Attitudes matter Perceptions towards welfare work with migrants in Swedish welfare organisations Schütze, Carolin

137  Download (0)

Full text

(1)

LUND UNIVERSITY PO Box 117 221 00 Lund +46 46-222 00 00

Attitudes matter

Perceptions towards welfare work with migrants in Swedish welfare organisations Schütze, Carolin

2019

Document Version:

Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record Link to publication

Citation for published version (APA):

Schütze, C. (2019). Attitudes matter: Perceptions towards welfare work with migrants in Swedish welfare organisations. [Doctoral Thesis (compilation), School of Social Work]. Lund University.

Total number of authors:

1

General rights

Unless other specific re-use rights are stated the following general rights apply:

Copyright and moral rights for the publications made accessible in the public portal are retained by the authors and/or other copyright owners and it is a condition of accessing publications that users recognise and abide by the legal requirements associated with these rights.

• Users may download and print one copy of any publication from the public portal for the purpose of private study or research.

• You may not further distribute the material or use it for any profit-making activity or commercial gain • You may freely distribute the URL identifying the publication in the public portal

Read more about Creative commons licenses: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/

Take down policy

If you believe that this document breaches copyright please contact us providing details, and we will remove access to the work immediately and investigate your claim.

(2)

Attitudes matter

Perceptions towards welfare work with migrants in Swedish welfare organisations

Carolin Schütze

LUND DISSERTATIONS IN SOCIAL WORK

(3)

9789189604629

ISBN 978-91-89604-62-9 ISSN 1650-3872

SOCIALHÖGSKOLAN 55

Attitudes matter

Perceptions towards welfare work with migrants in Swedish welfare organisations.

This dissertation examines Swedish welfare workers’ attitudes towards migrants and migration, their perceptions of welfare work with migrants and organizational working conditions.

The dissertation is based on original survey data capturing attitudes and views of welfare workers in two Swedish welfare organisations. The thesis’ conceptual framework draws on three perspectives: street-level bureaucracy theory, racial attitude studies and ontological security theory.

All three perspectives bring different dimensions to the understanding of welfare workers’ attitudes towards migrants.

This dissertation contributes with incorporating individual and organ- isational factors when studying perceptions towards welfare work and migration. The thesis integrates racial attitude studies into understand- ings of organisational processes and links these processes to global struc- tural transformations. Thereby the thesis contributes to a growing line of research that is shifting the focus from internal organizational process- es solely to integrating the role of individual attitudes but also external transformation processes in order to understand how welfare work with migrants is shaped.

(4)

$WWLWXGHV0DWWHU

(5)
(6)

$WWLWXGHV0DWWHU

3HUFHSWLRQVWRZDUGVZHOIDUHZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWV LQ

6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQV

&DUROLQ6FKW]H

'2&725$/',66(57$7,21

E\GXHSHUPLVVLRQRIWKH)DFXOW\RI6RFLDO6FLHQFHV/XQG8QLYHUVLW\

6ZHGHQ 7REHGHIHQGHGDW6FKRRORI6RFLDO:RUNDXGLWRULXPRQWKRI

$XJXVW DP

Faculty opponent

3URIHVVRU+HOHQD%ORPEHUJ.UROO8QLYHUVLW\RI+HOVLQNL

(7)

2UJDQL]DWLRQ /81'81,9(56,7<

'RFXPHQWQDPH 'RFWRUDO'LVVHUWDWLRQ 6FKRRORI6RFLDO:RUN

%R[/XQG

'DWHRILVVXH

WKRI$XJXVW

$XWKRU &DUROLQ6FKW]H 6SRQVRULQJRUJDQL]DWLRQ 7LWOHDQGVXEWLWOH

$WWLWXGHVPDWWHU3HUFHSWLRQVWRZDUGVZHOIDUHZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWVLQ6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQV

$EVWUDFW

7KLVGLVVHUWDWLRQH[DPLQHV6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶DWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDQWVDQGPLJUDWLRQWKHLUSHUFHSWLRQVRI

ZHOIDUHZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWVDQGRUJDQL]DWLRQDOZRUNLQJFRQGLWLRQV

7KHGLVVHUWDWLRQLVEDVHGRQRULJLQDOVXUYH\GDWDFDSWXULQJDWWLWXGHVDQGYLHZVRIZHOIDUHZRUNHUVLQWZR6ZHGLVK

ZHOIDUH RUJDQLVDWLRQV 7KH WKHVLV¶ FRQFHSWXDO IUDPHZRUN GUDZV RQ WKUHH SHUVSHFWLYHV VWUHHWOHYHO EXUHDXFUDF\

WKHRU\UDFLDODWWLWXGHVWXGLHVDQGRQWRORJLFDOVHFXULW\WKHRU\$OOWKUHHSHUVSHFWLYHVEULQJGLIIHUHQWGLPHQVLRQVWRWKH

XQGHUVWDQGLQJRIZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶DWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDQWV

7KHUHVHDUFKKDVIRXULQWHUOLQNHGIRFXVHVZKLFKDUHSUHVHQWHGLQIRXUHPSLULFDOSDSHUV7KHILUVWIRFXVLVRQ   KRZLQGLYLGXDODQGRUJDQLVDWLRQDOIDFWRUVDUHDVVRFLDWHGZLWKZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶DWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDQWVDQGKRZ

WKHVHDWWLWXGHVDUHOLQNHGWRSHUFHSWLRQVRIZHOIDUHZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWV  ,QRUGHUWRJHWDEHWWHUXQGHUVWDQGLQJRI

WKHUROHRILQGLYLGXDODWWLWXGHVLQUHODWLRQWRPLJUDQWVWKHVWXG\LQYHVWLJDWHVKRZZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶FRORXUEOLQGDWWLWXGHV

DUHDVVRFLDWHGZLWKDQWLLPPLJUDWLRQDWWLWXGHVDQGSHUFHSWLRQVWRZDUGVZHOIDUHZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWV  )XUWKHUPRUH

LQRUGHUWRGHHSHQWKHXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIKRZRUJDQLVDWLRQDODQGLQGLYLGXDOIDFWRUVLQWHUFHSWDQGLQIOXHQFHZHOIDUH

ZRUN ZLWK PLJUDQWV WKH VWXG\ H[SORUHV LQ ZKDW ZD\ GLVFUHWLRQ SOD\V DQ LQWHUYHQLQJ UROH IRU WKH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ

ZRUNORDGDQWLLPPLJUDWLRQDWWLWXGHVDQGSHUFHSWLRQVWRZDUGVZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWV  /DVWO\WKHVWXG\IRFXVHVRQ

H[SUHVVLRQVRI XQFHUWDLQWLHVDQGLQVHFXULWLHVFDXVHGE\JOREDO WUDQVIRUPDWLRQV HJPLJUDWLRQ XVLQJWKHFRQFHSW

RQWRORJLFDOVHFXULW\LQRUGHUWRH[SORUHKRZZHOIDUHZRUNHUVH[SUHVVWKHPVHOYHVDERXWWKHLUZRUNDQGDERXWPLJUDWLRQ

LQJHQHUDOE\VWXG\LQJRSHQHQGHGVXUYH\UHVSRQVHVDQGKRZZHFDQXQGHUVWDQGWKHVHSHUFHSWLRQV

7KHILQGLQJVLQGLFDWHWKDWZHOIDUHZRUNHUVZLWKPRUHQHJDWLYHDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDQWVDOVRWHQGWRSHUFHLYHWKHLU

ZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWVDVPRUHEXUGHQVRPH6LPXOWDQHRXVO\WKHUHVXOWVVKRZWKDWKLJKHUOHYHOVRIFRORXUEOLQGQHVVDUH

OLQNHGWRDKLJKHUOLNHOLKRRGWRUHSRUWQHJDWLYHDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGLPPLJUDQWV+RZHYHUDWWKHVDPHWLPHKLJKHUOHYHOV

RIFRORXUEOLQGQHVVDUHOLQNHGWRDORZHUOLNHOLKRRGWRUHSRUWGLIILFXOW\LQZRUNLQJZLWKPLJUDQWV7KLV VXJJHVWVWKDW

FRORXUEOLQG DWWLWXGHV IXQFWLRQ DV LQWHUDFWLYH VRFLDO QRUPV WKDW ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV GHSOR\ WR SHUIRUP ZKDW WKH

RUJDQLVDWLRQDQGVRFLHW\ZDQWVWRFRPPXQLFDWH7KHILQGLQJVDOVRVKRZWKDWKHDYLHUSHUFHLYHGZRUNORDGLQFUHDVH

WKHOLNHOLKRRGWRSHUFHLYHZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWVDVGLIILFXOWDQGWKDWSHUFHLYHGGLVFUHWLRQPHGLDWHVWKHUHODWLRQEHWZHHQ

SHUFHLYHG ZRUNORDG DQG SHUFHLYHGGLIILFXOW\ LQ ZRUNLQJ ZLWK PLJUDQWV VXJJHVWLQJ WKDW LW IXQFWLRQV DV D EXIIHU IRU

RUJDQL]DWLRQDOGHPDQGV)LQDOO\WKHUHVXOWVVXJJHVWWKDWZHOIDUHZRUNHUVXVHGLIIHUHQWLGHQWLW\VWUDWHJLHVQDPHO\

retreatism LQ WKH IRUP RI GLVWDQFLQJ RQHVHOI essentialism LQ WKH IRUP RI UHVHQWPHQW WRZDUGV PLJUDQWV DQG

engagement LQ WKH IRUP RI PXWXDO GLDORJXH 7KHVH VWUDWHJLHV DUH XVHG WR KDQGOH XQFHUWDLQWLHV DQG RYHUFRPH

FRPSOH[LWLHVQRWRQO\DVSURIHVVLRQDOVLQWKHLUZRUNOLIHEXWDOVRDVSULYDWHLQGLYLGXDOV

7KLVWKHVLVFRQWULEXWHVZLWKLQFRUSRUDWLQJLQGLYLGXDODQGRUJDQLVDWLRQDOIDFWRUVZKHQVWXG\LQJSHUFHSWLRQVWRZDUGV

ZHOIDUH ZRUN DQG PLJUDWLRQ 7KH WKHVLV LQWHJUDWHV UDFLDO DWWLWXGH VWXGLHV LQWR XQGHUVWDQGLQJV RI RUJDQLVDWLRQDO

SURFHVVHVDQGOLQNVWKHVHSURFHVVHVWRJOREDOVWUXFWXUDOWUDQVIRUPDWLRQV7KHUHE\WKHWKHVLVFRQWULEXWHVWRDJURZLQJ

OLQH RI UHVHDUFK WKDW LV VKLIWLQJ WKH IRFXV IURP LQWHUQDO RUJDQL]DWLRQDO SURFHVVHV VROHO\ WR LQWHJUDWLQJ WKH UROH RI

LQGLYLGXDODWWLWXGHVEXWDOVRH[WHUQDOWUDQVIRUPDWLRQSURFHVVHVLQRUGHUWRXQGHUVWDQGKRZZHOIDUHZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWV

LVVKDSHG

.H\ZRUGV PLJUDWLRQDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDQWVUDFLDODWWWLWXGHVZHOIDUHZRUNZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQV

&ODVVLILFDWLRQV\VWHPDQGRULQGH[WHUPV LIDQ\

6XSSOHPHQWDU\ELEOLRJUDSKLFDOLQIRUPDWLRQ /DQJXDJH (QJOLVK

,661  /XQG'LVVHUWDWLRQVLQ6RFLDO:RUN ,6%1 

5HFLSLHQW¶VQRWHV 1XPEHURISDJHV 6 3ULFH

6HFXULW\FODVVLILFDWLRQ

,WKHXQGHUVLJQHGEHLQJWKHFRS\ULJKWRZQHURIWKHDEVWUDFWRIWKHDERYHPHQWLRQHGGLVVHUWDWLRQKHUHE\JUDQW

WRDOOUHIHUHQFHVRXUFHVSHUPLVVLRQWRSXEOLVKDQGGLVVHPLQDWHWKHDEVWUDFWRIWKHDERYHPHQWLRQHG

GLVVHUWDWLRQ

6LJQDWXUH 'DWH

(8)

$WWLWXGHV0DWWHU

3HUFHSWLRQVWRZDUGVZHOIDUHZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWV LQ

6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQV

&DUROLQ6FKW]H

(9)

&RYHUSKRWRE\ /LVD6KRUWHQ

&RS\ULJKWSS &DUROLQ6FKW]H 3DSHU‹2[IRUG8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV

3DSHU‹E\WKH$XWKRUV 0DQXVFULSWXQSXEOLVKHG  3DSHU‹ E\WKH$XWKRUV 0DQXVFULSWXQSXEOLVKHG  3DSHU‹E\WKH$XWKRU 0DQXVFULSWXQSXEOLVKHG 

)DFXOW\RI6RFLDO6FLHQFHV 6FKRRORI6RFLDO:RUN ,6%1

,661

/XQG'LVVHUWDWLRQVLQ6RFLDO:RUN

3ULQWHGLQ6ZHGHQE\0HGLD7U\FN/XQG8QLYHUVLW\

/XQG

(10)

Für Kathrin

(11)

7DEOHRI&RQWHQWV

$FNQRZOHGJHPHQWV 

/LVWRIRULJLQDOSDSHUV 

 ,QWURGXFWLRQ 

$LPDQGUHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQV 

 6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQV 

3(6DQG66,$± KLVWRULFDORYHUYLHZ 

0LJUDWLRQDQG6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQV 

3UDFWLFDOZHOIDUHZRUN 

2UJDQLVDWLRQDOGLIIHUHQFHVDQGVLPLODULWLHV 

 .H\FRQFHSWVDQGSUHYLRXVUHVHDUFK 

6WUHHWOHYHOEXUHDXFUDF\WKHRU\ 

2UJDQLVDWLRQDOFRQGLWLRQV 

'LVFUHWLRQ 

3HUVSHFWLYHVRQUDFLDODWWLWXGHV 

$QWLLPPLJUDWLRQDWWLWXGHV 

&RORXUEOLQGQHVV 

6XPPDUL]LQJUHPDUNV 

2QWRORJLFDOVHFXULW\ 

7KHRUHWLFDO1H[XV 

 0HWKRG 

6XUYH\VWXG\ 

6XUYH\GHVLJQDQGLQVWUXPHQW 

2UJDQLVDWLRQSRSXODWLRQDQGVDPSOH 

'DWDFROOHFWLRQ 

0HDVXUHPHQWV 

$QDO\WLFDOVWUDWHJLHVLQSDSHUV,±,9 

2/6DQG/RJLVWLFUHJUHVVLRQ 3DSHU, 

6WUXFWXUDO(TXDWLRQ0RGHOLQJ 3DSHUV,,DQG,,, 

7H[WDQDO\VLVZLWK$WODVWL 3DSHU,9 

0HWKRGRORJLFDOUHIOHFWLRQV 

(12)

