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Master thesis

Sustainable Water Saving Intervention

A digital user experience solution of more sustainable choice in

daily water-use with behavioral change

Author:

Zihan Zhang 960119

zz222aw@student.lnu.se

Tutor: Göran Fafner

Laia Colomer Solsona

Maria Hanna Eriksson

Miguel Salinas

Examiner: Lars Dafnäs

Opponent: Keiu Meesak

Subject: Design with specialization

in Innovation

Level of classification: Second Level

Course code: 5DI74E

Program: Innovation Through

Business, Engineering, and Design -

Specialisation Design (DAIN2)

Institution: School of Design

University: Linnaeus University

Year: 2020

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Abstract

In recent years, sustainable thinking has been gradually recognized and accepted by more and more users, enterprises, and stakeholders. However, in daily life, there is often a gap between the value of users’ pursuit of sustainable lifestyles and their behavior habits. Also, the connection between different stakeholders is often ignored. The project started by the observation of unsustainable water usage habits of some tenants in the Växjö local housing company Växjöbostäder, and investigated the gaps in the water supply/toll system of Växjö municipality for some apartment tenants and the limitations of current solutions. ​Therefore, it is necessary to find a more effective solution. ​The author attempts to guide and change the user’s behavior through design interventions led by digital user experience design, connect the gap between the user and the system, and provide a more sustainable choice. At the same time, as a precedent, this project’s attempt to apply sustainable behavioral interventions to the field of digital user experience products at the system level can also provide some reference for similar projects or designs that may appear in the future.

The aim of this project is trying to find solutions to bridge the existing gap between the water management system and the apartment users’ water consumption behavior. The project studies the relevant theories of behavior, analyzes the causes of motivations that lead to behavioral and habits changing, the methods of digital user experience design, and the theory of building sustainable systems. Action research has been used as a methodological guide to design processes, analysis, and reflection. The final design outcome​“Drops” ​is an application based on mobile platforms that develop sustainable water-using habits​. The application associates gamification motivation mechanisms, behavioral habit interventions, community social sharing, and the process of using the application with the user’s actual behavior, promotes the formation of user sustainable behavior and inspires users to a sustainable society thinking. From a hierarchical analysis of the system, “Drops” connects different stakeholders in the municipal water supply system, facilitating communications between tenants and communities to achieve positive interactions that promote sustainable behavior.

At the end of this article, the author analyzed the project outcome from the perspective of Växjöbostäder, one of the stakeholders and a possible product distributor, elaborated on the possible advantages of the design for the company’s ecological sustainability and the possibility of the company deploying this application in the market. Also, the author also analyzed and evaluated this project from the perspective of the product itself and different stakeholders, and explained the current limitations and the possibility of future development.

Keywords​: Design intervention, Digital user experience design, Sustainable behavioral change, Water

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Table of Content

Abstract

2

Table of Content

3

1. Introduction

6

1.1 Brief project description and presentation of results

6

1.2 Personal background and motivation

6

1.3 Project background and process narrative

7

1.3.1 Water service system in Sweden

7

1.3.2 Study of existing solutions

8

1.4 Delineation of field of study

9

1.4.1 Problems with water bill

9

1.4.2 Three ways to improve sustainability in buildings

9

1.4.3 Understanding consumer behavior

10

1.4.3.1 Consumption behavior and habits

10

1.5 Delineation of project

10

1.5.1 Aims and purposes

11

1.6 Formulation of question

11

2. Theoretical Framework

11

2.1 Design Behavior Intervention Model (DBIM)

11

2.2.1 Process of changing habits

11

2.2.2 Design Intervention Strategies

12

2.2.3 Linking the behavior model, habit model, and design intervention strategies

14

2.2 The role of motivation in behavior change

14

2.3 Apply user experience(UX) design in behavior change

15

2.3.1 User-centered design

16

2.3.2 Gamification

16

2.4 Design for sustainable behavior (DfSB)

17

2.5 Conclusion

17

3. Methodological Framework

18

3.1 Action research

18

3.1 Literature review

19

3.3 Interview

19

3.4 Survey

20

3.5 Benchmarking

21

3.6 Brainstorming

21

3.7 Concept selection

21

3.8 Storyboard

22

3.9 Mood board

23

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3.10 Mobile Information Architecture

