8  3.2  Sustainable development... 8  3.3  Knowledge management ... 9  3.3.1  Knowledge creation:... 9  3.3.2  Indigenous knowledge:... 9  4.  Methodology... 9  4.1  Identification of concepts:... 10  4.2  Analysis of the concepts:... 10 

5.  Results and Analysis... 10 

5.1  Frameworks used in Knowledge management related to rural development:... 10 

5.2  A process to make use of knowledge in rural development in Gilgit-Baltistan Case... 13 

5.3  Use of ICT for managing knowledge in Gilgit-Baltistan Case... 14 

5.4  Proposed framework for sharing knowledge on rural development activities in Gilgit-Baltistan Case... 15  6.  Discussion... 16  7.  Conclusion... 17  8.  Reference list... 18  9.  Appendix:... 24  Appendix‐1 Interviewed Organization ... 24  Appendix‐2 Interviewed Persons ... 25  Appendix 3: Information on Development activities: ... 26  Appendix‐4 Identification of Knowledge among stakeholders ... 27  Appendix‐5 Rural Telecommunication Infrastructure... 28 

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Appendix‐6 Requirements (categories of online resources) for the KM System: ... 29  Appendix‐7 ICT Oreinted Activities ... 30  Appendix‐8 Questionaire used for the interview:... 31 

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Acronyms

AKCSP: Aga Khan Culture Service Pakistan

AKPBSP: Aga Khan Planning and Building Service Pakistan AKRSP: Aga Khan Rural Support Program

ICT: Information and Communication Technology ISP: Internet Service Provider

KADO: Karakorum Area Development Organization KIU: Karakorum International University

KKH: Karakorum Highway KM: Knowledge Management

KMS: Knowledge Management System LSO: Local Support Organization NGO: Non-Governmental Organization

PDCN: Professional Development Centre North RE: Requirement Engineering

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1. Introduction

The practice of sustainable rural development has been in focus for long time and is by now widely cited in national and international policy documents (Koutsouris, 2008). The development process in rural areas is based on different conditions. Rural areas are considered isolated far from cities and towns. The intervention of development practices and outreach of modern ICT tools bring a new change to the rural environment. The social, economical and environmental change in the rural area needs to be stable. Rosenbaum (1993) describes it: sustainability by means of using methods, systems and materials should not deplete resources or harm natural cycles.

The process of rural development is a participatory set of activities that involves local people, its natural environment, outside development practitioners and other stakeholders including development agencies (Chambers & Conway, 1991). The process of rural development evolves by a multidisciplinary set of practices through a series of time. During this process, these sets of development practices generate different forms of knowledge. This composition of knowledge is formed by combining local rural areas indigenous knowledge together with outside world knowledge that comes through the development actors (Hess, 2006).

Modern means of information and communication technology plays a vital role in fostering development activities. Information and communication technology are a fundamental element of any rural development activity (Chapman & Slaymaker, 2002). The significance of information and communication technology is of an interest to the Government agencies to use in developing rural areas. Government agencies use Information and communication technologies (ICT) to provide information and services to rural areas.

The Author of this paper takes case of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan to study the use of knowledge by highlighting the process for knowledge creation and its use by modern ICT tools in rural development. The research question for this paper is “How to make use of knowledge embedded in development practice by using ICT to sustain rural development?-Case Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. In addition, its objective is defined as:

• To define a process that will show how knowledge is created by considering the case of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan.

• To show how knowledge can be helpful to sustain the rural development process in the case of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan.

In the next section, case of Gilgit-Baltistan is described. Section 3 highlights management of knowledge in sustainable rural development. The method of the paper is given in section5 that is followed by results, analysis and discussion.

2. Case Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan:

The Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan is geographically situated in the north of Pakistan surrounded by the world’s greatest and highest mountain series of Himalaya, Karakorum and Hindu Kush Mountain. In the mountain region of this area poverty continues to be blight the prospect of sustainable livelihoods for much of the population. Mountain area presents a series of special challenges to their residents and to the agencies that try to support sustainable development livelihoods (Wood et al, 2007). This region has been under the subject of rural development process by numerous

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NGO´s and International development agencies beside the local government of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. For the last twenty years, AKRSP (Aga Khan Rural Support Program) has sought to contribute to the reduction of poverty in the region as well (Wood et al, 1997).