 6XPPDU\RISDSHUV 

3DSHU, 

3DSHU,, 

3DSHU,,, 

3DSHU,9 

 'LVFXVVLRQ 

,PSRUWDQFHRIDWWLWXGHV 

&RORXUEOLQGQHVV 

'LVFUHWLRQDVDQLQWHUYHQLQJIDFWRU 

2QWRORJLFDOVHFXULW\ 

6XPPDULVLQJUHPDUNV 

7KHRUHWLFDOLPSOLFDWLRQV 

5HIHUHQFHV 

6XPPDU\LQ6ZHGLVK 

6XPPDU\LQ*HUPDQ 

$SSHQGL[, 

$SSHQGL[,, 

$SSHQGL[,,, 

$SSHQGL[,9 

(13)
(14)



$FNQRZOHGJHPHQWV

$ORWRISHRSOHKDYHFRQWULEXWHGWRP\SURFHVVZKHQZULWLQJWKLVGLVVHUWDWLRQ

DQGKDYHVXSSRUWHGPHLQPDQ\GLIIHUHQWZD\VWKDQN\RX

,ZRXOGOLNHWRWKDQN7KRPDVcGLQJDQG)UHGULN$QGHUVVRQWKDWKDYHPDGHLW

SRVVLEOHWRFROODERUDWHZLWK67VRWKDW,FRXOGFROOHFWP\GDWD,DPHTXDOO\

WKDQNIXO IRU DOO WKH 67 PHPEHUV ZRUNLQJ DW WKH 3(6 DQG 66,$ WKDW KDYH

DQVZHUHGP\VXUYH\DQGPDGHWKLVGLVVHUWDWLRQSRVVLEOHLQWKHILUVWSODFH

0\VXSHUYLVRUV1RUPDDQG+nNDQKDYHEHHQWKHSHUIHFWWHDPWRVXSSRUWPH DORQJWKHZD\,FHUWDLQO\JRWWKHEHVWRIERWKRI\RXIRUWKLVMRXUQH\DQGZLOO

EHIRUHYHUWKDQNIXOIRUWKHWLPHDQGHQHUJ\WKDWWKH WZRRI\RXKDYHLQYHVWHG

XQWLOWKHYHU\HQGWRPDNHWKLVWKHVLVKDSSHQLQJ+nNDQ\RXKDYHVXSSRUWHG

PH ZLWK \RXU FULWLFDO UHDGLQJV VWUXFWUHG FRPPHQWV DQDO\WLFDO DPELWLRQV

QXPHURXV GUDZLQJV RQ WKH ZKLWH ERDUG EXW DOVR ZLWK \RXU VWDELOLW\ DQG

FRPSRVHG QDWXUH 1RUPD \RX KDYH VXSSRUWHG PH ZLWK \RXU HQGOHVV GHVLUHU

DQGDPELWLRQWRWKLQNLQ QHZ ZD\V\RXULGHDVWRWKLQNRXWVLGHRIWKH JLYHQ

VWDQGDUGVQXPHURXVUHDGLQJWLSVWKDWEHFDPHFUXFLDOIRUP\WKLQNLQJPDQD\

PDQ\FRQYHUVDWLRQVDERXWOLIHLQVLGHDQGRXWVLGHZRUNWKDWKDYHKHOSHGPHWR

QDYLJDWHWKURXJKWKLVDFDGHPLFMXQJOHEXWDOVRZLWK\RXUFULWLFDOH\H<RX ERWK

KDYHLQVSLUHGPHLQPDQ\GLIIHUHQWZD\VDQGKDYHFRQWULEXWHGWRP\MRXUQH\

RIEHFRPLQJDQLQGHSHQGHQWO\ WKLQNLQJVFKRODU,ZLOODOZD\VEH JUHDWIXOWR

ERWK RI \RX , DP DOVR GHHSO\ WKDQNIXO WR /LVD :DOODQGHU P\ µH[WUD

VXSHUYLVRU¶,DPWKDQNIXOIRU\RXUGHWDLOHGUHDGLQJVRIP\WH[WVDQGQXPHURXV

µWKLQNLQJVHVVLRQV¶ZKHUH\RXKHOSHGPHWRPDNHVHQVHRIQXPEHUVEXWDOVR

IRUDOOWKHODXJKVZHKDG

7KURXJKRXWP\3K'MRXUQH\PDQ\SHRSOHKDYHWDNHQWKHWLPHWRUHDGP\WH[WV

VR , FRXOG LPSURYH P\ LGHDV $ VSHFLDO WKDQNV WR 0LNDHO +MHUP WKDW KDV

FRPPHQWHG ZLWK JUHDW GHWDLO P\ µILQDO VHPLQDU WH[W¶ DQG KDV FRQWULEXWHG

LPPHQVLYHO\WRLPSURYHWKH.DSSDWH[W,DOVRZDQWWRWKDQN(P$QGHUVVRQ

DQG0LNDHO%HQJWVVRQIRUFRPPHQWLQJRQP\WH[WDWP\PLGGOHVHPLQDU(P

DOVRDVSHFLDOWKDQNVWR\RXIRUIROORZLQJP\MRXUQH\XQWLOWKHHQGDQGUHDGLQJ

DQGFRPPHQWLQJP\WH[WVGXULQJVHYHUDORFFDVLRQV,ZRXOGDOVROLNHWRWKDQN

5REHUWR6FDUDPX]]LQLIRUUHDGLQJP\WH[WDQGFRPPHQWLQJRQP\VXUYH\$

VSHFLDO WKDQN \RX WR 6D\DND 2VDQDPL7|UQJUHQ IRU UHDGLQJ P\ WH[WV DW

GLIIHUHQWVWDJHVEXWDOVRIRUEHLQJDQDFDGHPLFDOO\LQWKLVFUD]\ZRUOGFDOOHG

DFDGHPLD

(15)



,ZRXOGOLNHWRWKDQNWKHFROOHJXHV,KDGWKHSOHDVXUHRIZRUNLQJWRJHWKHUZLWK

DWWKH6FKRRORI6RFLDO:RUNLQ/XQG$VSHFLDOWKDQN\RXWRWKH0LJUDWLRQ

6HPLQDU JURXS WKDW ZDVDQ LPSRUWDQW VSDFH WR PH WR H[FKDQJH DQG GHYHORS

LGHDVZLWKWKHFRUHPHPEHUV1RUPD(PPD&KULVWHO9DQQD(P7DELWKDDQG

&\QWKLD3K'OLIHZRXOGQRWKDYHEHHQDVIXQZLWKRXWWKHFROOHDJXHVDW*DPOD

.LUXUJHQ $ VSHFLDO WKDQNV WR &KULVWHO (PPD -D\HRQ DQG )UDQ]L EXW DOVR

0LNDHO(ULND0DOLQ1DWDO\DDQG$QGHUV,DPDOVRYHU\JUHDWIXOIRUWKHZRUN

,KDYHEHHQGRLQJWRJHWKHUZLWK$QQD0HHXZLVVHWKLVSURFHVVWKRXJKWPHD

ORW

$QGRIFRXUVHDYHU\ZDUPWKDQN\RXWRDOOP\IHOORZGRFWRUDOFDQGLDWHVIRU

PDQ\VXSSRUWLQJFRQYHUVDWLRQVIRU\RXULQVSLUDWLRQVIRUPDQ\ODXJKVEXWDOVR

IRU VKDULQJ WKH EXUGHQ LQ WKLV VSHFLDO MRXUQH\ 7KDQN \RX -D\HRQ ZKR

UHFRPPHQGHGPHWRWKHµ(XURFLY¶SURMHFWGXULQJP\0DVWHUWLPHDQGPLJKW

KDYH NLFNHG RII P\ DFDGPLF FDUHHU ZLWK WKLV LQIRUPDO FKDW DIWHU D OHFWXUH

7KDQNVWR(PPD1DWDO\D.DMVD&KULVWHO6WLQD(ULQDQG 9DQQDIRU PDQ\

JUHDW FRQYHUVDWLRQV , DP DOVR WKDQNIXO IRU WKH FRPSDQ\ RI $QQ.ULVWLQ

0LNDHO$QGHUV2ORI7HUHV'DYLGEXWDOVRWKHµQHZ3K'VWXGHQWV¶,KDGWKH

FKDQFHWRLQWHUDFWZLWK



,KDYHDOVRVSHQWVRPHWLPHDEURDGLQWKH86DW81&DQGDPIRUHYHUWKDQNIXO

IRUWKHVXSSRUWDQG PHQWRUVKLS IURP0RVL,IDWXQML , KDYHOHDUQHGIURP \RX

KRZ WR QDYLJDWH DFDGHPLD ZLWKRXW WDNLQJ LW WRR SHUVRQDO DQG \RXU SDVVLRQ

DPELWLRQDQGULJRXULQ\RXUDFDGHPLFZRUNKDVLQVSLUHGPHWUHPHQGLRXVO\LQ

P\MRXUQH\WREHFRPHDUHVHDUFKHU,DPDOVRGHHSO\WKDQNIXOWR-DFN\+DJDQ

WKDW KDV ZHOFRPHG PH WR WKH µPLJUDWLRQ ZRUNVKRS¶ JURXS DQG JHQHURXVO\

VXSSRUWHGPHLQP\ZRUN$VSHFLDOWKDQN\RXDOVRWR&DWK\=LPPHUZKRKDV

VSHQWPDQ\PDQ\KRXUVWHDFKLQJPH6(0DQG03OXV,DPVRWKDQNIXOIRURXU

JUHDWFRQYHUVDWLRQVDQGVKDUHGSDVVLRQIRUSLJV$QGRIFRXUVHDELJWKDQN\RX

WR WKH 81& 6RFLRORJ\ JUDG VWXGHQWV WKDW KDYH ZHOFRPHG PH VR ZDUPO\

HVSHFLDOO\WRP\URRPPDWH1DWKDQDQGWR-RVHSK



7KURXJKW P\ 3K' WLPH , KDYH PHW PDQ\ GLIIHUHQW JUHDW SHRSOH WKDW ZHUH

LQVSLULQJWRPHDQGWKDWVXSSRUWHGPHLQPDQ\GLIIHUHQWZD\V,ZRXOGOLNHWR

WKDQN 0DQWH 'DSKQH DQG 9DOHULH IRU WKHLU IULHQGVKLS DQG XQFRQGLWLRQDO

VXSSRUW DQG PRWLYDWLRQ IRU P\ LGHDV $OVR D VSHFLDO WKDQN \RX WR 2ODY DQG

$QGUH\IRUPDQ\JUHDWFRQYHUVDWLRQVORWVRIFRQIHUHQFHIXQDQGIHHGEDFNRQ

P\UHVHDUFK

,DPDOVRYHU\WKDQNIXOIRUP\IULHQGVLQ/LQN|SLQJDQG1RUUN|SLQJ7KDQN

\RX0DULRDQG/RYLVDIRUDOZD\VKDYLQJDQRSHQHDUIRUDOOP\µSKGSUREOHPV¶

(16)



DQGVSHFLDOWKDQN\RX0DULRIRUDOOWKHJUHDWµTXDQWVHVVLRQV¶DQGDQVZHULQJ

P\HQGOHVVTXHVWLRQVDERXWIDFWRUDQDO\VLVDQG6(0,IHHODOVRYHU\OXFN\WR

KDYHPHW6DUDKDQG6HOFDQWKDQN\RXIRULQVSLULQJDQGDOZD\VIXQDIWHUZRUN

WDONVDQGDERYHDOOIRU\RXUIULHQGVKLS$OVRWKDQNVWR'DUF\DQG-RKDQQDDQG

WKDQN\RX+XJRIRU\RXUPRWLYDWLRQGXULQJP\MRXUQH\

,DPDOVRWKDQNIXOIRUP\µ0DOP|IULHQGV¶WKDQNVWRWKHµ0,03K'JDQJ¶

ZLWK D VSHFLDOO\ WKDQNVWR &DUROLQH IRU PHQWDO VXSSRUW DQG IRU QHHGHG ZLQH

HYHQLQJV$OVRWKDQN\RX=DKUDIRUEHLQJDJUHDWIULHQGDQGDOZD\VKDYLQJDQ

RSHQHDUDQGRIIHULQJWDVW\IRRGVROXFN\WKD\,PHW\RXGXULQJµVWDWVFDPS¶

LQ$QQ $UERU 7KDQN \RX/LVDIRU FUHDWLQJWKLVORYHO\FRYHUDQGWKDQN \RX

-RKQQ\IRU\RXUHPRWLRQDOVXSSRUWHQFRXUDJHPHQWDQGQHHGHGGLVWUDFWLRQV

-DQLQHWKDQN\RXIRU\RXUIULHQGVKLSVLQFHVFKRROIRUDOOWKHVHVN\SHKRXUV

DQGIRUEHOLHYLQJLQPH



/DVWEXWQRWOHDVW,DPJUHDWIXOIRUP\IDPLO\WKDWKDVDOZD\VHQFRXUDJHGDQG

EHOLHYHGLQPHHYHQZKHQZRQGHULQJZKDWP\GHFLVLRQVZLOOHYHQWXDOO\OHDG

WR 'DQNH 2PD &KULVWD XQG GDQNH *HUDOG 'DQNH DXFK DQ 0HVVL $EHU

YRUDOOHPGDQNH0XWWLGDVVGXLPPHUDQPLFKJHJODXEWKDVWRKQHGLFKZlKUH

LFKQLFKWZRLFKKHXWHELQ



0DOP|-XO\

&DUROLQ6FKW]H

 

(17)



 

(18)



/LVWRIRULJLQDOSDSHUV



3$3(5,

6FKW]H&  $WWLWXGHVPDWWHU:HOIDUHZRUNDQGPLJUDWLRQLQ6ZHGHQ

Migration StudiesPQ\



3$3(5,,

6FKW]H & DQG ,IDWXQML 0 VXEPLWWHG  ³(YHU\RQH LV HTXDO´ &RORUEOLQG

DWWLWXGHVLQZHOIDUHSUDFWLFHVZLWK PLJUDQWV6XEPLWWHGWRSociology of Race and Ethnicity.