23

3.11 Digital User Experience Design

24

3.12 User Interface Design

25

3.13 Usability Testing

26

3.14 Focus group

27

3.15 Risk assessment

28

3.16 Ethics thinking

28

3.16.1 Ethical implications of applying DfSB

28

3.16.2 Ethical implications of applying UXD

29

3.17 Product-Service System Design for Sustainability

31

3.18 Business model canvas

32

4. Empirical Findings

33

4.1 Interview

33

4.1.1 Interview with Joakim Sjöblom and Ingrid Palmblad from Växjö Wastewater

Treatment Plant

33

4.1.2 Interview with Linus Kallio from Växjö Municipality

33

4.2 Benchmarking

34

4.3 Survey results

35

4.3.1 Results of survey 1

35

4.3.2 Results of survey 2

36

4.4 Brainstorming results

37

4.5 Concept selection results

38

5. Contextual analyses

40

5.1 Interview

40

5.2 Benchmarking

42

5.3 Survey

44

5.3.1 Analysis of survey 1

44

5.3.2 Analysis of survey 2

45

5.4 Risk assessment

46

5.5 Business model canvas

47

6. Design Project

48

6.1 Mobile sitemap

48

6.1.1 Flow chart

49

6.2 Low fidelity prototyping

50

6.3 Usability testing

52

6.4 High fidelity prototyping

53

6.4.1 Environment, surfaces and elevation

53

6.4.2 Resolution and layout

54

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6.4.4 Colors and text

56

6.4.5 Iconography

57

6.4.6 Visual elements

58

6.5 Final result of prototyping

59

6.6 Focus group & analysis

62

6.7 Discussion of the final outcome

63

6.7.1 Limitation of the design

63

6.7.2 Evaluate the final design with the theories and methods

64

7. Summary and Discussion

66

7.1 Discussion

66

7.2 Limitations

67

7.3 Possibilities

68

7.3.1 Possible future developments with housing companies and tenants

68

7.3.2 The potential globally impact of the solution

69

8. List of references

70

9. Appendix

78

Appendix 9.1

78

Appendix 9.2

81

Appendix 9.3

82

Appendix 9.4

82

Appendix 9.5

84

Appendix 9.6

87

Appendix 9.7

87

Appendix 9.8

88

Appendix 9.9

89

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1. Introduction

1.1 Brief project description and presentation of results

Water is extremely important to life, however, improper household water management will increase water consumption. In Sweden, it is usually obvious to people that water will always be available. However, the water crisis in recent years has shown that unlimited water supply is not attainable (Lansstyrelsen.se, 2020). ​According to the information provided by the Swedish Water and Wastewater Association (2000), the calculated average price of distributed cubic meters is SEK 14.1, the typical price including VAT totals SEK 23.6 per cubic meter (plus a basic tax rate). Compared with other types of energy consumption (electricity, heat, etc.), the value of the water itself is relatively cheap. However, when using water, the related purification, pumping, distribution, heating, and recirculation processes consume a lot of energy (Swedish Water and Wastewater Association, 2000), which should not be ignored. Therefore, consumers do need to have a better understanding of household water consumption behavior and the existing water management system.

This research will analyze the current water management system in Sweden, From the system, product, and users perspective, trying to find out the possible gap between different levels. After, the research will focus on behavior and habits to understand the motivation of consumers in using water. Compared with the current situation, the project aims for providing a more sustainable choice for people to have control of their individual water consumption, meet their demands of a sustainable society and bridge the gap between users’ water consumption behavior and the water management system.