A study on the initial information on development activities in the region were identified as ICT, Agriculture, institutional development, Gender, market and enterprise development, local infrastructural development (Ali, 2010). The stakeholders of the region were identified as:

2.1 Local Government

The local government in the region has one department the planning and development department (P&D) which makes plans on different development activities. It conducts studies and holds information in the region on various socio-economic developments. The department has no central database management system but it has information on development activities on standalone computers (Ali, 2010). The information includes socio-economic development reports, different study formats and donor contribution on development activities. The department has an information resource center together with GIS project of 300 villages (Ali, 2010). The department needs a centralized database management system to store its information in order to disseminate it.

2.2 Local support Organization (LSO)

Local support organization (LSO) is an alliance or federation of villages and women organizations (V/WOs) and other village based institutions and self help groups that are formed at grass root level of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. These organizations on village level through institutional action create enabling opportunities for poor, youth, women, children and other disadvantaged groups to unleash their potential to improve their quality of life. These organizations have small office setups in different villages of the region. Few of the organizations have access to very low internet access. The primary source of communication for these organizations is through telephone and mobile network (Ali, 2010). In order to use the available information to these organizations a well communication infrastructure and access to internet is required.

2.3 Local Community

Local community of the region Gilgit-Baltistan is spread in different valleys. It consists of diverse culture and ethnicities. The use of traditional knowledge is important in the development process of rural area. World Bank report (1998) finds it an integral part of the development process of local communities. It is a key element of the social capital of the poor and the main asset to invest in the struggle for their survival. ICT can be used to harmonize the traditional knowledge with scientific knowledge of other stakeholder in the region. This will help to enhance the local community’s ability to understand the development process. The modern tools of communication used by the community in the region consist of radio, TV, Mobil phones and partially through internet (Ali, 2010).

2.4 NGO’s

A number of NGOs (AKRSP, AKPBP and AKCSP) together with donor agencies are working on various development activities in the region of Gilgit-Baltistan. The ICT infrastructures of these NGOs are suitable for sharing information on development activities in the region with other stakeholders (Ali, 2010). These NGOs can share information on development activities using Modern ICT tools.

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2.5 Donor Agencies

The scientific knowledge and funding from the donor agencies play a key role in the rural development of the region. The rich information and training facilities on rural development are provided in collaboration with government department, NGOs and other civil society organization in the region (Ali, 2010). The use of knowledge on rural development activities is vital for the rural development and its sustainability together with other actors of the rural development process. The transfer of knowledge from the donor agencies through development activity can be stored in the form of best practices and other source of information in the knowledge repository so that other stakeholders can get benefit of it.

2.6 Civil Society

Civil society plays an important role in sustainable rural development and environment (shepherd, 1998). The region of Gilgit-Baltistan comprises of different civil society organization (Ali, 2010). Together With other stakeholders, the civil society organization can provide and use knowledge on rural development activities in the region. The available ICT tool such as internet provides an opportunity to communicate with other stakeholders of the region.

3. Knowledge Management in sustainable rural development

3.1 Rural development

Ploeg et al. (2000) defines rural development a multi level, multifaceted and multi sector with a wide array of interconnected practices. This definition gives a broad spectrum of issues that are subject to the development. It includes landscape management, conservation of new natural values, tourism, organic farming and production of high quality products. Rural development expresses the creation of new products and services. With the introduction of new technologies, it produces and reproduces specific knowledge bases (Ploeg et al., 2000). These set of knowledge bases are important for the sustainability of the rural development process.

3.2 Sustainable development

The concept of sustainability has been used in variety of contexts rising from the concept of social, economical and environmental developments. The word sustainability has been instantly used in Biological resource use, sustainable agriculture and carrying capital. The world Resource Institute describes sustainable development as a development strategy that manages all assets natural and human resource as well as financial and physical assets for increasing wealth and well being.

A social development definition of sustainability includes the continued satisfaction of basic human needs, food, water, shelter, as well as high-level social and cultural necessities such as security freedom, education, empowerment and recreation (Brown, 1987; Maslow, 1970). It can be described as a systematic community participation and strong civil society.

Brown et al. (1987) describes the aspect of environmental development as a process of positive management of the environment for human benefit. By sharing all the resources without delimiting and diminishing any of the social, environmental and economic aspect of the development process is a sustainable development.