3$3(5,,,

6FKW]H&DQG-RKDQQVRQ+ VXEPLWWHG  7KHLPSRUWDQFH RI GLVFUHWLRQIRU

ZHOIDUH VHUYLFHV WR PLQRULWLHV ([DPLQLQJ ZRUNORDG DQG DQWLLPPLJUDWLRQ

DWWLWXGHV6XEPLWWHGWRAustralian Journal of Public Administration



3$3(5,9

6FKW]H & PDQXVFULSW  2QWRORJLFDO 6HFXULW\ LQ 7LPHV RI *OREDO

7UDQVIRUPDWLRQV"%XUHDXFUDWV¶3HUFHSWLRQVRQ2UJDQLVDWLRQDO:RUN/LIHDQG

0LJUDWLRQ

(19)



,QWURGXFWLRQ

0XFK UHVHDUFK LQ WKH SXEOLF DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ ILHOG KDV KLWKHUWR IRFXVHG RQ

RUJDQLVDWLRQDOIDFWRUVZKHQVFUXWLQLVLQJGLIIHUHQWDVSHFWVRISURYLGLQJZHOIDUH

VHUYLFHVDQGVWUHHWOHYHOEXUHDXFUDW¶VZRUN HJ/LSVN\%URGNLQ

YDQ%HUNOHDQG.QLHV +RZHYHUZHILQGOHVVUHVHDUFKFRQVLGHULQJWKH

UROH RILQGLYLGXDOIDFWRUVOLNHZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶DWWLWXGHV$PRQJ WKHVWXGLHV

WKDW H[LVW ZH ILQG VWXGLHV IRFXVLQJ RQ DWWLWXGHV WRZDUGV WRSLFV VXFK DV

SULYDWLVDWLRQ RI ZHOIDUH VHUYLFHV SRYHUW\ DQG XQHPSOR\PHQW 'HOOJUDQ DQG

+|MHU.DOOLR0HHXZLVVHDQG6FDUDPX]]LQR%ORPEHUJHWDO

.DOOLR %ORPEHUJ DQG .UROO   5HODWHGO\ %ORPEHUJ .DOOLR .UROO DQG

6DDULQHQ   VWXGLHG VRFLDO ZRUNHUV¶ SHUFHLYHG MRE VWUHVV LQ UHODWLRQ WR

DWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVFOLHQWVLQGLIIHUHQW1RUGLFFRXQWULHV7KHLUILQGLQJVVXJJHVW

WKDWVRFLDOZRUNHUV¶SRVLWLRQVWRZDUGVFOLHQWVDUHWRVRPHH[WHQWGHSHQGHQWRQ

WKHOHYHORIWKHLUSHUFHLYHGMREVWUHVV+RZHYHUVWXGLHVIRFXVLQJRQDWWLWXGHV

WRZDUGV PLQRULWLHV KDYH UHFHLYHG OHVV DWWHQWLRQ ZKHQ VWXG\LQJ ZHOIDUH

ZRUNHUV¶ DWWLWXGHV H[FHSWLRQV DUH HJ (OPHURWK  3DUN HW DO 

3LWNlHQHQDQG.RXNL 

$W WKH VDPH WLPH ZH ILQG H[WHQVLYH VWXGLHV LQWR JHQHUDO SRSXODWLRQV¶

DWWLWXGHV WRZDUGV LPPLJUDWLRQ )RU LQVWDQFH WKH \HDUO\ VWXG\ DPRQJ WKH

6ZHGLVK PDMRULW\ SRSXODWLRQ µMångfaldsbarometer¶ GLYHUVLW\ EDURPHWHU 

GHPRQVWUDWHVWKDWLQPDQ\6ZHGHVKDGDJRRGH[SHULHQFHRIFORVHFRQWDFW

ZLWKPLJUDQWVDQGWKDWWKHPDMRULW\LVLQIDYRXURIGLYHUVLW\ $KPDGL3DOPDQG

$KPDGL   0RUHRYHU D UHFHQW SDQHO VXUYH\ VWXGLHG WKH 6ZHGLVK

SRSXODWLRQ¶VDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVLPPLJUDWLRQEHWZHHQDQGVKRZLQJ

WKDWDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVLPPLJUDWLRQ ZHUHRYHUDOOVWDEOHRYHUWKHVHWKUHH\HDUV

6WU|PElFNDQG7KHRULQ %H\RQGPRUHGHVFULSWLYHVWXGLHVIRFXVLQJRQ

DWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDQWV HJ$KPDGLHWDO6HYHULQ WKHUHH[LVWV

DFRQVLGHUDEOHERG\RIUHVHDUFKOLQNLQJDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDQWVLQ6ZHGHQ

WRGLIIHUHQWSKHQRPHQD %HYHODQGHUDQG2WWHUEHFN%RKPDQDQG+MHUP

 &DUOVVRQ DQG (ULNVVRQ  +MHUP -RKDQVVRQ DQG :HUQHU 

.QXGVHQ0OOHUHWDO 

(20)



:KHQ LW FRPHV WR H[DPLQLQJ ZHOIDUH ZRUN DQG PLJUDWLRQ WKHUH H[LVWV D

UDQJH RI TXDOLWDWLYH UHVHDUFK IRFXVLQJ DPRQJ RWKHU WKLQJV RQ ZHOIDUH

ZRUNHUV¶ SHUFHSWLRQV WRZDUGV PLQRULW\ JURXS FOLHQWV DQG WKH UROH RI

VWHUHRW\SLQJFOLHQWV HJ6R\GDQ-RKDQVVRQDQG 0ROLQD3ULQJOH

 (OLDVVL    /DUVVRQ   5HVHDUFK IRFXVLQJ RQ WKH

HIIHFWV RI VWHUHRW\SHV VKRZV WKDW ZLWKLQ WKH 3XEOLF (PSOR\PHQW 6HUYLFHV

KHUHDIWHU 3(6  FOLHQWV ZLWK VWHUHRW\SLFDO 6ZHGLVK DWWULEXWHV ZKLWH  KDG D

PRUHOLNHOLKRRGRIEHLQJVHOHFWHGIRUDODERXUPDUNHWSURJUDPPH $UDL

HWDO 6LPLODUO\DVWXG\IURPWKH,6)  VKRZHGWKDWIRUHLJQERUQ

FOLHQWVZHUHPRUHOLNHO\WREHGHQLHGVLFNQHVVEHQHILWVDQGWRH[SHULHQFHSRRU

WUHDWPHQWE\WKH6ZHGLVK6RFLDO,QVXUDQFH$JHQF\ KHUHDIWHU66,$ FRPSDUHG

WRFOLHQWVRIWKHPDMRULW\SRSXODWLRQ

7KHVHDQGRWKHUVWXGLHV HJ%ORPEHUJ.UROODQG.DOOLR WKXVRIIHU

VXSSRUWIRUWKHDUJXPHQWWKDWLQGLYLGXDODWWLWXGHV PLJKWEHOLQNHGWRZHOIDUH

SUDFWLFHVHYHQWKRXJKWKHPDMRULW\RIVWXGLHVLQWKLVILHOGDUHFRQFHUQHGZLWK

WKHUROHRIRUJDQLVDWLRQDOIDFWRUVIRUREWDLQLQJZHOIDUHVHUYLFHV+RZHYHUZH

ILQGOLPLWHGUHVHDUFKWKDWDQDO\VHVWKHUROHRIDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLQRULWLHVDQG

WKH UROH RI RUJDQLVDWLRQDO FRQGLWLRQV 7KLV FDOOV IRU RSHQLQJ XS DQ

XQGHUVWDQGLQJEH\RQGWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOGLPHQVLRQDVDZD\WRFRPSUHKHQG

ZHOIDUHZRUNE\LQFOXGLQJGLVFXVVLRQVDERXWWKHUROHRIRQH¶VDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGV

PLJUDQWV DQG E\ LQFOXGLQJ SHUVSHFWLYHV WKDW IUDPH WKH LQGLYLGXDO ZHOIDUH

ZRUNHUQRWRQO\DVSDUWRIDQRUJDQLVDWLRQEXWDOVRDVDSULYDWHSHUVRQZKR

KROGVSHUVRQDOYDOXHVDQGEHOLHIV







7KURXJKRXWWKLVµ.DSSD¶WH[W,XVHWKHWHUPFOLHQW2WKHUUHIHUHQFHVPLJKWXVHWHUPVOLNH

FXVWRPHURUXVHU$OOWHUPVEHDUGLIIHUHQWFRQQRWDWLRQVWKDWFDQEHSUREOHPDWLFDQG

VWLJPDWLVLQJ,QP\SDSHUVKRZHYHUWHUPVGLIIHUGXHWRGLIIHUHQWMRXUQDOFRQWH[WV

,)6VWDQGVIRU¶6ZHGLVK6RFLDO,QVXUDQFH,QVSHFWRUDWH¶ZKLFKLVDQLQGHSHQGHQWVXSHUYLVRU\

DJHQF\IRUWKH6ZHGLVK6RFLDO,QVXUDQFH6\VWHP

:HOIDUHZRUNHUVDUHGHILQHGDVHPSOR\HHVZKRDUHZRUNLQJZLWKFOLHQWVLQWKHLUZRUNDUHD

DQGWDVNV

(21)



$LPDQGUHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQV

7KH RYHUDOO DLP RI WKH WKHVLV LV WR FRPELQH GLVFXVVLRQV RQ LQGLYLGXDO

SHUVSHFWLYHVLQWRVWUHHWOHYHOEXUHDXFUDF\WKHRU\ 6/%7 E\VWXG\LQJ6ZHGLVK

ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV¶ DWWLWXGHV WRZDUGV PLJUDQWV DQG WKHLU SHUFHSWLRQV WRZDUGV

RUJDQLVDWLRQDO FRQGLWLRQV,W VHHNV WR H[DPLQH GLIIHUHQW GLPHQVLRQV RI WKHVH

DWWLWXGHVDQGSHUFHSWLRQVDQGKRZWKH\PLJKWLQWHUVHFWDQGWRXQGHUVWDQGDQG

H[SODLQ WKHP DQG WKHLU LPSOLFDWLRQV IRU ZHOIDUH ZRUN ZLWK PLJUDQWV

,PSRUWDQWO\WKLVVWXG\GRHVQRWPDNHLPSOLFDWLRQVDERXWSUDFWLFHVLQUHODWLRQ

WREHKDYLRXUDVVXFKEXW LQVWHDGVWXGLHV SHUFHSWLRQVWRZDUGVµZHOIDUH ZRUN

ZLWK PLJUDQWV¶ $JDLQVW WKH EDFNGURS RI WKH GLVFXVVLRQ DERYH WKH RYHUDOO

UHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQLV



1) How are individual and organisational factors associated with welfare workers’ attitudes towards migrants, and how are these attitudes linked to perceptions of welfare work with migrants?



,QWKLVGLVVHUWDWLRQDWWLWXGHVDUHDNH\FRQFHSWWKDWFDQEHXQGHUVWRRGDVIRUPV

RI SUHIHUHQFHV DQG HYDOXDWLRQV WRZDUGV SHRSOH E\ H[SUHVVLQJ IDYRXU RU

GLVIDYRXU$WWLWXGHVVKRXOGQRWEHXQGHUVWRRGRQO\DVLQGLYLGXDOWUDLWVEXWDOVR

DVEHLQJVKDSHGE\VWUXFWXUDOGLPHQVLRQVRIVRFLHW\DWODUJHHJRUJDQLVDWLRQDO

FRQWH[WV 9DQ'LMN 5HFHQWFRQFHSWXDOZRUNE\5D\  VXJJHVWVWKDW

LQGLYLGXDODWWLWXGHVDUHQRWRQO\VKDSHGE\WKHRUJDQLVDWLRQRQHLVVLWXDWHGLQ

EXWDUHDOVR³ILOWHUHGWKURXJK±DQGFKDQJHGE\±RUJDQLVDWLRQV´ S WKXV

VXSSRUWLQJ WKH DLP WR VWXG\ LQGLYLGXDO DQG RUJDQLVDWLRQDO IDFWRUV LQ

FRQMXQFWLRQ ZLWK HDFK RWKHU 7KLV GLVVHUWDWLRQ WLHV LQWR GHEDWHV RQ UDFLDO

DWWLWXGHVDQGDQWLLPPLJUDWLRQDWWLWXGHV,QUDFLDODWWLWXGHVWXGLHVWKHREMHFWV

RI WKH DWWLWXGHVDUH ³UDFLDODQG HWKQLF JURXSVDQG WKHLU DWWULEXWHVDVSHFWV RU

UHODWLRQV EHWZHHQ JURXSV SXEOLF SROLFLHV UHOHYDQW WR UDFH FRQWDFW EHWZHHQ

WKRVHJURXSVDQGDVVHVVPHQWVRIWKHFKDUDFWHURILQWHUJURXSUHODWLRQV´ %RER

 ,QDQWLLPPLJUDWLRQDWWLWXGHVWXGLHVWKHREMHFWVWKDWDUHHYDOXDWHG

DUHPLJUDQWVDQGWKHLUDWWULEXWHV7KXVDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDQWVWKHUHE\UHIHU

WRWKHHYDOXDWLRQVSHRSOHPDNHLQUHODWLRQWRPLJUDQWVDQG PLJUDWLRQ5DFLDO

DWWLWXGHV DUH RSHUDWLRQDOLVHG LQ GLIIHUHQW ZD\V LQ WKH GLIIHUHQW UHVHDUFK

TXHVWLRQV :KHQ RSHUDWLRQDOLVLQJ µUDFLDO DWWLWXGHV¶ DQG µDQWLLPPLJUDWLRQ

DWWLWXGHV¶LQIRUPRIDVFDOHLWFDSWXUHVDUDQJHRIRIDWWLWXGHVIURPSRVLWLYHWR

QHJDWLYHRQHV7KHUHE\WKHPHDVXUHPHQWVFDSWXUHERWKSRVLWLYHDQGQHJDWLYH

DWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVWKHVH JURXSVLQ RUGHUWRDSSUHKHQGLQWHUJURXSUHODWLRQV,Q

UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQ  DERYH , PHUHO\ UHIHU WR µDWWLWXGHV WRZDUGV PLJUDQWV¶

(22)