1.2 Personal background and motivation

As a team of two designers, Shuhao Xue and Zihan Zhang, we noticed that tenants living in our apartment buildings have excessive water consumption behaviors and we are interested in exploring the reasons behind the behaviors and the role of consciousness. We are also interested in applying the concepts reached in the courses of innovation: sustainability, the relationship between systems, products, and users to the research. We would like to start with the phenomenon of water behavior and try to find out the relationship between personal water consumption and the overall water management system. We hope that through our efforts, through different approaches, respectively provide an understandable choice for people to help them change their water consumption behavior, impact the whole system, and meet a more sustainable society.

In the introduction part, the team did the research of project background and delineation of field study together and also shared the same general research question. After this, the team members established their respective research questions and conducted research from different directions. During the process of the project, the team did the interviews and surveys together and shared the empirical findings of these processes.

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1.3 Project background and process narrative

1.3.1 Water service system in Sweden

Sweden public water services law (2006) indicates that each local municipality is in charge of providing water services. To meet demand, the municipality needs to ensure that the waterworks can provide water services through a water supply or sewage network. The person in charge of each property within the scope of the waterworks shall determine the connection point and the property owners shall pay for the water supply. Combined with interviews with​Växjö municipality and ​Växjö Wastewater Treatment Plant, Sweden's water service system for households can be represented in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 ​ Sweden household water service system

It can be seen in Figure 1.1 that the waterworks distributes water to the property owner's dwelling through a pipeline metered by water meters. The situation will be different in different types of dwellings. In single-family houses (House property owners), the water meter provided by the water plant will directly measure the actual user's water consumption and provide a bill. The actual water user (also the owner) knows the amount of water consumption and water bill.

In apartments, the owner is often a housing company. The waterwork uses only one water meter to calculate the water consumption of the entire apartment and gives the company the corresponding bill. There are two different types of apartments. In apartment A, actual water users (tenants of apartments) do not know how much water they use. At the same time, since the water bill is paid by the property owner (housing company), the tenants of the apartment do not need to pay the water bill. There is another kind of water service system in apartment B. In this case, the system is no different from Apartment A in the connection between the property owner and the waterworks. The difference is that the owner of the apartment installs water meters for each individual room, so each actual user can clearly know their own water consumption and need to pay a separate water bill.

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From the perspective of the entire household water service system, only tenants living in Apartment A cannot know the amount of water consumption while consuming water and do not have to bear personal water charges. Tenants' water services need to be connected to the waterworks through the intermediate link of property owners. There is a possible gap between the management of water services (metering and charge) and the tenants' water consumption behavior.

1.3.2 Study of existing solutions

To increase the sustainability awareness of apartment residents and help them reduce their energy consumption, Article 9 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) issued by the European Union in 2012 explicitly requires member states to install individual meters in each apartment to detect the energy usage.

In response to Article 9 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU), Sweden introduced the Act on energy metering in buildings (Lagen om energimätning i byggnader, 2014:267) in 2014. The Act requires building contractors and owners to measure the individual energy use of each apartment (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water). New construction and for the reconstruction of existing buildings are both included in the Act, but only if the project is cost-effective and technically feasible, the second point is, in particular, refer to the reconstruction of existing apartments. However, it is worth noting that in the Act, whether installing an individual meter is cost-effective is up to the building contractors and owners to make the decision.

The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket, 2015) studied individual meters in existing buildings in their report. This report indicates that Swedish public housing companies appear to be abandoning individual metering, and construction companies such as JM, Skanska, NCC, and Peab consider that installing individual metering systems is expensive and facing technical difficulties. On the other hand, the tenant-owner associations have also shown strong opposition to individual metering as a result of the lack of knowledge about technology and the perception that individual metering is not cost-effective(Boverket, 2015).