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3.3 Knowledge management

Fernandez et al. (2004) defines knowledge management as performing the activities involved in discovering capturing sharing and applying knowledge. Nonaka & Toyama (2003) describe knowledge as of two forms one is tacit knowledge that resides in human mind and is created through socialization whereas explicit knowledge consists in written format and is created through an internalization process. Polanyi (1962) and Nonaka’s (1994) work draws the discovery of Knowledge dimension and identification of its formalization processes (Alavi & Leidner, 2001). This paper takes knowledge management in the context of rural development.

3.3.1 Knowledge creation:

First, it is important to know how knowledge is created in rural development. Bouwen and Taillieu (2004) suggested the concept of situated knowledge and relational knowledge that was used by Tovey and Bruckmeier (2008) to analyze knowledge use in rural development. Tovey & Bruckmeier (2008) studied the local realities of rural development and found variety of operational variants of sustainable development. The study further found a new conceptual model on knowledge forms and ideas entering into rural development. This new model was emerged from the target group, beneficiaries and local people of rural area. The local people’s knowledge was named as indigenous knowledge.

3.3.2 Indigenous knowledge:

Indigenous knowledge forms in the local or traditional people’s mind of rural areas. The local people in rural area have their own traditional norms and cultures inherited from their ancestors. This knowledge is a tacit knowledge. Berkes, Colding & Folke (2000) define it as a cumulative body of knowledge, practice, and belief, evolving by adaptive processes. World Bank report (1998) defines indigenous knowledge as the basis for community making in area pertaining to food security, human and animal health, education, natural resource management and other vital economic and social activities. Indigenous knowledge is a critical factor for sustainable development. The partnership of a variety of stakeholders covering community-based organization, NGOs, academia, the private sector, research, Government and donor organization can enhance the use of Indigenous knowledge for development (world bank report, 1998). Agrawal (1995) gives the importance of indigenous knowledge in supplement with adequate dissemination and exchange among interested parties of the rural development. This brings the importance of indigenous knowledge together with scientific knowledge for sustainable rural development using modern means of ICT to capture, store and utilize in rural development practice.

4. Methodology

This paper takes two steps for carrying out the research. First, it takes a literature review to study different approaches on the design of knowledge management frameworks. For this reason, the author has selected 10 articles on the design of frameworks in knowledge management related to rural development. In the second step, the author uses the collected empirical information conducted in a survey for the initial requirements of information for knowledge management in rural area of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan (Ali, 2010). The collected empirical information shown in Appendix helps the author to use information on development activities and categorize rural development sectors. These show types of knowledge formed during the rural development process.

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4.1 Identification of concepts:

Table 1 shows the concepts on literature review conducted to find the current frameworks of knowledge management for rural development. The literature review was conducted by using key words: knowledge management, rural development, sustainable development in different journal papers. The 10 articles were selected due to their close connection to rural development. A data matrix was used for analyzing the concepts on the selected frameworks. Levy & Ellis (2006) defines the use of ideas in the literature to justify the particular approach to the topic. Therefore, Webster & Watson (2002) literature review method was used to identify and describe the selected frameworks.

  Figure 1:Research process

4.2 Analysis of the concepts:

Levy & Ellis (2006) describes analysis as demonstrated by set of activities for separating, connecting comparing, selecting and explaining the collected information. For this study, the concepts are analyzed through a synthesis process in the context of rural development. The Synthesis includes combining, integrating, modifying and generalizing of the frameworks. The essence of synthesis for this study is to assemble the literature reviewed for a given concept into a whole (Levy & Ellis, 2006). In this case, the concepts are collected in table 1 on purpose of the framework, type of knowledge, technology used and target group. the whole concept is considered as use of ICT in knowledge sharing for sustainable rural development. The concepts from these frameworks are analyzed in section 5.3 in the context of the Gilgit-Baltistan case.

5. Results and Analysis

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Heisig (2009) found 160 frameworks on knowledge management around the world in his study .This paper describe 10 frameworks related to the concept of rural development.

All the selected frameworks are synthesized in order to propose a framework for the Gilgit-Baltistan case. For this reason the concepts on requirements of the knowledge repository case of Gilgit-Baltistan includes knowledge on rural development, technology used, people, and culture of the region. These concepts were taken from those selected frameworks shown in table 1 that are connected to the rural development. As Bhaget et al. (2002) proposed a model in a cross border context. The model suggested the effectiveness of cross border knowledge transfer in relation to the type of knowledge involved in the transfer process. The model is based on three types of knowledge: social, human and structured knowledge. The case of Gilgit-Baltistan context represents cross border knowledge transfer in terms of its stakeholders involved in the development process. Further Kurcheives (2009) concept of knowledge on Regional viable system for sustainable agriculture and rural development is also relevant to the region of Gilgit-Baltistan case.