EHFDXVHWKDWZDVWKHPDLQRXWFRPH,DLPHGWRH[SODLQ,QUHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQV

DQG,PDNHXVHRIWKHFRQFHSWµDQWLLPPLJUDWLRQDWWLWXGHV¶WKHHVWDEOLVKHG

FRQFHSW LQ WKH ILHOG RI HWKQLF DQG UDFLDO VWXGLHV WR VWXG\ µDWWLWXGHV WRZDUGV

PLJUDQWV¶ HJ+MHUP 



7R IXUWKHU HODERUDWH WKLV PRUH JHQHUDO XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV¶

DWWLWXGHV WRZDUGV PLJUDQWV SRVHG LQ WKH RYHUDOO UHVHDUFK TXHVWLRQ DERYH ,

VWXGLHGVHYHUDOFRQVWLWXWLYHDVSHFWVZKHQLWFRPHVWRWKHUROHRILQGLYLGXDODQG

RUJDQLVDWLRQDO SHUVSHFWLYHV LQ UHODWLRQ WR SHUFHSWLRQV RI ZHOIDUH ZRUN ZLWK

PLJUDQWVLQWKHIRUPRIWKUHHIXUWKHUUHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQV

,QRUGHUWRH[SDQGWKHXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHUROHRILQGLYLGXDODWWLWXGHVLQ

UHODWLRQWR PLQRULW\ JURXSV,VWXGLHGFRORXUEOLQGDWWLWXGHVLQ RUGHUWRJHWD

PRUH QXDQFHG FRQFHSWLRQ RI WKH UROH RI LQGLYLGXDO DWWLWXGHV &RORXUEOLQG

DWWLWXGHVDUHFRPSDUHGWRDQWLLPPLJUDWLRQDWWLWXGHVDQHZZD\WRXQGHUVWDQG

SHUFHSWLRQVDERXWPLQRULWLHVWKDWUHIOHFWWKHFXUUHQW=HWLJHLVWRIWKH6ZHGLVK

ZHOIDUHVWDWHDORQJWKHOLQHVRIDFRORXUEOLQGSHUVSHFWLYH&RORXUEOLQGWKHRU\

DVVXPHVWKDWLISHRSOHRULQVWLWXWLRQVGRQRWQRWLFHUDFHRUHWKQLFLW\WKHQWKH\

ZLOO QRW DFW LQ D UDFLVW PDQQHU $FFRUGLQJ WR WKLV UHDVRQLQJ DYRLGDQFH RI

HWKQRUDFLDO FDWHJRULHV ZRXOG GHFUHDVH UDFLDO GLVFULPLQDWLRQ DQG LQFUHDVH

HTXDOLW\ +RZHYHU LJQRULQJ UDFH RU HWKQLFLW\ PLJKW REVFXUH WKH UHDO LPSDFW

DQGRFFXUUHQFHRILQHTXDOLW\,ZDQWHGWRH[SORUHWKHUROHRIWKHVHFRORXUEOLQG

DWWLWXGHV LQ UHODWLRQ WR DQWLLPPLJUDWLRQ DWWLWXGHV DQG ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV¶

SHUFHSWLRQVDERXWWKHLUZRUNZLWKPLJUDQWVEHFDXVHZHNQRZYHU\OLWWOHDERXW

KRZFRORXUEOLQGQHVVRSHUDWHVLQVRFLDOLQWHUDFWLRQVVXFKDVZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶

HQFRXQWHUV ZLWK PLJUDQWV %DVHG RQ WKLV GLVFXVVLRQ P\ VHFRQG UHVHDUFK

TXHVWLRQLV

2) How are welfare workers’ colour-blind attitudes associated with anti- immigration attitudes and perceptions towards welfare work with migrant clients?



,Q RUGHU WR EHWWHU XQGHUVWDQG KRZ RUJDQLVDWLRQDO DQG LQGLYLGXDO IDFWRUV

LQIOXHQFH ZHOIDUH ZRUN , VWXGLHG KRZ RUJDQLVDWLRQDO IDFWRUVDQG LQGLYLGXDO

IDFWRUVDUHOLQNHGWRWKHFRQFHSWRIGLVFUHWLRQDQGKRZWKH\LQWHUDFWZKHQLW

FRPHV WR ZHOIDUH ZRUN ZLWK PLJUDQWV &RQFUHWHO\ , H[SORUH GLVFUHWLRQ LQ

UHODWLRQWR LQGLYLGXDODQG RUJDQLVDWLRQDOIDFWRUVLQ IRUP RIDQWLLPPLJUDWLRQ

DWWLWXGHVDQGZRUNORDG'LVFUHWLRQLVXQGHUVWRRGDVWKHIUHHGRPWRGHFLGHDQG

WRHQDEOHPHDQLQJIXOFKRLFHVEXWLWLVDOVRUHJXODWHGE\UXOHVDQGSURFHGXUHV

2QWKHRQHKDQGLWLVGLVFXVVHGLQDSRVLWLYHOLJKWDVWKHPHDQVWRGHDOZLWK

(23)



RYHUZKHOPLQJGHPDQGVZLWKLQRUJDQLVDWLRQV2QWKHRWKHUKDQGLWLVSURSRVHG

WKDWLWPLJKWDOORZIRU UDFLDO ELDVHVWRLQIRUPMXGJHPHQWVDERXWFOLHQWVDQG

UHVXOWLQQHJDWLYHHIIHFWV(YHQWKRXJK6/%7RXWOLQHVDUDQJHRIRUJDQLVDWLRQDO

DQGLQGLYLGXDOPDWWHUVWKDWDUHVLJQLILFDQWIRUKRZZHOIDUHZRUNHUVDFWZHVWLOO

NQRZYHU\OLWWOHDERXWZKHQWKHVHPDWWHUVGRRUGRQRWFRQVWLWXWHDGHWHUPLQLQJ

IDFWRUIRUKRZGLVFUHWLRQRSHUDWHV7KHUHIRUHP\WKLUGUHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQLV



3) In what way does discretion play an intervening role in the relation between workload, anti-immigration attitudes, and perceptions towards work with migrant clients?



,Q RUGHU WR JDLQ D PRUH FRPSUHKHQVLYH XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH LQWHUSOD\

EHWZHHQ RUJDQLVDWLRQDO DQG LQGLYLGXDO IDFWRUV , DOVR H[SORUH KRZ VWUXFWXUDO

SURFHVVHVLQIOXHQFHZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶SHUFHSWLRQVRQ PLJUDWLRQDQG PLJUDQWV

LQWKHLUZRUNLQJOLYHV,QRUGHUWRGRVR,IRFXVRQH[SUHVVLRQVRIXQFHUWDLQWLHV

DQG LQVHFXULWLHV FDXVHG E\ JOREDO WUDQVIRUPDWLRQV XVLQJ WKH FRQFHSW RI

RQWRORJLFDO VHFXULW\ 2QWRORJLFDO VHFXULW\ FDQ EH GHILQHG DV WKH VHFXULW\ RI

RQH¶V VHOI DQG D VHQVH RI VDIHW\ LQ WKH ZRUOG , WKHUHE\ WU\ WR JDLQ D EHWWHU

XQGHUVWDQGLQJ DERXW ZK\ ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV H[SUHVV UHVHQWPHQW WRZDUGV

PLJUDQWVLQUHODWLRQWRWKHLUZRUNOLIH7KHUHIRUHWKHIRXUWKDQGODVWUHVHDUFK

TXHVWLRQLV



4)How do welfare workers express themselves about their work and about migration in general, and how we can understand these perceptions?



*LYHQ WKHVH LVVXHV WKH GLVVHUWDWLRQ KDV LWV PDLQ SRLQW RI GHSDUWXUH LQ WKUHH

GLIIHUHQW VWUDQGV RI UHVHDUFK QDPHO\ SHUVSHFWLYHV RQ UDFLDO DWWLWXGHV

SHUVSHFWLYHVRQ6/%DQGSHUVSHFWLYHVRQRQWRORJLFDOVHFXULW\(DFKRIWKHVH

SHUVSHFWLYHV LV HPEHGGHG LQ GLIIHUHQW ILHOGV 5DFLDO DWWLWXGH UHVHDUFK LV

SURPLQHQW ZLWKLQ WKH ILHOG RI PLJUDWLRQ VWXGLHV DV D ZD\ WR XQGHUVWDQG

LQWHUJURXSUHODWLRQVDQGLVHPEHGGHGLQWKHEURDGHUFRQWH[WRIHWKQLFUDFLDO

DQGPLJUDWLRQVWXGLHV6WXGLHVRQZHOIDUHEXUHDXFUDF\DUHSUHYDOHQWDPRQJWKH

ZLGHUILHOGRISXEOLFDGPLQLVWUDWLRQVWXGLHVEXWDOVRLQWKHPRUHQLFKHDUHDRI

6/%UHVHDUFK ZKLFK ,ZLOO PDNH XVH RI )LQDOO\WKHFRQFHSW RI RQWRORJLFDO

VHFXULW\ KDV LWV RULJLQV LQ SV\FKRDQDO\VLV DQG VRFLRORJ\ DQG LV SURPLQHQW

ZLWKLQVWXGLHVRILQWHUQDWLRQDOUHODWLRQV

,QRUGHUWRXQGHUVWDQGWKHDWWLWXGHVRIZHOIDUHZRUNHUVWKLVWKHVLVIRFXVHV

RQ6ZHGHQDVLWVVWXG\FRQWH[W7KH6ZHGLVKFDVHFDQEHVHHQDVDNH\H[DPSOH

WRXQGHUVWDQGLQJWKHVHDWWLWXGHVGXHWRLWVZHOIDUHVWDWHWKDWKDVIRUDORQJWLPH

(24)



EHHQ SHUFHLYHG DV XQLYHUVDO ZLWK WKH DPELWLRQ WR RIIHU HTXDO VHUYLFHV DQG

FRQGLWLRQVWRDOOSHRSOHUHVLGLQJLQWKHFRXQWU\7KH6ZHGLVKFDVHLVDOVRRI

SDUWLFXODUUHOHYDQFHGXHWRWKHUHFHQWGLVFXUVLYHVKLIWIURPDQRSHQPLJUDWLRQ

SROLF\DQGH[FHSWLRQDOO\SRVLWLYHDWWLWXGHVWRZDUGVPLJUDWLRQWRPRUHUHVWULFWHG

PLJUDWLRQSROLFLHVDQGLQFUHDVHGSXEOLFGHEDWHVZKHUHPLJUDWLRQLVSRUWUD\HG

DVDWKUHDWWRWKHZHOIDUHVWDWH7KLVWKHVLVIRFXVHVRQZHOIDUHZRUNHUVLQWZR

VWDWHUXQZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQVLQ6ZHGHQWKH3(6DQGWKH66,$7KHDQDO\VLV

LQWKHWKHVLVLVEDVHGRQVXUYH\GDWDFROOHFWHGIURP2FWREHUWR1RYHPEHU

7KHGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHUHVHDUFKTXHVWLRQVDQGRYHUDOOGLVFXVVLRQVRIWKHWKHVLV

KDYHEHHQLQIOXHQFHGE\WKHFKDQJLQJSROLWLFDODQGSXEOLFODQGVFDSHVKDSHGE\

DQWLLPPLJUDWLRQUKHWRULF 7KLVFKDQJLQJ ODQGVFDSHMRLQVDQ RYHUDOO WUHQG RI

UDSLGO\ FKDQJLQJ VRFLHWLHV ZKHUH FRQWHPSRUDU\ OLIH LVVKDSHG E\ LQFUHDVLQJ

XQFHUWDLQWLHVDQGH[LVWHQWLDODQ[LHW\

(25)



6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQV

%URFKPDQ DQG +DJHOXQG   VWDWH WKDW SUHVHQWO\ RQH FDQ ZLWQHVV WKH

PHHWLQJEHWZHHQWZRQRZFHQWUDOHOHPHQWV±WKHZHOIDUHVWDWHDQGPLJUDWLRQ

7KH6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHVWDWHUHVWVRQXQLYHUVDOLGHDOV±WKDWHYHU\RQHZKROHJDOO\

UHVLGHVLQ6ZHGHQVKRXOGUHFHLYHZHOIDUHVHUYLFHVRIVLPLODUTXDOLW\DQGVKRXOG

EH WUHDWHG LQ D VLPLODU PDQQHU LUUHVSHFWLYH RI FODVV JHQGHU RU HWKQRUDFLDO

VWDWXV6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQVDUHWKHFHQWUHSLHFHRIFRQYH\LQJWKHVH

ZHOIDUH VHUYLFHV DQG LQ WKH IROORZLQJ , ZLOO JLYH DQ RYHUYLHZ RI WKH WZR

ZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQVWKDWVHUYHDVWKHHPSLULFDOEDVHIRUWKLVWKHVLVDQGZLOO

DGGUHVVWKHLUUHODWLRQWRVRFLDOSROLF\FKDQJHVDQGPLJUDWLRQWUHQGVLQ6ZHGHQ



3(6DQG66,$±KLVWRULFDORYHUYLHZ

7KH 3(6 DQG 66,$ FRQVWLWXWH WZR RI WKH ODUJHVW DJHQFLHV ZLWK UHJDUG WR

LPSOHPHQWLQJSXEOLFVRFLDOSROLF\E\SURYLGLQJWKH6ZHGLVKSRSXODWLRQZLWK

EHQHILWV DQG ZHOIDUH VHUYLFHV ZLWKLQ WKH IUDPH RI VRFLDO VHFXULW\ DQG DFWLYH

ODERXUPDUNHWSROLF\7KH\ERWKRIIHUFRYHUDJHDQGDVVLVWDQFHIRUWKHHQWLUH

SRSXODWLRQLQFOXGLQJPLJUDQWVZKRKDYHWKHULJKWWRUHVLGHLQ6ZHGHQ

+LVWRULFDOO\ VRFLDO SROLF\ DQG ODERXU PDUNHW SROLF\ KDYH KDG D FORVH

DVVRFLDWLRQZKHQLWFRPHVWRLQGLYLGXDO¶VODERXUPDUNHWSDUWLFLSDWLRQDVDIRUP

RI DFWLYH FLWL]HQVKLS EHFDXVH WKH PDLQ JRDO LV WKDW WKH VRFLDO VHFXULW\ QHW

HQDEOHV WKH LQGLYLGXDO WR ZRUN %RWK RUJDQLVDWLRQV KDYH WKH FHQWUDO WDVN RI

VRFLDO LQWHJUDWLRQ LQWR 6ZHGLVK VRFLHW\ E\ WDUJHWLQJ YXOQHUDEOH JURXSV DQG

UHDFKLQJVRFLDOSROLF\JRDOVWKURXJKODERXUPDUNHWSROLF\%RWKRUJDQLVDWLRQV

VWDUWHG WR EH GHYHORSHG DW WKH EHJLQQLQJ RI WKH V ZKHQ ORFDO YROXQWDU\

VLFNQHVVLQVXUDQFHRUJDQLVDWLRQVGHYHORSHGLQUHODWLRQWRLQGXVWULDOLVDWLRQDQG

DQHPHUJLQJGHPDQGWRVHFXUHRQH¶VLQFRPHZKHQEHLQJVLFN 0HODQGHU 

6LPLODUO\IURPXQWLOWKHVWKH3(6 DWWKDWWLPHLQWKHIRUPRIORFDO

DJHQFLHV ZDVUXQRQWKHPXQLFLSDOOHYHOE\ORFDODXWKRULWLHV'XULQJWKDWWLPH

(26)