The research team contacted Växjöbostäder, a local housing company in Växjö. According to the information provided by their energy controller, Martin Skoglund, Växjöbostäder considers individual water bills to be an effective measure to reduce apartment tenants’ household water consumption and is the main method they currently use. The company is working with a contractor that helps them install and manage individual water meters in apartments. Växjöbostäder sends individual water bills to residents based on water meter readings provided by the contractor.

However, there are only about 2,000 apartments that have individual water meters out of approximately 9,000 apartments owned by Växjöbostäder in total. The company's current ambition is to continue installing individual water meters in new constructions and renovating existing buildings. A statistical table (see appendix 9.1) Växjöbostäder shared with the team records the household water consumption of approximately 9,000 apartments in 136 properties owned by Växjöbostäder in 2019. The table contains the area (m²) of each property, the water consumption (m³) of each property for the whole year of 2019, the average water consumption per unit area (m³ water per m²) of each property, and which properties have installed individual water meters and send their tenants individual water bills. Data shows that only 34 of all 136 properties have individual water meters, and in 2019, the

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average water consumption per unit area of properties with individual water meters is approximately 1.09 m³ water per m², the average water consumption per unit area of properties without individual water meters is about 1.22 m³ water per m².

1.4 Delineation of field of study

1.4.1 Problems with water bill

According to the information provided by The Swedish Water and Wastewater Association (2000), water supply and wastewater management rates usually consist of two components: the annual basic price and the current price of water per cubic meter. The cost varies from city to city, and the most expensive charge is about three times the cheapest charge, the trend is that smaller municipalities charge higher current rates. The prices of water supply and sanitation facilities have been fairly stable. In addition to the above-mentioned VAT that was introduced in 1990, if the effect of inflation is deducted, the cost remains virtually unchanged (Swedish Water and Wastewater Association, 2000). According to Ornaghi and Tonin (2017), installing a water meter does help to reduce the amount of household water consumption. There are two reasons for this decline: first, consumer behavior is affected by water prices, secondly, leakages are detected more effectively. By analyzing the differences in household water consumption under unmetered tariff contact and metered tariff contact, Ornaghi and Tonin (2017) find that there is a decrease in consumption between 16% ~ 20% because of the "Price Effect" brought by the installation of water meters. Besides, there is no significant difference in percentage reduction among different income groups (Ornaghi & Tonin, 2017).

The above research confirms that charging water bills does affect water use behavior and reduce water consumption in households. However, as Höglund (1999) points out in his article: “ ​For consumers to be able to respond to a tax by reducing demand for water it is crucial that they be aware of the price change and their own water consumption and that reduced consumption affects their individual water bill.” (p. 3855). But in Sweden, this policy only affects households in single-family houses that have individual water meters. About 50% of Swedish residents live in apartments. These apartment buildings usually share water and sewage pipes and this has resulted in the lack of individual water meters for apartment residents, which means that they do not have to pay for individual water bills and this weakens the steering effect of a tax. ​As a result, large households can be expected to use less water per person than smaller households in Sweden ​(​Höglund, 1999​).

1.4.2 Three ways to improve sustainability in buildings

Wood and Newborough (2003) points out in a field study of the energy consumption of 44 homes in the UK that there are three general ways to reduce energy consumption in the residential sector:

- replacing the existing housing stock with low-energy buildings; - promote the use of low-energy domestic equipment;

- promote energy-conscious behavior among consumers.

In Växjö, based on our interview, Växjöbostäder is trying to improve apartment water management in the first two ways (construct new apartments with separate water meters and install water meters for existing old apartments) and it is a pricing-consuming, expensive process. Wood and Newborough

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(2003) argued that alternative methods of reducing energy consumption at the points-of-use need to be researched, and new routes established for realizing behavioral change. Changes in consumer behavior can save energy without additional investment in infrastructure and the effects would appear quickly (Wood and Newborough, 2003).