The concept of Liu, & Makoto (2010) on the integration of various types of resources to help the farmers to build connection with the market by providing farmers with knowledge and building a knowledge platform is suitable for the knowledge sharing platform for Gilgit-Baltistan case. The integration of regional and scientific knowledge to sustain socio economic development and poverty alleviation in a developing country context by Rahman (2000) is relevant in the case of Gilgit-Baltistan region.

To help in sharing knowledge on rural development activities a knowledge network is found to be essential in the region of Gilgit-Baltistan case as Hess (2006) presents a four-knowledge network group in rural development and their way of knowledge sharing. He argues that knowledge networks cooperates across different organizations and it works well if all organization function well and share their interest in an open fashion. The four groups of Global Donor platform for rural development; Swiss Center for Agriculture Extension and Rural Development, African Forum on Rural Development and African Knowledge Network provide a platform for farmers, practitioners, researchers and Donor Agencies to share their experiences and knowledge.

Technology plays significant role in sharing knowledge among the stakeholders of the rural development process. Different types of technologies were used in the selected frameworks in order to capture and share knowledge. In the Gilgit- Baltistan context the suitable technology can be selected from the different frameworks as ( eg.Hess, 2006; Hu, Liu, & Li, 2009; Kurlavicius 2009; Shakeel & Best, 2002) present mobile phone, email Radio, video, wireless as the communication tools for sharing knowledge in rural areas. Different database management system, knowledge repository or knowledge base were used as technology too to store knowledge in the selected framework. A central knowledge repository can be selected in the case of Gilgit-Baltistan.

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Table 1: Key concepts from selected frameworks

Frameworks Purpose/Objective Type of Knowledge Technology People/Culture Hess (2006) Study of 4 different

knowledge networks Formal, Local, Implicit, explicit Mobile phone, email, Radio, Video Local/ rural people, Donor Agencies Hu., liu., & li

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rural education resource regional service platform

Rural education, Rural community Training and vocational.

IP network, Satellite network, Wireless network, rural party members, farmers, teachers, students Kurlavicius (2009)

Regional viable system for sustainable agriculture and rural development

Agriculture and rural development, Databases, knowledge pools, Rural community, Business and public organizations, Kurlavicius (2009)

The dimensions, aims and management areas of sustainable rural development Economical, ecological, socio-culture and Institutional.

Knowledge base National, Regional and local Kurlavicius

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The architecture of farm management knowledge-based DSS

Agriculture based. Data base, Knowledge base

Farmers

Liu, & Makoto (2010)

the integration of various types of resources to help the farmers to build connection with the market by providing farmers with knowledge and building a knowledge platform

Poverty alleviation research center, Rabbit research center. Research and training Local people, research community. Miah et al. (2008).

Rural business Decision support system,

Live stock based rural knowledge Knowledge base module, Expert system module, problem ontology module. Rural farmers Payakpate et al. (2004)

the design and development of a knowledge management platform for promotion of MRES in ASEAN countries

Rural energy service Relational database, Search algorithm, Web browsers, Knowledge Servers, Knowledge modeling query, ASEAN countries,

Rahman (2000) an integrated traditional and scientific knowledge to sustain socio economic development and poverty alleviation in a

developing country context

Traditional & scientific, Tacit & Explicit, Knowledge of Experience and rationality, Simultaneous and sequential knowledge. World digital graphic mental, information portal website, GPS, digitization, DBMS, Graphics, intranet, internet, Local people, Researchers.

Shakeel & Best (2002) community knowledge sharing center in Dominican republic Community knowledge system Email, digital identities, Local community

Liu &Makoto (2010) describes that in rural areas in order to realize its leaping development, building the regional knowledge network is essential and causes great attention in academic field. He suggests that regional knowledge is the most important source of a regions sustainable competitive advantage. He assumes that knowledge creation seems like a hope for regional development, if the regions have their own knowledge network, process of knowledge creation could go smoothly, and the region might develop beyond all doubt.