WKH3(6KDGWKHSULPDU\UHVSRQVLELOLW\WRLPSOHPHQWXQHPSOR\PHQWSROLF\DQG

IXQFWLRQHGDVDFRQWUROOLQJXQLWIRULPSOHPHQWLQJODERXUPDUNHWSROLFLHVHJ

GHPDQGVIRUGDLO\YLVLWVE\WKHXQHPSOR\HGSHUVRQDQGGRFXPHQWDWLRQRIVXFK

YLVLWV 'HODQGHUDQG:DGHQVM| $IWHUVLFNQHVVLQVXUDQFHEHFDPH

REOLJDWRU\IRUDOO6ZHGLVKFLWL]HQVDQG66,$¶V LQLWVPRUHLQIRUPDOIRUPDW

WKDW WLPH  UROH VORZO\ FKDQJHG IURP EHLQJ DQ LQIRUPDO RUJDQLVDWLRQ ZLWK D

YROXQWDU\FKDUDFWHUWRDFHQWUDODFWRULQVRFLDOSROLF\PDNLQJZKLFKZDVDOVR

FKDUDFWHULVHGE\LQFUHDVLQJO\IRUPDOLVHGSUDFWLFHVDQGUXOHV 0HODQGHU 

)URP  WKH 3(6 EHFDPH UHVSRQVLEOH IRU UHDOLVLQJ DFWLYH ODERXU PDUNHW

SROLF\ LQ WKH ZKROH FRXQWU\ )ROORZHG E\ WKLV GHYHORSPHQW LQ WKH V

µDFWLYHODERXUPDUNHWSROLF\¶ZDVLQWURGXFHGDVDFUXFLDOSDUWRIXQHPSOR\PHQW

SROLF\DQGWKLVLQIOXHQFHGWKH3(6¶VUROHLQRIIHULQJDFWLYHPHDVXUHVIRUODERXU

PDUNHWLQWHJUDWLRQDVZHOODVLWVUROHDVD FRQWUROOLQJ XQLW ZKHQLWFRPHVWR

XQHPSOR\PHQWLQVXUDQFHDQGODERXUPDUNHWSDUWLFLSDWLRQ-XVWOLNHWKH66,$

GXULQJ WKH V DQG V WKH 3(6 GHYHORSHG LQWR DQ DJHQF\ ZLWK PRUH

IRUPDOLVHGRUJDQLVDWLRQDOURXWLQHVDQGSUDFWLFHV HJDFWLYLW\SODQQLQJIL[HG

IRUPVRIZRUNWLPHERRNLQJIRUYLVLWVDQGUHSRUWLQJUHVXOWV ,QWKHVDQG

RQZDUGV WKH 3(6 ZDVDOVR LQFUHDVLQJO\ LQIOXHQFHG E\ DFWLYH ODERXU PDUNHW

SROLF\ZLWKDQHPSKDVLVRQµSDVVLYHWRDFWLYHSURJUDPPHV¶LQRUGHUWRLQWHJUDWH

YXOQHUDEOH JURXSV LQWR WKH ODERXU PDUNHW DQG WR H[HUFLVH FRQWURO RYHU

LQGLYLGXDOV &RQVHTXHQWO\ DFWLYH ODERXU PDUNHW SDUWLFLSDWLRQ LV DVVRFLDWHG

ZLWKERWKVHFXULQJDQGVXVWDLQLQJWKHZHOIDUHVWDWH 'HODQGHUDQG:DGHQVM|

(QQHUEHUJ 7KH66,$H[SHULHQFHGDGGLWLRQDOFKDQJHVLQOLQHZLWK

LQFUHDVHGVWHHULQJDQGVWDQGDUGLVDWLRQV HJIRUPDOURXWLQHVPDQXDOVGLFWDWLQJ

KRZWRGHDOZLWKFDVHVRUGHUVRIWDVNIXOILOPHQWDQGWLPHOLPLWDWLRQVRQWDVN

IXOILOPHQW 

,QWKH\HDUDOORIWKH66,$¶VFRXQW\DJHQFLHVZKHUHSKDVHGRXWDQG

QDWLRQDOLVHG LOOXVWUDWLQJ WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH 66,$ IURP VPDOOVFDOH

YROXQWDU\RUJDQLVDWLRQVWRDODUJHJRYHUQPHQWDJHQF\ 0HODQGHU 7KH

3(6KDVXQGHUJRQHDVLPLODUµIRUPDOLVDWLRQSURFHVV¶LQEHFRPLQJRQHRIWKH

PDLQ RUJDQLVDWLRQVUHVSRQVLEOH IRUVXVWDLQLQJDQG FRQWUROLQJWKHIXQFWLRQLQJ

RI WKH ZHOIDUH VWDWH E\ OLQNLQJ ZHOIDUH VWDWH JRDOV ZLWK D VWURQJ µZRUNLQJ

VRFLHW\¶





(27)



0LJUDWLRQDQG6ZHGLVKZHOIDUHRUJDQLVDWLRQV

7KH3(6DQG66,$DUHWZRLPSRUWDQWDFWRUVZKHQLWFRPHVWRWKHLQWHJUDWLRQ

RIPLJUDQWVLQWRVRFLHW\EXWZLWKGLIIHUHQWPDQGDWHV7KH3(6DOVRKDVKDGD

FUXFLDOUROHLQ6ZHGHQ¶VLPPLJUDWLRQSURMHFWKLVWRULFDOO\HVSHFLDOO\LQUHODWLRQ

WRODERXUPLJUDWLRQZKLFKZLOOEHH[SORUHGIXUWKHULQWKHQH[WVHFWLRQ

0LJUDWLRQLQ6ZHGHQLVFORVHO\OLQNHGWRODERXUPDUNHWSURFHVVHVDQGKDG

LWVEHJLQQLQJDIWHU::,,ZKHQ6ZHGLVKLQGXVWU\ZDVRQWKHXSVZLQJDQGLQ

QHHGRIODERXU'XULQJWKDWWLPHPLJUDWLRQDQGODERXUPDUNHWSROLFLHVZHUH

PDUNHGE\WKHQHHGWRUHFUXLWDODERXUIRUFHIURPDEURDG)URPWKHVDQG

RQZDUG GLIIHUHQW SROLFLHV IDFLOLWDWHG ODERXU PDUNHW PLJUDWLRQ HJ ILUVW WKH

DJUHHPHQW IRU IUHH ODERXU PDUNHW PLJUDWLRQ EHWZHHQ 1RUGLF FRXQWULHV WKHQ

VRPH \HDUVODWHU DJUHHPHQWV RI FROOHFWLYH WUDQVIHUV RI ZRUNHUV PDLQO\ IURP

FRXQWULHV OLNH *UHHFH ,WDO\ DQG WKH IRUPHU <XJRVODYLD IROORZHG E\ WKH

OLEHUDOLVDWLRQ RI YLVD UHJXODWLRQV IRU FLWL]HQV IURP RWKHU 1RUGLF FRXQWULHV

WKURXJKZRUNSHUPLWVHQGRUVHGE\WKHODERXUPDUNHWERDUG(YLGHQWO\DWWKDW

WLPH WKH 3(6 WKURXJK WKH ODERXU PDUNHW ERDUG  ZDV SDUW RI WKH 6ZHGLVK

GHOHJDWLRQ WKDW ZRUNHG ZLWK DFWLYH UHFUXLWPHQWV RI ZRUNHUV IURP 6RXWKHUQ

(XURSHHJLWRUJDQLVHGUHFUXLWPHQWRIODERXUPLJUDQWV )UDQN )URP

WKHVXQWLOWKHODERXU PDUNHWERDUGZDVUHVSRQVLEOH IRUUHFHLYLQJ

TXRWD UHIXJHHV LQ 6ZHGHQ EXW DOVR IXQFWLRQHG DV UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV ZKHQ

FKRRVLQJ ZKLFK TXRWD UHIXJHHV ZRXOG EH DFFHSWHG LQ 6ZHGHQ LQ RUGHU WR

DFFRXQWIRUZKDWNLQGRIODERXUIRUFHZDVQHHGHG(YHQKHUHWKH3(6ZDVSDUW

RIWKHGHOHJDWLRQVWKDWVHOHFWHGUHIXJHHVLQWKH(XURSHDQLQWHUQDWLRQDOFDPSV

7KRU 6SHFLDOVHOHFWLRQFRPPLWWHHVZRXOG PRWLYDWH FKRRVLQJ PHQ RI

ZRUNLQJDJHZLWKVSHFLDOODERXUPDUNHWVNLOOV (QQHUEHUJ 2YHUDOOWKH

SHULRGIURPWKHVWRWKHHDUO\VLVPDUNHGE\DSROLF\WKDWSURPRWHG

ODERXU LPPLJUDWLRQ E\ RUJDQLVLQJ UHFUXLWPHQWV EXW DOVR WKURXJK OLEHUDO

LPPLJUDWLRQUHJXODWLRQV'XHWRDVORZGRZQLQWKH6ZHGLVKHFRQRP\LQWKH

V PRUH UHVWULFWLRQV RQ ODERXU PLJUDWLRQ ZHUH LQWURGXFHG HJ QR HQWU\

ZLWKRXWDYLVDQRQ1RUGLFFLWL]HQVZRXOGQHHGDZRUNSHUPLWEHIRUHHQWHULQJ

WKHFRXQWU\DQGWKHQXPEHURIZRUNSHUPLWVZDVUHGXFHG

)URPWKHVRQZDUGVLPPLJUDWLRQLQ6ZHGHQWUDQVLWLRQHGIURPODERXU

PLJUDQWVWRUHFHLYLQJUHIXJHHVDQGWKHLUIDPLOLHVZKRZHUHDWWKDWWLPHFRPLQJ



7KH6ZHGLVKODERXUPDUNHWERDUGZDVDWWKDWWLPH XQWLO WKHDXWKRULW\LQFKDUJHRIYDULRXVHIIRUWV

LQODERXUPDUNHWSROLF\



(28)



PRVWO\IURP$VLDDQG6RXWK$PHULFD /XQGKDQG2KOVVRQ 7KLVSHULRG

ZDV PDUNHG E\ PRUH GLVWLQFWLYHO\ DGMXVWLQJ LPPLJUDWLRQ SROLFLHV WR ODERXU

PDUNHW GHPDQGVHTXDODFFHVVWRWKHVRFLDOVHFXULW\V\VWHPDQGD JHQHURXV

UHIXJHH DQG IDPLO\ UHXQLILFDWLRQ SROLF\ %RUHYL   7KH FODVVLFDO ODERXU

PDUNHW LQWHJUDWLRQ ZDV GLVFRQWLQXHG EHFDXVH PLJUDQWV ZHUH QRZ SULPDULO\

DUULYLQJRQKXPDQLWDULDQJURXQGVDQGQRVSHFLILFODERXUQHHGVZHUHLQSODFH

IRUWKLVJURXSRI PLJUDQWV7KLVWLPHSHULRGDOVR PDUNVDVKLIWIURPSROLFLHV

DLPHGDWWKH3(6KDQGOLQJODERXUPLJUDWLRQUHFUXLWPHQWWRSROLFLHVIRFXVLQJ

RQ GHDOLQJ ZLWK XQHPSOR\PHQW LQ UHODWLRQ WR LQFRPLQJ PLJUDQW JURXSV ,Q

SROLFLHVHPHUJHGDLPLQJDWVXSSRUWLQJWKHLQWHJUDWLRQRILPPLJUDQWVLQWR

VRFLHW\ E\ JUDQWLQJ DFFHVV WR YDULRXV IRUPDO ULJKWV HJ YRWLQJ ULJKWV IRU

PLJUDQWV ZKR KHOG SHUPDQHQW UHVLGHQF\ OLEHUDOLVHG QDWXUDOLVDWLRQ DQG

VHUYLFHVDQGEHQHILWVHVSHFLDOO\IRUQHZO\DUULYHGLPPLJUDQWV %RUHYL 

,QWKHVGXHWRWKHFRQIOLFWVLQWKHIRUPHU<XJRVODYLD6ZHGHQUHFHLYHG

 UHIXJHHV IURP WKH %DONDQ UHJLRQ ZLWK \HW DJDLQ D IRFXV RQ ODERXU

PDUNHWLQWHJUDWLRQ 6WDWLY $ORQJWKRVHOLQHVIURPWKHVDQGLQOLQH

ZLWK QHROLEHUDO WUHQGV RI EHLQJ SDUW RI WKH ODERXU PDUNHW DV D IRUP RI

LQWHJUDWLRQSROLFLHVLQFUHDVLQJO\IRFXVHGRQWKHODERXUPDUNHWLQWHJUDWLRQ RI

YXOQHUDEOHJURXSVHJUHIXJHHV%HLQJLQWHJUDWHGLQWRWKHODERXUPDUNHWZDV

VHHQDVSDUWRIWKHLQWHJUDWLRQSURFHVV/DVWO\UHFHQWLPPLJUDWLRQWR6ZHGHQ

LV PDUNHG E\ WKH ZDU LQ 6\ULD ,Q  6ZHGHQ¶V LPPLJUDQW SRSXODWLRQ

FRQVLVWHGPRVWO\RISHRSOHFRPLQJWR6ZHGHQIURP6\ULD$IJKDQLVWDQ,UDT

,QGLDDQG3RODQG 6WDWLVWLFV6ZHGHQ 7KHVHDUHWKHJURXSVWKDWWKH3(6

LVFXUUHQWO\WU\LQJWRLQWHJUDWHLQWRWKHODERXUPDUNHWWKURXJKDFWLYDWLRQSROLF\

PHDVXUHV

7KHDERYHGLVFXVVLRQVKRZVWKDWWKH3(6DQGLWVFROODERUDWLQJDXWKRULWLHV

KDYHDOUHDG\IURPWKHLUEHJLQQLQJEHHQDQRUJDQLVDWLRQWKDWKDVEHHQLQYROYHG

ZLWK PLJUDQWVDVFOLHQWVDQGIURPWKH 3(6 KDVWKHRYHUDOO PDQGDWHWR

ZRUNZLWKQHZO\DUULYHGUHIXJHHVZKRKDYHDUHVLGHQFHSHUPLWDQGWRLQWHJUDWH

WKHP LQWR WKH ODERXU PDUNHW (QQHUEHUJ   7KH 66,$ ZDV IURP WKH

EHJLQQLQJQRWLQYROYHGLQWKHKDQGOLQJRIODERXUPLJUDQWVEHFDXVHLWHPHUJHG

RXW RI WKH QHHG WR LPSURYH ZRUNHUV¶ FRQGLWLRQV ZLWK D IRFXV RQ 6ZHGLVK

FLWL]HQV2QO\ODWHURQZKHQLQWHJUDWLRQSROLFLHVZHUHPRUHFORVHO\OLQNHGWR

ODERXUPDUNHWLQWHJUDWLRQ HVSHFLDOO\DIWHUWKHHVWDEOLVKPHQWUHIRUP GLGWKH

66,$ EHFRPH PRUH LQYROYHG LQ SURYLGLQJ VHUYLFHV WR PLJUDQW FOLHQWV



%HIRUHQHZO\DUULYHGUHIXJHHVZHUHXQGHUWKHLQWHJUDWLRQSROLF\XPEUHOODZKHUHPXQLFLSDOLWLHV

FRRSHUDWHGZLWKRWKHUVWDWHDXWKRULWLHVIRUWKHVRFLDOVXSSRUWRIWKLVJURXS (QQHUEHUJ 



(29)