1.4.3 Understanding consumer behavior

Jackson (2005) describes consumer behavior as the key to society's impact on the environment. The actions and choices people make (consume product and service or choose lifestyle) all have a direct and indirect impact on the environment and social well-being. This is why the theme of "sustainable consumption" has become the central focus of national and international policy (Jackson, 2005).

1.4.3.1 Consumption behavior and habits

When focusing on consumer behavior, there are numbers of different models from different fields and perspectives trying to explain why behavior happens and the composition of behavior (Bhamra, Lilley and Tang, 2011). Stern (2000) proposed that an integrated model of environmentally meaningful behaviors should include four factors: attitudes, situational factors, personal capabilities, and habits. From the perspective of social psychology, Triandis (1977) proposed an integrated model of interpersonal behavior, in which he highlights the importance of habits as a mediated factor of behavioral change.

Habit, defined as a settled tendency or usual manner of behavior (Merriam-webster.com, 2020). Our everyday lives are full of repetitive actions and people are following a specific route to work. Habitual behavior is particularly successful as a strategy when decision contexts barely change (Jackson, 2005). Energy Saving Trust (2006 in: Tang, 2010) indicates that although consumers have expressed strong concerns about the environmental and social impact of their household activities, their actions do not reflect their concerns. In terms of changing specific behaviors, attitudes, norms, and perceivable behavioral controls become less useful (Verplanken and Wood, 2006). Jackson (2005) pointed out that the ingrained approach in our lifestyle is “highly automated”. When behavior requires little thinking or cognitive effort and limited consciousness to proceed, it becomes habitual. The research carried out by Verplanken and Wood (2006) shows that about 45% of respondents’ daily behavior is habitual because they happen in the same place almost every day. Jackson (2005) believes that inconspicuous energy and resource consumption will have a significant impact on the environment. Habits and daily behavior lead to the awareness-intention-behavior gap between environmental and social values and interaction with products (Bhamra, Lilley and Tang, 2011).

1.5 Delineation of project

The project focuses on the existing gap between the water management system and the apartment users’ water consumption behavior. Based on the field study above, the team decided to start with user behavior changes for further analysis. There is an existing gap when users consume the water and energy, that is, lack of interaction with the service and system, which means the users could not get feedback on their behavior and connect the whole system. Thinking from the interactive user experience design could help to solve the problem. Carrying out user experience (UX) ​design from the aspect of behavior is the future development direction. The behavioral design will help designers build user experience around behavior patterns, thereby improving practicality (MacPherson, 2019).

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1.5.1 Aims and purposes

The aim of this project is finding a solution to bridge the existing gap between the water management system and the apartment users’ water consumption behavior. Through research on behavior theories, it will analyze the willingness to change that leads to the water consumption habits of users in terms of domestic water consumption. Combined with UX design methods, it will provide users with a better choice to change from old habits to sustainable habits. From the perspective of the whole water management system, by building connections between different stakeholders (waterworks, property owners, tenants), facilitating communications between tenants in communities to achieve positive interactions that promote sustainable behavior.

1.6 Formulation of question

Main research question: What can design do to bridge the gap between the management of water services and the tenants' water consumption behavior?

Sub research question for team member Zihan Zhang:

What can user experience (UX) design do to facilitate household users to make better choices to change their behavior in achieving more sustainable water consumption habits?

From the system level, how to apply UX design to bridge the gap between the water management system and tenants’ water consumption behavior?

2. Theoretical Framework

In this part, all theories are divided into two parts to explain. The first part of the theory is to understand and analyze the project background and research questions, including: Section 2.1 Design Behavior Intervention Model (DBIM) and Section 2.2 The role of motivation in behavior change. The second part is the elaboration and analysis of research problem solving theories, as well as guidance and basic support for design projects, including: Section 2.3 Apply user experience (UX) design in behavior change and Section 2.4 Design for sustainable behavior (DfSB).