Rahman (2000) applied four approaches: advocacy, social mobilization and program communication for shared dialog and partnership building for political leadership supports and local communities’

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participation in a program. He proposed to apply Rapid Rural Appraisal and Participatory Appraisal to collect traditional knowledge from local communities.

Payakpate et al. (2004) proposes the design and development of a knowledge management platform for promotion of MRES in ASEAN countries. The proposed platform employs web service technologies for enhancing and distribution and utilization of modern rural energy service. The platform helps them to extract and exchange meaningful knowledge for the stakeholders relating to the design and use of MRES.

Shakeel & Best (2002) studied on a community knowledge-sharing center in Dominican Republic and found a platform for community members to use and benefit from the computer network regardless of their abilities. The community knowledge sharing introduced an interface usable across a range of literacy level. The system supported four basic functions: logging in, navigating the bulletin board, reviewing content and entering content. They point out that one of the main barriers to widespread computer use in rural communities is the low level of literacy that often exists. He argues that the use of technology in literacy research community can remove this barrier.

5.2 A process to make use of knowledge in rural development in Gilgit-Baltistan Case

As Knowledge, management (KM) includes activities and processes that involves in discovering capturing sharing and applying knowledge. The process in figure 2 defines sequential steps. First, it shows the stakeholders of the rural development in the region. That consists of Government, Local Support Organization, Local Community, NGO’s, Donor Agencies and Civil Society Organization. In the second step, it shows the set of rural development activities comprised of agriculture development, Institutional development, Gender development, Local infrastructural development, ICT and Marketing and enterprise development (Ali, 2010). The stakeholder of the rural development in the region performs these set of activities. Bruckmeier and Tovey (2008) highlighted the local realities of rural development and found variety of operational variants of sustainable development. This study relates to the conceptual model on knowledge forms and ideas entering into rural development (Bruckmeier & Tovey, 2008).

The process of knowledge creation consists of both tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge consists of the scientific knowledge created by researchers and implemented by Donor agencies, government departments and NGO’s. Explicit knowledge is found in the form of best practices, case studies and research reports etc. Explicit knowledge is found in the research studies and case studies of the rural development process. Rahman (2000) states explicit knowledge to be formal scientific knowledge system and tacit knowledge as traditional knowledge system. The tacit knowledge of rural community is embedded in the experience of indigenous or local people and involves intangible factors, including their belief, perspective and value systems (Rahman, 2000).

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Figure 1: Knowledge creation process in case of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan

The knowledge management is set around three major units that consist of processing unit, KM repository and usage unit. Theses sets are derived from the technologies used in the selected frameworks on rural areas from table 1. The function of these sets are further defined in fig 2 in section 5.4. The local community of Gilgit-Baltistan consists of different ethnic groups and scattered around different valleys in the region.

5.3 Use of ICT for managing knowledge in Gilgit-Baltistan Case

Knowledge management of rural development includes organized attempts to create, implement and exploit knowledge environment of sustainable rural development (Kurlavicius, 2009). The spread out of the region across different valleys of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan sets an opportunity for using a platform for sharing knowledge in order to sustain the rural development activities.

Modern ICT tools are good means to communicate and create connection in this rural part of the world. As suggested in the different framework in table 1 (eg. Hu., liu., & li 2009; Hess, 2006; Kurlavicius,2009; Miah et al. 2008; Payakpate et al. 2004) that  ICT include all those instrument, modes, and means both old and new through which information and data is transmitted or

communicated from one person to another or from one place to another. ICT comprises telephone, facsimile, video, television, radio, print material and computer based or computer mediated modes.  As Kurlavicius (2009) defines KM and sharing system, containing databases and knowledge pools with the mechanism of communication, creates up a suitable knowledge environment for sustainable development .This study considers the use of ICT for knowledge storing and use in the region. The available technologies for communication in the region were found as internet, intranet, mobile telecommunication, satellite link, Radio and TV (Ali, 2010).

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5.4 Proposed framework for sharing knowledge on rural development activities in Gilgit-Baltistan Case

The process of knowledge management in the context of rural development of Gilgit-Baltistan case is shown in figure 2. The integration and share of various types of knowledge enables rural communities, public organizations to retain strategies for sustainable rural development with the strategies of knowledge management (Kurlavicius, 2009). An integrated network of knowledge is proposed for the region of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. for this reason the technologies used in the selected framework that are more connected to the rural development environment of Gilgit-Baltistan case are taken and modified accordingly. The main unit of knowledge management is consisted of three parts, the processing unit, Km repository and usage unit. As Hess (2006) highlighted the importance of knowledge network when all the stakeholders agree on the same objective and share common interest by combining their experiences on rural development activities. At initial level, all stakeholders connect through a processing unit to a knowledge repository.