(QQHUEHUJ0HODQGHU $ORQJWKRVHOLQHVWKHQH[WVHFWLRQZLOOJLYH

DVKRUWRXWORRNRQWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOZRUNRIWKH3(6DQG66,$

3UDFWLFDOZHOIDUHZRUN

,QFRQMXQFWLRQWKH3(6DQG66,$ERWKFODVVLI\WKHLUFOLHQWVLQRUGHUWRPDNH

GHFLVLRQV RQ HOLJLEOH ODERXU PDUNHW SURJUDPPHV RU LQVXUDQFH EHQHILWV DQG

DFWLYDWLRQ SROLF\LVWKHWRRO XVHGWRLQWHJUDWHWKH XQHPSOR\HGDQGORQJWHUP

VLFN LQWR VRFLHW\ $FWLYDWLRQ SROLF\ IRFXVHV RQ LQGLYLGXDO VKRUWFRPLQJV

IOH[LELOLW\DQGHPSOR\DELOLW\UDWKHUWKDQRQWKHVWUXFWXUDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIWKH

ODERXU PDUNHW 7KH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO ZRUN FRQGXFWHG E\ WKHVH WZR DJHQFLHV

UHIOHFWVWKHLUIXQFWLRQLQJIRUWKHVWDWHWRLPSOHPHQWVRFLDODQGPRUDOFRQWURO

RYHUSHRSOHZKRDUHVLFNRUXQHPSOR\HG7KH3(6IRFXVHVRQHPSOR\DELOLW\

DQGYRFDWLRQDOUHKDELOLWDWLRQRIORQJWHUPVLFNSHRSOHDQGXQHPSOR\HGSHRSOH

/LQGTYLVWDQG/XQGlOY 



0RUHRYHUWKH3(6FRRSHUDWHVZLWKWKH66,$RQZRUNRULHQWHGHVWDEOLVKPHQWV

IRUSHRSOHZKRKDYHUHGXFHGZRUNLQJDELOLW\GXHWRGLVDELOLWLHVRULOOQHVV,WLV

DOVRUHVSRQVLEOHIRUSURYLGLQJQHZO\DUULYHGUHIXJHHVZLWKVXIILFLHQWWUDLQLQJ

DQGFRPSHWHQFHVRWKDWWKH\FDQHQWHULQWRWKH6ZHGLVKODERXUPDUNHW7KHVR

FDOOHGµHVWDEOLVKPHQWSURJUDPPH¶GLUHFWHGDWQHZO\DUULYHGUHIXJHHVODVWVIRU

PRQWKVDQGDIWHUWKDWWLPHSHULRGWKHSDUWLFLSDQWVDUHHLWKHULQWHJUDWHGLQWR

WKHODERXUPDUNHWRUFRQWLQXHZLWKDGLIIHUHQWSURJUDPPHSURYLGHGE\WKH3(6

,Q  RYHU  RI WKH SDUWLFLSDQWVZHUH UHIXJHHVIURP 6\ULD ZLWK RWKHU

PDMRUJURXSVFRPLQJIURP(ULWUHD6RPDOLDDQG$IJKDQLVWDQ 3(6 ,Q

WHUPV RI SUDFWLFHV ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV ZLWKLQ WKH 3(6 DQG 66,$ ERWK RSHUDWH

ZLWKLQWHDPVZKHQFRQGXFWLQJHQUROPHQWSODQQLQJDQGPRQLWRULQJRIFOLHQWV

3(6 +RZHYHUZHOIDUHZRUNHUVZLWKLQWKH66,$UHO\WRDJUHDWHUH[WHQW

RQQHJRWLDWLQJFOLHQWFDVHVZLWKLQVXFKWHDPV +ROOHUW]-DFREVVRQDQG6HLQJ

 

,QUHODWLRQWRWKLVIRUWKHZRUNZLWKLQWKH66,$VRFLDOZHOIDUHOHJLVODWLRQLV

FUXFLDO LQ GHFLGLQJ DERXW EHQHILWV DV ZHOO DV LQ HIIRUWV WR HQDEOH YRFDWLRQDO

UHKDELOLWDWLRQWRVXSSRUWWKHORQJWHUPVLFNLQWKHLUUHWXUQWRZRUNSURFHVV,W

LVDUJXHGWKDWWKH66,$LV PRUHVWURQJO\LQIOXHQFHGE\UXOHVDQGUHJXODWLRQV

WKDQWKH3(6EXWZLWK³SOHQW\RIURRPIRUGLVFUHWLRQ´ /LQGTYLVWDQG/XQGlOY

  7KH 66,$ RSHUDWHV ZLWKLQ WKH SROLF\ IUDPH WKDW HPSKDVLVHV WKH

UHGXFWLRQRIVLFNQHVVEHQHILWVE\PRWLYDWLQJODERXUPDUNHWSDUWLFLSDWLRQ7KLV

GLVFRXUVHZDVLPSOHPHQWHGE\UHVWULFWLQJWKHRYHUDOOVLFNQHVVDEVHQFHUDWHLQ

RUGHU WR HQFRXUDJH D µUHWXUQ WR ZRUN¶ PHQWDOLW\ 7KLV LV DOVR UHODWHG WR

(30)



H[HUFLVLQJFRQWUROZLWKWKHPRWLYDWLRQWKDWUXOHVDQGODZVQHHGWREHULJKWIXOO\

LPSOHPHQWHGWRHQVXUHµ H TXDOLW\¶ZKHQLWFRPHVWRFRPSHQVDWLRQV +ROOHUW]

HWDO 7KHYHU\VDPHORJLFRIIRUFLQJLQGLYLGXDOVLQWRZRUNZLWKLQWKH

IUDPHRIDFWLYDWLRQSROLF\LVDWSODFHZLWKLQWKH3(6ZKHUHLWLVDFFRPSDQLHG

E\SURFHVVHVRIVWHHULQJDQGFRQWUROOLQJWKHZRUNIRUFHWKURXJKDGPLQLVWUDWLYH

EDGJHULQJ WKDW PLJKW DOVR KDYH VLJQLILFDQFH IRU WKH SUDFWLFDO ZHOIDUH ZRUN

3DXOVHQ 

%H\RQG LWV SULPDU\ WDVN WR KDQGOH VLFNOHDYH FDVHV WKH 66,$ GHDOV ZLWK

YDULRXV IRUPV RI KHDOWK LQVXUDQFH DQG DGGLWLRQDO FDVH W\SHV 7\SLFDO FDVHV

LQFOXGH EHQHILWV IRU GHQWDO FDUH FKLOG EHQHILWV EHQHILWV IRU SDUHQWDO OHDYH

VLFNQHVVEHQHILWVKRXVLQJEHQHILWVEHQHILWVIRUSDUWLFLSDWLQJLQ3(6¶VODERXU

PDUNHW SURJUDPPHV DQG EHQHILWV IRU QHZO\ DUULYHG UHIXJHHV ZKR DUH

UHJLVWHUHGLQWKH3(6¶VHVWDEOLVKPHQWSURJUDPPH)UDQVVRQDQG4XLVW   RIIHU D SRUWUD\DO RI ZKDW WKH\ GHHP WKH SULPDU\ ZRUNLQJ WDVNV IRU ZHOIDUH

ZRUNHUV ZLWKLQ WKH 66,$ 7KHVH WDVNV LQFOXGH FDOFXODWLQJ VLFNQHVV EHQHILW

EDVHGLQFRPHDVVHVVPHQWRIWKHULJKWWRWKHVHEHQHILWVDQGWKHGLVEXUVHPHQW

RI WKHVH EHQHILWV :RUNLQJ WDVNV IXUWKHUPRUH LQFOXGH FRPPXQLFDWLRQ DQG

VHHNLQJDGGLWLRQDOLQIRUPDWLRQIRUDVVHVVPHQWVZKLOHDOVRHVWDEOLVKLQJDSODQ

IRU FOLHQWV¶ UHWXUQ WR ZRUN SODQQLQJ DQG FRQGXFWLQJ PHHWLQJV DQG

LPSRUWDQWO\ UHFRUGLQJ DOO RI WKHVH ZRUN WDVNV 7KH GRFXPHQWDWLRQ RI WKHVH

ZRUNLQJPRPHQWVLVVXSSRVHGWREHFRQGXFWHGLQDVWDQGDUGLVHGZD\LQRUGHU

WRDOVRFRQWULEXWHWR66,$¶VµDFWLYLW\VWDWLVWLFV¶-XVWOLNHLQWKH3(6ZRUNDW

WKH66,$DOVRLQFOXGHVZRUNLQJZLWKH[WHUQDODFWRUVOLNHHPSOR\HUVDQGGRFWRUV

DVZHOODVZLWKZHOIDUHZRUNHUVZLWKLQWKH3(6$URXQGSHRSOHZHUH

HPSOR\HGDWERWKRUJDQLVDWLRQVLQDQGERWKRUJDQLVDWLRQVKDYHRIILFHV

WKURXJKRXWWKHHQWLUHFRXQWU\6RPHRIWKHPDLQFKDUDFWHULVWLFVRIWKHVHWZR

RUJDQLVDWLRQVDUHJDWKHUHGLQ7DEOH

  

(31)



7DEOH2YHUYLHZ66,$3(6

 66,$ 3(6

3ROLF\GRPDLQ 6RFLDOVHFXULW\SROLFLHV $FWLYHODERXUPDUNHWSROLFLHV

(PSOR\HHV  

0DQGDWH )LQDQFLDOVHFXULW\DWYDULRXV

VWDJHVRIOLIHIRUDQ\RQHZKROLYHV

RUZRUNVLQ6ZHGHQ

$VVLVWDQFHWRXQHPSOR\HG

SHRSOHUHVSRQVLELOLW\WRZRUN

ZLWKQHZO\DUULYHGUHIXJHHV

3UDFWLFDOZRUN 6XEVLG\GLVEXUVHPHQWHJ

EHQHILWVIRUGHQWDOFDUHSDUHQWDO

OHDYHVLFNQHVVEHQHILWVFKLOG

EHQHILWVEHQHILWVIRUSDUWLFLSDWLQJ

LQ3(6¶VODERXUPDUNHW

SURJUDPPHV

*LYHDVVLVWDQFHWRXQHPSOR\HG

SHRSOHLQFRUSRUDWHQHZO\

DUULYHGUHIXJHHVLQWRWKHODERXU

PDUNHW

2UJDQLVDWLRQDOGLIIHUHQFHVDQGVLPLODULWLHV

,QWHUPVRIUHJXODWLRQVWKH66,$LVPRUHOHJDOO\UHJXODWHGWKDQWKH3(6DQG

GHFLVLRQVDERXWEHQHILWVDUHPDGHDFFRUGLQJWRVRFLDOLQVXUDQFHODZ )UDQVVRQ

DQG4XLVW 7KH3(6RQWKHRWKHUKDQGLVOHVVOHJDOO\ERXQGEXWPRUH

SROLWLFDOO\ UHJXODWHG FRPSDUHG WR WKH 66,$ 'HODQGHU DQG :DGHQVM|  

2QHFRXOGDUJXHWKDWWKH3(6LVPRUHGHFHQWUDOLVHGLQWKDWLWIXQFWLRQVDVRQH

DJHQF\EXWZLWKDIRFXVRQORFDORIILFHVWKDWDUHOLQNHGWRWKUHHUHJLRQDOXQLWV

WKDWFRQGXFWWKHDJHQF\¶VZRUNRQWKHJURXQGDWDERXWRIILFHVWKURXJKRXW

6ZHGHQ,QFRQWUDVWWKH66,$QDWLRQDOLVHGLWVFRXQW\DJHQFLHVLQ,Q

WKH DJHQF\ ZDV RUJDQLVHG LQWR  VHFWLRQV FRQVLVWLQJ RI DERXW  RIILFHV

WKURXJKRXW6ZHGHQVL[RIZKLFKGHDOZLWKKDQGOLQJWKHGLIIHUHQWFDVHVZLWKD

PRUHFHQWUDOLVHGRUJDQLVDWLRQPRGHOWKDQWKH3(6 0HODQGHU3(6

66,$   ,Q WHUPV RI SURIHVVLRQDOLVP WKH 3(6 DQG 66,$ IXQFWLRQ LQ D

VLPLODUIDVKLRQDQGLQERWKRUJDQLVDWLRQVRQH¶VSURIHVVLRQDOLGHQWLW\LVVKDSHG

WKURXJK LQWHUQDOUXOHVURXWLQHVSUDFWLFHVDQG ZRUNWUDLQLQJVUDWKHUWKDQE\

HGXFDWLRQDO VWDWXV :KHQ LW FRPHV WR WKH OLQNDJH WR PLJUDWLRQ SURFHVVHV LQ

6ZHGHQ WKH 3(6 KDV KLVWRULFDOO\ KDG D VWURQJ LQIOXHQFH RQ UHFUXLWLQJ DQG

KDQGOLQJ ODERXU PLJUDWLRQ IURP WKH V DQG WKHQ ODWHU RQ DIWHU WKH

(VWDEOLVKPHQW UHIRUP LQ   LW EHFDPH WKH PDLQ UHVSRQVLEOH DFWRU IRU

LQWHJUDWLQJQHZO\DUULYHGUHIXJHHVLQWRWKHODERXUPDUNHW



,QVXP(QQHUEHUJ  VXJJHVWV WKDWVRFLDO SROLF\LQ 6ZHGHQKDVDOZD\V

EHHQ OLQNHG WR ODERXU PDUNHW SROLF\ KLJKOLJKWLQJ WKH QHHG IRU SURGXFWLYLW\

+LVWRULFDOO\XQHPSOR\PHQWDQGVRFLDOVHFXULW\EHQHILWVZHUHPRVWO\EDVHGRQ

ODERXUPDUNHWSDUWLFLSDWLRQKLJKOLJKWLQJWKHLQWHUZHDYLQJRIWKHVHWZRSROLF\

DUHDVDQGWKHVHWZRRUJDQLVDWLRQV,QERWKRUJDQLVDWLRQVDQHROLEHUDOGLVFRXUVH

SHUPHDWHVDOOWDVNVDQGWKHRXWOLQHRIWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOIUDPHZRUNLVLQOLQH

(32)