2.1 Design Behavior Intervention Model (DBIM)

2.2.1 Process of changing habits

In many cases, habits are difficult to change. The prospect of encouraging environmentally-friendly behavioral changes is therefore particularly daunting for policymakers (Jackson, 2005). Nonetheless, Jackson (2005) points out that the theoretical and empirical understanding of habit change is very consistent, which does provide some insight into changing "bad" environmental habits and offer some hope to policy-makers attempting to support this.

The theory of Spaargaren and Van Vliet (2000) shows that pro-environmentally friendly behavioral changes need to occur by raising certain behaviors from the level of “practical consciousness” to

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“discourse consciousness”. At the same time, this discussion process is seen as involving the social exploration of new choices at the group or community level (Jackson, 2005). The psychological process of habit formation and change developed by Dahlstrand and Biel (1997) echoes a similar sequence of processes. This model of habit change not only has the advantage of changing ingrained daily and habitual behaviors but also has the ability to deal with social behaviors.

Jackson (2005) lists and compares three theories explaining behavioral change (see Figure 2.1), including Spaargaren and Van Vliet (2000) and Dahlstrand and Biel (1997). The basic consensus from these different points of view is that behavior change involves “unfreezing” existing behavior patterns and careful elaboration of new and more desirable alternatives before they become the basis of new behavior patterns. The root of this view can be found in Kurt Lewin's influential theory of change (Jackson, 2005). Jackson (2005) pointed out that this kind of approach to change is becoming an increasingly important part of supporting changes in household environmental behavior and in the area of ​​sustainable development.

Figure 2.1 ​ Some conceptual perspectives of behavioral change (Jackson, 2005)

2.2.2 Design Intervention Strategies

Tang (2010) develops seven different intervention approaches to promote sustainable behavior design. Table 2.1 shows each approach with aim and description. Tang (2010) considers Eco-information, Eco-choice, and Eco-feedback as the approaches to guide the behavioral change, Eco-spur and Eco-steer aim to reinforce the long term changes, Eco-technical intervention and Clever design apparently address ensure the behavior change occurrences.

Approach Aim Description

Eco-information Make consumables (e.g., energy) visible, understandable, and accessible to inspire users to reflect on their use of resources.

Product expresses the presence and consumption of resources e.g. water, energy, etc.

Eco-choice Encourage users to consider their behavior and be responsible for their behavior by providing

Users can choose, and the product can achieve

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them with sustainable choices. sustainable use. Eco-feedback By providing real-time feedback to inform

users of their operating status, and help users make environmentally and socially responsible decisions.

The product provides tangible auditory, visual or tactile signs to remind users of resource usage.

Eco-spur Incentive users to explore more sustainable ways of use by rewarding “prompt” for good behavior or punishing “punishment” for unsustainable uses.

The product shows users the consequences of their actions through "rewards" and "punishments". Eco-steer Through the prescriptions and/or use

restrictions embedded in product design, users are encouraged to adopt usage habits that are more in line with environmental or social expectations.

The affordances and constraints included in this product encourage users to adopt more sustainable usage habits or reform existing unsustainable habits. Eco-technical

intervention

By combining the design of advanced technology, limit existing usage habits, and automatically persuade or control user behavior.

The product utilizes advanced technology to automatically convince or control user behavior. Clever design Without raising awareness or changing user

behavior, purely innovative product design triggers environmentally and socially friendly behavior.

Reduce the impact on the environment without changing user behavior.

Table 2.1 ​ Design intervention approaches (Tang, 2010)

As shown in Figure 2.2, Tang (2010) summarizes the impact of behavioral intervention levels on changes in norms or motivations, user acceptance of interventions, and interventions on the environment.