The processing unit is comprised of technical services suitable for storing information in the knowledge repository. Multiple tools of ICT can be used in the processing unit in accordance to the requirements of the regions that includes digitalization process, LAN, Database management systems, and web service technologies as used in the different frameworks by (eg. Zavadskas et 2008; Hess 2006; Miah et al. 2008; Rahman 2000) suggested web services a convenient way to access information and knowledge for sustainable development management. The concept of knowledge repository and knowledge base given by ( eg.Payakpate et al 2004; Kurlavicius , 2009) is a central place to store all information on rural development activities. 

Rahman (2000) describes a knowledge management strategy to support the coordination of local, regional and global knowledge resources and provide a mechanism for effective sharing of rural development best practices and promoting cooperation.

The knowledge repository is linked to a usage unit. As suggested by (eg.Payakpate et al. 2004; Rahman,2000) websites, knowledge portal can be used to share knowledge among the stakeholders. Wirastuti et al (2008) suggest the affordable hardware and software infrastructure requirement for developing KM System in rural areas. This includes affordable inernet access to all and other local information delivery channels. The existing local communication channels like radio, TV and mobile network can also be used to disseminate information in far and rural areas where internet access in not available. 

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  Figure 2 framework for sharing and usage of knowledge on rural development in Gilgit‐Baltistan Pakistan

The component of usage unit is proposed to use for knowledge sharing among different stakeholders of the region Gilgit-Baltistan. The selected frameworks taken from the literature suggest (eg. Hess, 2006; Hu., liu., & li 2009; Shakeel & Best, 2002; Rahman, 2000) a number tools to disseminate information in the rural areas. 

The local community is the main target of the development process. Islam and Avdic (2010) describe knowledge sharing is the process of actively exchanging knowledge among the members of a community. The local community’s indigenous knowledge can be captured through socialization and mobilization process and can be documented in results of best practices and lesson learned activities by stakeholders involved in the rural development process.

6. Discussion

Cash et al (2003) finds knowledge systems for sustainability could be structured remain a question for scholarly research, practical experimentation and comparative learning. This paper studied to make use of knowledge management for sustainable rural development using modern ICT tools by considering the case of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. The frameworks selected from the literature review suggest the knowledge management process in three major units.

The processing unit is comprised of the tools necessary to use in capturing and processing the information on rural development activities. The result found digitalization process, LAN, Database management systems, and web service technologies suggested by (eg. Zavadskas et 2008; Hess 2006; Miah et al. 2008; Rahman 2000) from table 1 to make use the processing unit of knowledge management in the case of Gilgit-Baltistan.

Knowledge repository is the central place of collected information on rural development activities. It comprises of the technologies such as database management system, knowledge base and knowledge servers. In the case of Gilgit-Baltistan, a web server can be used as knowledge repository to store information on rural development activities that could be accessible to all stakeholder in the region. The usage unit consists of the tools that are used in dissemination of knowledge to the different stakeholders. The region of Gilgit-Baltistan that is consisted of far and rural areas are spread in different valleys. The region has not enough internet accessibility. For this reason, mobile phones and mobile ICT units can be used to disseminate information to the far and rural areas. Whereas other

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stakeholders can get access the information on rural development activities from the knowledge repository through internet.

The importance of knowledge sharing in the context of rural area is important for the sustainability of the rural development process. As sustainable development is socio, economic and environmental sustainability without diminishing of any resources (Rosenbaum, 1993). The sustainability of rural development process depends upon three main dimensions economic, socio and ecological dimension (Breu et al, 2005). In this context, the use of knowledge among stakeholders of the region of Gilgit-Baltistan will bring awareness toward sustainability of the development process. Every stakeholder will utilize each other’s knowledge on specific areas like economic, social and environmental development of the region. The use of knowledge repository will bring all the stakeholders on a single platform where they can get more information on rural development process. The use of knowledge in the main areas of social, economic and environment development of the region Gilgit-Baltistan will provide information on participatory set of development activities.