ZLWKERWKFXUUHQW³QHZSXEOLFPDQDJHPHQW´ 130 WUHQGVDQGWKHFLYLFWXUQ

RIPLJUDQWVWKURXJKH[SOLFLWO\IRFXVLQJRQWKHLUODERXUPDUNHWLQWHJUDWLRQ

$IWHULQWURGXFLQJ KHUH VRPHHOHPHQWVRI WKH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO IUDPHZRUN RI

WKH 3(6 DQG 66,$ WKH QH[W VHFWLRQ SURYLGHV D VKRUW RYHUYLHZ RI H[LVWLQJ

DWWLWXGH VWXGLHV LQ 6ZHGHQ LQ UHODWLRQ WR PLJUDWLRQ LQ RUGHU WR RIIHU VRPH

FRQVLGHUDWLRQVRIWKHUROHRIDWWLWXGHVLQWKHWZRRUJDQLVDWLRQV

(33)



.H\FRQFHSWVDQGSUHYLRXV

UHVHDUFK

+DYLQJ LQWURGXFHG WKH NH\ UHVHDUFK HOHPHQWV WKH UHVHDUFK LVVXHV DQG WKH

FRQWH[W DQG DLPV RI WKLV VWXG\ , ZLOO QRZ LQWURGXFH WKH PDLQ FRQFHSWXDO

DSSURDFKHVXVHGDQGWKHUHODWHGSUHYLRXVUHVHDUFKWKDWJXLGHGWKHGHVLJQDQG

DQDO\VLVRIWKLVVWXG\7KHRU\DQGSUHYLRXVUHVHDUFKDUHSUHVHQWHGLQUHODWLRQ

WR HDFK RWKHU EHFDXVH WKLV DOORZV DQ DFFRXQWLQJ IRU QHZ DVSHFWV LQ WKH

UHVSHFWLYH ILHOGV UDWKHU WKDQ UHO\LQJ VROHO\ RQ HVWDEOLVKHG WKHRUHWLFDO

XQGHUSLQQLQJV7KHWKHRUHWLFDOIUDPHLVFRPSULVHGRIDQDVVHPEODJHRIWKUHH

VHSDUDWHWKHRUHWLFDODSSURDFKHV±6/%7UDFLDODWWLWXGHVWXGLHVDQGWKHFRQFHSW

RI RQWRORJLFDO VHFXULW\ ,Q WKLV FRQVWHOODWLRQ 6/%7 IXQFWLRQV DV D

FRQWH[WXDOLVLQJHOHPHQWIRUWKHRUJDQLVDWLRQDOFRQWH[WIROORZHGE\WKHHOHPHQW

RI KRZ LQGLYLGXDOV H[SUHVV WKHPVHOYHV LQ UHODWLRQ WR PLQRULWLHV 7KLUG WKH

HOHPHQW RI RQWRORJLFDO VHFXULW\ RIIHUV DQ RYHUYLHZ WKDW LV OLQNHG WR ODUJHU

VRFLHWDO SURFHVVHV DQG LV SRVLWLRQHG RXWVLGH RI WKLV RUJDQLVDWLRQDO DQG

LQGLYLGXDOGLPHQVLRQ\HWKDVPHDQLQJIRUKRZRUJDQLVDWLRQDODQGLQGLYLGXDO

SURFHVVHV DUH VKDSHG 7KHUHIRUH LQ WKHLU LQWHUVHFWLRQ WKHVH WKUHH GLIIHUHQW

WKHRUHWLFDOOLQHVFRQWULEXWHZLWKGLIIHUHQWXQGHUVWDQGLQJVRIUDFLDODWWLWXGHVDQG

ZHOIDUH SUDFWLFHV ZLWK PLJUDQWV ZKHQ PDNLQJ XS WKH JHQHUDO IUDPH IRU WKLV

GLVVHUWDWLRQ

6WUHHWOHYHOEXUHDXFUDF\WKHRU\

6/%7FRQFHUQVWKHRUHWLFDODSSURDFKHVWKDWWLHLQWRWKHZLGHUILHOGVRIKXPDQ

VHUYLFH RUJDQLVDWLRQV SXEOLF DGPLQLVWUDWLRQ VRFLDO ZHOIDUH VRFLROHJDO

VWXGLHV DQG SXEOLF SROLF\ 0D\QDUG0RRG\ DQG 3RUWLOOLR   6/%7 LV

QHVWHG ZLWKLQ WKHVH WKHRUHWLFDO GLVFXVVLRQV DQG PDUNV D NH\ QRWLRQ LQ WKH

FRQFHSWXDOGLVFXVVLRQVRIWKLVGLVVHUWDWLRQ7KLVERG\RIVFKRODUVKLSLVXVHGWR

XQGHUVWDQG KRZ RUJDQLVDWLRQDO UXOHV DQG QRUPV DV ZHOO DV RUJDQLVDWLRQDO

(34)



FRQGLWLRQV OLNH ZRUNORDG LPSDFW ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV¶ DFWLRQV LQ UHODWLRQ WR

SUDFWLFHVZLWKFOLHQWV7KLVLVWKHILUVWWRRORIWKHWKHRUHWLFDODVVHPEODJHRIWKH

GLVVHUWDWLRQ DQG PDLQO\ DLGHV LQ WKH XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI IDFWRUV WKDW LQIOXHQFH

ZHOIDUHSUDFWLFHV

6WUHHWOHYHOEXUHDXFUDF\ 6/% IXQFWLRQVDVDPDUNHUIRUSXEOLFDJHQWVZKR

UHSUHVHQWWKHDXWKRULW\RIWKHVWDWHDQGZKRGHVSLWHWKHGLIIHUHQWRUJDQLVDWLRQV

WKH\ZRUNLQKDYHFHUWDLQFKDUDFWHULVWLFVLQFRPPRQ6/%7SURYLGHVLQVLJKWV

LQWRWKHLQWHUDFWLRQVEHWZHHQFLWL]HQVDQGWKHVWDWHDQGKLJKOLJKWVWKHZRUNLQJ

VLWXDWLRQ RI ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV %URGNLQ 2IWHQ RQH VSHDNV RIIURQWOLQH

ZRUNHUVZKHQVWXG\LQJWHDFKHUVSROLFHRIILFHUVKHDOWKFDUHSURIHVVLRQDOVRU

ZHOIDUHZRUNHUVZKLFKDUHDFFRUGLQJWR<RXQJ  ³VLPSO\DVSHFLDOFDVH

RIWKHJHQHUDOFDWHJRU\RIRUJDQL]DWLRQDODFWRU´ S 2QHRIWKHNH\QRWLRQV

LQ 6/%7 LV WKDW ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV IXQFWLRQ DV SROLWLFDO DFWRUV RU ³SROLF\

LQWHUPHGLDULHV´ %URGNLQ /LSVN\  HYHQUHIHUVWRWKLVJURXS

DVWKHµXOWLPDWHSROLF\PDNHUV¶ZKRKDYHWKHJUHDWHVWLQIOXHQFHZKHQLWFRPHV

WRWKHSROLF\PDNLQJSURFHVVDWWKHYHU\HQGRIWKHWRSGRZQSROLF\SURFHGXUH

EHFDXVH SULRUWRDFWXDO GHOLYHU\WRWKH FLWL]HQVSROLF\LVRQO\DQDEVWUDFWLRQ

0D\QDUG0RRG\ DQG 3RUWLOOLR   $Q LPSRUWDQW FRQFHSW LQ WKH 6/%7

OLWHUDWXUHLVWKHWHUPµGLVFUHWLRQ¶DQGWKLVKDVJHQHUDWHGDORWRIUHVHDUFK2QH

RI WKH PDLQ DUJXPHQWV LQ VWXGLHV DERXW GLVFUHWLRQ LV WKDW ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV

ZRUNLQJ LQ ZHOIDUH LQVWLWXWLRQV WU\ WR UHVLVW PDQDJHULDO DQG SROLWLFDO FRQWURO

WKURXJK GLVFUHWLRQ 7KHUHIRUH GLIILFXOWLHV LQ ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV¶ ZRUN OLIH DUH

OLQNHGWRWKHVWUXFWXUHRIWKHLUZRUNDQGZLWKLQWKHVHGLVFXVVLRQVRQHRIWKH

PDLQ IRFXVHV RI 6/% UHVHDUFK KDV EHHQ WR H[DPLQH GHFLVLRQV WKURXJK WKH

FRQFHSW RI GLVFUHWLRQ /LSVN\  %URGNLQ   +HQFH 6/%7 SODFHV

ZHOIDUHZRUNHUVLQRUJDQLVDWLRQDOFRQWH[WVLQRUGHUWRXQGHUVWDQGKRZUHODWLRQV

ZLWK PDQDJHUV FROOHDJXHV FOLHQWV DQG RWKHU FLWL]HQV VKDSH WKHLU GHFLVLRQ

PDNLQJ 0D\QDUG0RRG\DQG3RUWLOOLR 

2UJDQLVDWLRQDOFRQGLWLRQV

6/%7SD\VH[WHQVLYHDWWHQWLRQWRRUJDQLVDWLRQDOFRQWH[WVDQGVWUXFWXUDOIRUFHV

/LSVN\   DUJXHVWKDW WKH RUJDQLVDWLRQDO FRQWH[W PRVWO\ LQ WKH IRUP RI

FRQVWUDLQWV  DV ZHOO DV UHODWLRQV ZLWK VXSHUYLVRUV DQG FOLHQWV VKDSH ZHOIDUH

ZRUNHUV¶PRWLYHVDQGMXGJHPHQWV)ROORZLQJ6HLP  RQHFDQLOOXVWUDWH

RUJDQLVDWLRQDO FRQVWUDLQWV DORQJ KRUL]RQWDO DQG YHUWLFDO GLPHQVLRQV 2Q D

KRUL]RQWDOOHYHOZHOIDUHZRUNHUVKDYHWRGHDOZLWKWKHGLVWULEXWLRQRIZRUNDQG

KDYH WR SHUIRUP LQ UHIHUHQFH WR HDFK RWKHU DV FROOHDJXHV EXW DOVR KDYH WR

SHUIRUPLQUHIHUHQFHWRWKHLUFOLHQWV2QDYHUWLFDOOHYHOZHOIDUHZRUNHUVDUH

(35)



LQIOXHQFHG E\ WKH ZHOIDUH VWDWH VWHHULQJ LWV LQVWLWXWLRQV 2QH DVSHFW RI WKLV

VWHHULQJ LVKRZ SROLFLHVUXOHVDQGUHJXODWLRQVLQIOXHQFHKRZRUJDQLVDWLRQDO

FRQGLWLRQVDUHVKDSHG HJ%URGNLQDQG/DUVHQ $QRWKHUDVSHFWDORQJ

WKH OLQHV RI VWHHULQJ LV KDUGHQHG LQWHUQDO EXUHDXFUDF\ DQG WKH XVH RI D QHR

OLEHUDO ORJLF UHIOHFWHG LQ WKH RSHUDWLRQDOLVDWLRQ RI VHUYLFHV 2QH H[DPSOH RI

VXFKDQHROLEHUDOGLVFRXUVHLVWKHIRFXVRQWKHLQGLYLGXDOLVDWLRQRIFOLHQWVDQG

WKHLU VHOIVXIILFLHQF\ 9HUWLFDO RUJDQLVDWLRQDO FRQVWUDLQWV FDQ EH UHODWHG WR

130 VWUDWHJLHV WKDW DUH FKDUDFWHULVHG E\ IRU H[DPSOH SHUIRUPDQFH

PHDVXUHPHQWVDQGDGPLQLVWUDWLYHEXUGHQ HJµEHLQJEXULHGXQGHUSDSHU¶ DQG

OLQNLQJ DGPLQLVWUDWLYH UXOHV DQG SHUIRUPDQFH LQGLFDWRUV RI KRZ FOLHQWV DUH

DVVHVVHG 6DQGIRUW   2QH FRQFHSW WKDW LOOXVWUDWHV WKHVH FRQVWUDLQWV LV

ZRUNORDG RUZRUNSUHVVXUH ZKLFKKDVEHHQH[DPLQHGH[WHQVLYHO\ZLWKLQWKH

6/%ILHOG HJ-HZHOODQG*ODVHU9DQ%HUNHODQG.QLHV +LJKHU

ZRUNSUHVVXUHVRPHWLPHVDOVRPHDVXUHGLQFDVHORDGLVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKORZHU

SHUIRUPDQFHTXDOLW\DQGUHGXFHGHIILFLHQF\ *RGIUH\DQG<RVKLNDZD 

2WKHU VWXGLHV DOVR VKRZ WKDW LQFUHDVHG FDVHORDGV FDQ EH OLQNHG WR XQMXVW

VDQFWLRQLQJEHFDXVHRIWLPHFRQVWUDLQWVZKHQLWFRPHVWRPDNLQJGHFLVLRQV7R

DYRLG RQO\ UHO\LQJ RQ FDVH TXDQWLW\ DQG WR DOVR DFFRXQW IRU UHVSRQVLELOLWLHV

ZRUNWDVNVWLPHSUHVVXUHVDQGIUXVWUDWLRQVWKDWFDQOHDGWRRYHUDOOIHHOLQJVRI

SUHVVXUH -HZHOO DQG *ODVHU   VXJJHVW XVLQJ WKH FRQFHSW RI ZRUNORDG

UDWKHUWKDQWKHRQHGLPHQVLRQHGFRQFHSWRIFDVHORDG

2YHUDOOWKHVWUXFWXUHRIWKHZRUNDQGRUJDQLVDWLRQDOFRQGLWLRQVLVSXWLQWKH

FHQWUH RI6/%VWXGLHV0D\QDUG0RRG\DQG 3RUWLOOLR  LGHQWLI\IDFWRUV

LQIOXHQFLQJ ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUVLQFOXGLQJWKHLUVWDWXVZLWKLQWKHLURUJDQLVDWLRQ

ZLWKZKRPWKH\LQWHUDFW FOLHQWV WKHLULQKHUHQWGLVFUHWLRQWKH\FDQH[HUFLVH

WKHLUDXWRQRP\7KHQH[WVHFWLRQZLOOH[SORUHWKHGLIIHUHQWDQGSDUWO\V\QFUHWLF

GLVFXVVLRQVDERXWWKHFRQFHSWRIGLVFUHWLRQ

'LVFUHWLRQ

$QLPSRUWDQWSDUWRI6/%ZRUNLVWKHFRQFHSW RIGLVFUHWLRQWKDWVLPSO\SXW

LQIOXHQFHV KRZ ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV LQWHUSUHW UXOHV RU DFFRUGLQJ WR 7KRPDQQ

(QJHQDQG7XPPHUV  LV³WKHIUHHGRPWRGHFLGHZKDWVKRXOGEHGRQH

LQDSDUWLFXODUVLWXDWLRQ´ S 'LVFUHWLRQLVDWWKHFHQWUHRI6/%UHVHDUFK

$VWKHILUVWWRGHILQHWKHFRQFHSWWKHOHJDOVFKRODU'ZRUNLQ  UHIHUVWR

GLVFUHWLRQLQWKHIUDPHRIOHJDOSURIHVVLRQDOVDV³UHDFKLQJDGHFLVLRQE\PHDQV

RWKHU WKDQ WKH DSSOLFDWLRQ RI VWDQGDUGV´ S   :LWKLQ WKH OHJDO VFKRODU

OLWHUDWXUH GLVFUHWLRQ ZDVDWWKDW WLPHUHODWHGWRWKHLGHD WKDW WKHUXOH RI ODZ

ZRXOG EH YLRODWHG E\ H[HUFLVLQJ GLVFUHWLRQ 'ZRUNLQ IXUWKHU LOOXVWUDWHV

(36)



GLVFUHWLRQ DV WKH ³KROH LQ D GRXJKQXW´ UHIHUULQJ WR WKH FLUFOH RI GRXJK DV

UHVWULFWLRQVWKDWGHWHUPLQHWKHVL]HRIWKHKROH WKHGLVFUHWLRQ LQWKHPLGGOH

ZKLFKFDQEHLQWHUSUHWHGDVVRPHNLQGRIIUHHVSDFHWRDFWZLWKLQ  

0HDQLQJRUJDQLVDWLRQDOFRQGLWLRQVRUUHVWULFWLRQVGHWHUPLQHZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶

GLVFUHWLRQ $ORQJ WKRVH OLQHV 6/%7 GHILQHV GLVFUHWLRQ DV VRPHWKLQJ WKDW

HPHUJHV RXW RI UXOHERXQG RUJDQLVDWLRQV EXW DOVR DV D VWUDWHJ\ IRU ZHOIDUH

ZRUNHUVWRFRSH ZLWK RYHUZKHOPLQJ ZRUN GHPDQGV DQGHPRWLRQDO GHPDQGV

0D\QDUG0RRG\DQG3RUWLOOLR 0RUHFRQFUHWHO\VFKRODUVOLNH%URZQ

 DQG6DQGIRUW  SXWIRUWKWKDWGLVFUHWLRQLVVKDSHGDQGFRQWUROOHG

E\ VWUXFWXUDO IRUFHV HJ E\ QHROLEHUDO PHFKDQLVPV WKDW DUH PDQLIHVWHG

WKURXJK1307KHUHIRUHGLVFUHWLRQQHHGVWREHXQGHUVWRRGLQUHODWLRQWRWKH

VWUXFWXUDO SRVLWLRQ RI ZHOIDUH LQVWLWXWLRQV DQG WKHLU UHODWLRQ WR WKH EURDGHU

VRFLHWDOFRQWH[W $GOHUDQG$VTXLWK 

3DUDGR[LFDOO\ GLVFUHWLRQ RQ WKH RQH KDQG JLYHV RQH WKH SRZHU WR PDNH

PHDQLQJIXO FKRLFHV EXW RQ WKH RWKHU KDQG LW LV UHJXODWHG E\ UXOHV DQG

SURFHGXUHV 2QH FDQQRW KHOS EXW ZRQGHU WKHQ ZKDW LV D GLVFUHWLRQDU\

MXGJHPHQW"$FFRUGLQJWR0D\QDUG0RRG\DQG3RUWLOOLR  LWPHDQVIRU

H[DPSOH LJQRULQJ WKH VSHFLILF QHHGV RI FHUWDLQ JURXSV RI FOLHQWV DQG RQO\

VHUYLQJWKHPE\WKHERRN$ORQJWKRVHOLQHV6RVV)RUGLQJDQG6FKUDP   VXJJHVW WKDW GLVFUHWLRQ LV EURDG DQG WKDW ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV PXVW PDNH PDQ\

FKRLFHV WKDW DIIHFW WKH FOLHQW ZKLFK FDQ UDQJH IURP WKH LQGLYLGXDO

LQWHUSUHWDWLRQRIFHUWDLQUHJXODWLRQVWRLJQRULQJWKHFOLHQW¶VQHHGVDQGµVWLFNLQJ

WR WKH UXOHV¶ +RZHYHU GHVSLWH GLVFUHWLRQ EHLQJ VKDSHG E\ UXOHV DQG

SURFHGXUHV 7XPPHUV DQG %HNNHUV   DUJXH WKDW ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV FDQ

H[SHULHQFHGLIIHUHQWOHYHOVRIGLVFUHWLRQZLWKLQWKHVDPHUHJXODWRU\IUDPHZRUN

DQGWKDWWKLVFDQGHSHQGRQGLIIHUHQWOHYHOVRINQRZOHGJHDERXWUXOHVGLIIHUHQW

RUJDQLVDWLRQDOFRQWH[WVGLIIHUHQWUHODWLRQVKLSVWRWKHLUVXSHUYLVRUVDQGWKHLU

GLIIHUHQW LGHQWLWLHV 7KLV LV LPSRUWDQW IRU HPSLULFDO LQYHVWLJDWLRQV EHFDXVH

ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV EHKDYH EDVHG RQ WKHLU SHUFHSWLRQV RI KRZ PXFK GLVFUHWLRQ

WKH\SRVVHVV+RZHYHUWKH\ILUVWQHHGWRIHHOWKDWWKH\DFWXDOO\KDYHGLVFUHWLRQ

EHIRUHWKH\FDQXVHLW 7KRPDQQHWDO 

(YHQWKRXJKGLVFUHWLRQLVRIWHQSRUWUD\HGDVWKHµEHDFRQRIKRSH¶LQWKHIDFH

RIRYHUZKHOPLQJGHPDQGVDVWRµGRJRRGIRUWKHFOLHQWV¶DQGDVHQKDQFLQJ

SRVLWLYHVHUYLFHRXWFRPHV :DOODQGHUDQG0ROODQGHU LWGRHVQRWPHDQ

WKDWWKHUHDUHQRWDOVRULVNVDQGFRQFHUQVIRUSRWHQWLDODEXVH7KRPDQQHWDO

 UHIHUWRWKLVGXDOLVPDVRQWKHRQHKDQGDWRSGRZQDSSURDFKZKHUH

GLVFUHWLRQLVWREHDYRLGHGGXHWRULVNRIQRWLPSOHPHQWLQJSROLFHVFRUUHFWO\

LH WKH ULVN RI µDEXVH¶ DQG RQ WKH RWKHU KDQG D ERWWRPXS DSSURDFK ZKHUH

GLVFUHWLRQVXSSRUWVPDNLQJGHFLVLRQVDERXWSROLF\LPSOHPHQWDWLRQVLQVSHFLILF

(37)



FLUFXPVWDQFHV LH µGRLQJ JRRG¶ 0D\QDUG0RRG\ DQG 0XVKHQR   KLJKOLJKW WKH ULVN IRU SXQLVKPHQW RI FOLHQWVWKDW DUH GHHPHG XQZRUWK\ 2QH

QHHGV WR DFNQRZOHGJH WKH QHHG IRU GLVFUHWLRQ EXW DW WKH VDPH WLPH

DFNQRZOHGJLQJWKHSUHVHQFHRIELDVHVWKDWPLJKWUHVXOWLQQHJDWLYHHIIHFWVLQ

UHODWLRQWRZHOIDUHZRUNHUV¶MXGJHPHQW6DQGIRUW  UHIHUVWRGLVFUHWLRQDV

WKH DELOLW\ WR PDNH UHVSRQVLEOH GHFLVLRQV EXW DOVR KLJKOLJKWV WKH WKUHDW RI

GLVFUHWLRQ GXH WR LQGLYLGXDO ELDVHV ZKHQ LW FRPHV WR WKH GHOLYHU\ RI VRFLDO

VHUYLFHV 7KLV PHDQV WKDW GLVFUHWLRQ DOVR HPHUJHVWKURXJK ZKDW WKH ZHOIDUH

ZRUNHUEULQJVLQWRWKHLQVWLWXWLRQHJWKHLURZQH[SHULHQFHVDWWLWXGHVYDOXHV

QRUPV SULRULWLHV DQG VNLOOV DVZHOO DV HPRWLRQDO XQFHUWDLQWLHVOLQNHG WR RQ

JRLQJ VRFLHWDO FKDQJHV OLNH PLJUDWLRQ ([SHULHQFHV RI H[WHUQDO SUHVVXUH DQG

IHDURILQWHUUXSWLRQVLQRQH¶VVWDEOHFRQWLQXLW\LQOLIHDUHWKXVEURXJKWLQWRWKH

RUJDQLVDWLRQDOZRUN /DLQJ :DWNLQV+D\HV  VWDWHVWKDWZHOIDUH

ZRUNHUV¶SURIHVVLRQDOLGHQWLW\LVQRWRQO\LQIRUPHGE\RUJDQLVDWLRQDOG\QDPLFV

EXW DOVR E\ VRFLDO JURXS PHPEHUVKLS HJ UDFH FODVV DQG JHQGHU S  

2UJDQLVDWLRQDO G\QDPLFV DQG VRFLDO JURXS PHPEHUVKLS LQWHUVHFW DQG VKDSH

LGHQWLWLHVWKDWDUHH[SUHVVHGWKURXJKGLVFUHWLRQ0D\QDUG0RRG\DQG0XVKHQR

 XQGHUOLQHWKHSUREOHPRIGLVFUHWLRQEHLQJLQGLYLGXDOO\VKDSHGEHFDXVH

ZHOIDUHZRUNHUVILUVWPDNHDMXGJHPHQWDERXWWKHLUFOLHQWVEHIRUHWKH\³DSSO\

« RULJQRUHWKHUXOHV´ S WRVXSSRUWWKHLUMXGJHPHQWDQGWKH\VWDWHWKDW

³LGHQWLW\ EDVHG QRUPDWLYH MXGJHPHQWV GHWHUPLQH ZKLFK DQG KRZ UXOHV

SURFHGXUHVDQGSROLF\DUHDSSOLHG´ S 7KLVUHODWHVWRWKHDUJXPHQWWKDW

UDFLDO VWHUHRW\SHV DQG UDFLDO DWWLWXGHV KHOS WR H[SODLQ KRZ ZHOIDUH ZRUNHUV

SHUFHLYHDQGHYDOXDWHFOLHQWV7KHQH[WVHFWLRQZLOOGLVFXVVHOHPHQWVRI6/%7

E\GUDZLQJRQSUHYLRXVUHVHDUFKH[SORULQJWKHPHDQLQJRIUDFHDQGHWKQLFLW\

LQ IURQWOLQHLQVWLWXWLRQVDQGWKH HIIHFW RIUDFLDOVWHUHRW\SHVDQGDWWLWXGHVIRU

VHUYLFHVSURYLGHGWRPLQRULW\JURXSV 0D\QDUG0RRG\DQG3RUWLOOLR 

Racial biases in welfare work

/LWHUDWXUH H[DPLQLQJWKHSURYLVLRQ RI ZHOIDUHVHUYLFHVWR PLQRULW\ JURXSV LV

XVHGWRLQWURGXFHWKHOLQNEHWZHHQ6/%7DQGUDFLDODWWLWXGHVWXGLHV(DUOLHU

ZRUN FDQ EH PRVWO\ IRXQG LQ WKH 86 FRQWH[W HJ *LXOLHWWLH 7RULQ DQG

9ODVVRSRORV6FKUDPHWDO*RRGHQ EXWUHFHQWO\(XURSHDQ

VFKRODUV KDYH DOVR VKRZQ RIWHQ WKURXJK UHSOLFDWLRQV RI VLPLODU VWXGLHV

FRQGXFWHG LQ WKH 86 HJ 3HGHUVHQ 6WULWFK DQG 7KXHVHQ  WKDW FOLHQWV

EHORQJLQJWRDPLQRULW\JURXSWHQGWRUHFHLYHOHVVIDYRXUDEOHGHFLVLRQVIURP

IURQWOLQH ZRUNHUV GXH WRUDFLDOELDVHV HJ*XXODQG$QGHUVHQ-LONH

9DQ 'RRUHQ DQG 5\V  $UDL HW DO   )RU H[DPSOH IRFXVLQJ RQ

UHVSRQVH TXDOLW\ ZKHQ VWXG\LQJ *HUPDQ ZHOIDUH RIILFHV +HPNHU DQG 5LQN

Figure

Updating...

References

Related subjects :