Kurlavicius (2009) defined a model of a rural region as a viable system and indicated the viability of economic dimension, the ecological dimension and socio culture dimension for sustainable rural development. Information and knowledge becomes the central component of sustainable development. For this reason, participatory set of development activities for sharing knowledge among different stakeholders of a development process is vital for the sustainability of the rural development in the case of Gilgit-Baltistan. As Kurlavicius (2009) defines knowledge management of sustainable rural development involves participants in a way that help a participant to perceive the methodology of sustainable development. In the case of Gilgit –Baltistan the use of knowledge will help to coordinate among the stakeholders and will provide a platform for performing development activities in cooperation with each other. This will create an opportunity to utilize all the available resources in the region from local communities to the NGOs, Government departments and Donor agencies to sustain the rural development in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan.

7. Conclusion

As the objective was of this study to define a process that will show how knowledge is created by considering the case of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. Further aim was to show how knowledge can be helpful to sustain the rural development process in the case of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. Considering the case of Gilgit-Baltistan it took literature review and selected 10 different frameworks connected to the rural development activities. The entire 10-selected framework mentioned modern ICT tools as a communication way in rural areas. It used the technologies such as web services, Database management systems, LAN, WAN, Intranet, and Internet for a knowledge management system in rural areas. This study proposes a framework on knowledge network for the region of Gilgit Baltistan Pakistan to use knowledge repository on rural development activities. The modern means of ICT and technologies are suitable in the region to share and use knowledge among the stakeholders. The literature suggests that importance of knowledge is an enabling environment to bring awareness in the rural communities. Use and sharing of knowledge on rural development activities creates an understanding among the stakeholders of the rural development process. It provides an opportunity to work on participatory set of rural development activities. The information sharing on socio, economic and environmental development in rural area is the first step in sustaining the rural development process. The study concludes by proposing a knowledge network using ICT a communication way to share and use knowledge on rural development activities in order to sustain the development process in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan.

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8. Reference list

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9. Appendix:

(All the information in Appendix are shown from the result conducted in a study on initial information on rural development of Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan in April 2010 by the author used for the first year thesis paper in electronic government program at Orebro University, Sweden)

Appendix-1 Interviewed Organization

The following organization were interviewed from the region Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan. Table 1: Interviewed organizations in March 2010

S.No Region Stackholder Organization

1. Gilgit Local

Government

Planning and Development Department Gilgit-Baltistan

2. Gilgit Local

Governmnet

Gilgit-Baltistan Legislative Assembly

3. Gilgit Civil Society Press Club Gilgit

4. Gilgit NGO Aga khan Culture Service Gilgit Pakistan (AKCSP) 5. Gilgit NGO Aga Khan Planning and Building Service Gilgit

Pakistan.

6. Gilgit NGO Aga Khan Rural Support Program Gilgit Pakistan. 7. Gilgit Academia Professional Development Center North, Aga Khan

University.

8. Gilgit Academia Karakuram International University Gigit Pakisan. 9. Gilgit LSO Local Support Organization Danyore Gilgit. 10. Hunza LSO Haiderabad Local Support Organization. 11. Ghizer LSO Local support Organization Network Hatoon.

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Appendix-2 Interviewed Persons

No. Name Designation Organization

1. Javed Iqbal GIS Officer Planning and development

Department 2 Ashiq Hussain Translation Officer Gilgit-Baltistan

3 Adil Hussain Assistant secretary Legislative council

4 -Darwaish Ali

-Saleem

-IT officer

-HR &Admin officer

-Aga khan Culture Service Pakistan

5 Karim Fayazi MIS Officer Aga Khan Planning and

Building Service Pakistan

6 -Sher Shah -Jamil -IT Officer -Librarian Professional Development Center North.

7. Karim Librarian Karakuram International

University Gilgit.

8 Zaffarullah Baig Manager Local Support Organization

Danyore

9 Ghulam Ali Chief Executive Officer Karakorum Development

Organization

10 - Manager Local Support Organization

Hatoon Ghizer.

11. Amin Baig Program Manager Aga Khan Rural Support

Program Gilgit

12 Muhammad Saleem Program Manager Aga Khan Rural Support

Program Gilgit

13 Naeemullah Khan IT Officer Aga Khan Rural Support

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Appendix 3: Information on Development activities:

Table 3: stakeholder’s interest of information on development and their target groups Information on Develpment

Stakeholders

Research Funding Agriculture I C T Gende r Institutioal development Local Infrstructure develpment Marketting and Enterprize Target Group Local government √ √ - - Populatio n LSO - - √ √ - - Populatio n Local Population - - - - - - - - AKRSP √ √ Populatio n & LSO Civil Society & NGO - √ √ Populatio n & LSO Doner Agency - √ - - - Populatio n * Signe “√” shows availability * signe “ - ” shows missing

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Appendix-4 Identification of Knowledge among stakeholders

Table 4: Identification of knowledge among stakeholder Stakholders Organizations Explicit

Knowlede Tacit Users

Local government

Planning and devleopment department

Population, LSO, Donor Agency,

AKRSP LSO LSO Danyore LSO Hatoon LSO Haiderabad Population, AKRSP

Local Population - - AKRSP, LSO, Lcal Govrnment

AKRSP - LSO, Doner Agency, Local

Government, Population

Civil Society & NGO

AKPBSP AKCSP

LSO, Population, AKRSP

Doner Agency - AKRSP, Civil society, LSO

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Appendix-5 Rural Telecommunication Infrastructure

Table 5: Accessibility of internet in the region Organization Internet

connectivity

ISP Intranet within

the

organization

Digital library

AKRSP 512 kb Snet

P&DP - Snet - -

AKCSP 512 kb Snet Archnet

AKPBSP 512 kb Snet -

KADO 512 kb Snet Online journal

LSO Danyore 40 kb Snet - -

LSO Hatoon - Snet - -

LSO Haiderabad - Snet - -

PDCN 512 kb

KIU 512kb Snet/satelllite

* Signe “√” shows the availability

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Appendix-6 Requirements (categories of online resources) for the KM System:

The knowledge repository needs digital format resources on different development activities. At initial phase AKRSP can provide the following categories of resources of its yearly best practices on the rural development of the region.

• Monitoring and Evaluation Research reports • Outcomes of the workshops and conferences • Gender and development related activities records • Early Childhood development activities

• Institutional development records • Natural Resource management data • Proposal papers

• Social development related activities and reports • Training Module and Manuals

• Village case studies • Information on ICT centers

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Appendix-7 ICT Oreinted Activities

Table 6: ICT oriented activities. 

Organization ICT Initiatives

AKRSP e-Mundi

3D program ( Democracy, Dialog and Development)

Digital library

group formation of all LSO on mobile network

LSO website

Formation of email group of all LSO.

PDCN ICT trainings to professionals, teachers and students

P&D Northern Areas information Resource center.

GIS project of 300 villages in Diamer Distirict.

AKPB KAP (Knowledge attitude and practice)

AKCSP Restoration of landmarks, digital images and mapping of Hunza Region.

KADO journal of Karakorum highway, Business incubation project for website developments, E- schooling concept, E-village concept, concept of e-commerce, Internet Café´s.

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Appendix-8 Questionaire used for the interview:

This questionnaire was used to conduct a study on the requirment analysis of a knowledge management system in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan region. The target group of the study were selected as the stakholders of the project and are involeved in the development activitties of the region.

1- Which orgnaization do you belong to?

2- Do you have any knowledge sharing systme in your organization? 3- What type of ICT infrastructure do you have in your organization? 4- What type of help do you get by using ICT in your organization?

5- What do you consider about the importance of knowledge management system in Gilgit-Baltistan?

6- What are the rural development activities in your perspective that can be shared in order to integrate the knowledge of development in Gilgit-Batistan?

7- What benefits do you see by implementing a knowledge management system in Gilgit-Baltistan?

8- Which ways would you prefer to share knowedge in your organization? 9- How your organization can apply knowledge in a productive way? 10- Do you see any consequences of this KM system in Gilgit-Baltistan?

11- What benefits do you see by implementing a KM system for the Local community of Gigit-Baltistan region?

12- What public sector challenges do you see for implementing a KM system?

13- What results do you see in public sector after implementing KM system in Gilgit-Baltistan region?

14- Is there any security concern about the organizaitonal knowledge?

15- Are you willing to share your organization´s knowledge with other stakholders of the development process?

16- How can you predict by integrating knowledge in Gilgit-Baltistan could help to manage a sustainable rural development in the region?

17- In your view, what social, culture and political constraints can affect the knowledge sharing activities in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan?

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