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2.2.3 Linking the behavior model, habit model, and design intervention strategies

Tang (2010) identifies a breakthrough point that could make design change individual behavior and habits by mainly linking design intervention strategies (see table 2.1) with Triandis’ social psychology theory of interpersonal behavior (Triandis, 1977; Jackson, 2005), Dahlstrand and Biel’s behavior/habit models (see figure 2.1) and proposed a design behavior intervention model (Figure 2.3). Tang’s model explains multiple factors in behavior formation and their relationship to sustainable behavior design methods.

Figure 2.3​ Design behavior intervention model (DBIM): linking antecedents of behavioral and habitual change with varying levels of behavior intervention approaches (Tang, 2010)

As illustrated above, by linking design methods with behavior change elements, different levels of intervention can be performed to ensure changes in behavior and habits of energy and resource consumption (Tang, 2010). Design interventions are classified based on their ability to make decisions between users and products. The seven design methods are divided into three levels of intervention, starting from where the decision-making power is completely in the hands of the user, to the decision-making power (forcing changes) that are only relevant to the product (or system). Between these two extremes is a middle ground for sharing decisions between users and products. Interventions are designed to provide a dialogue to push change from one decision right to another, but also have the power to ensure that the change occurs. (Bhamra, Lilley and Tang, 2011)

2.2 The role of motivation in behavior change

Being motivated means acting. People who are energetic or activated in one direction are considered motivated (Ryan and Deci, 2000). Research from Ryan and Deci (2000) claims that motivation is hardly a single phenomenon. People differ not only in the level of motivation (how much motivation) but also in the direction of motivation (a type of motivation). The theory of self-determination (SDT) proposed by Deci & Ryan (1985) distinguishes different types of motivations based on different reasons or goals that cause action. The core of SDT is the difference between autonomous motivation

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(intrinsic motivation and part of extrinsic motivation) and intervention motivation (extrinsic motivation) (Gagné and Deci, 2005). Intrinsic motivation means people are completely willing to engage in an enjoyable activity. In contrast, extrinsic motivation means being controlled involves acting with pressure. Behavior can be characterized by the degree of autonomy and control. “Autonomous motivation and controlled motivation are both intentional, and together they stand in contrast to a motivation, which involves a lack of intention and motivation.”(Gagné and Deci, 2005) In SDT, Deci and Ryan (1985) introduce a sub-theory called organic integration theory (OIT), it explains the differences and connections between different motivations and the factors that promote or hinder these behaviors.

Figure 2.4​ Taxonomy of OIT motivation

Figure 2.4 shows the taxonomy of OIT motivation types, arranged from left to right according to the degree of individual self-generated motivation. On the far left is amotivation, a state of lack of intention to act. To the right of the extrinsic motivations are varying degrees of autonomy or self-determination. At the far right is intrinsic motivation. The position emphasizes that intrinsic motivation is the prototype of self-determining activities. However, this does not mean that external regulations will eventually translate into internal motivation (Ryan and Deci, 2000).

2.3 Apply user experience(UX) design in behavior change

User experience design is the process of manipulating user behavior (Eyal, 2014) through usability, usefulness, and desirability provided in the interaction with a product (Schmidt and Etches, 2014). The component of interaction design is an important part of UX design, centering on the interaction between the user and the product (TEO, 2020). Interaction design that supports behavioral changes in users' daily lives has become more common recently. Many projects have attempted to help people achieve behavioral changes (Fogg, 2003). However, changing people's attitudes or behaviors is actually not easy (Consolvo, et al., 2006). It is important to understand and handle user response because the user's negative feelings (often caused by faulty UX design) may reject the design itself.

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2.3.1 User-centered design

User-centered design is a method of interaction design that involves designing software from a user perspective so that it is more likely to meet their needs and provide them with a more intuitive experience (Goodwin, 2011; Cooper et al. , 2007; Cooper, 2004 in: Wray et al., 2019). ​Recent discussions have described user-centered design as a product design approach that involves users at every stage of the design process to enhance product and system usability (Gulliksen et al., 2003; Abras et al., 2004 in: Tang, 2010). Users actively participate in the design and development process (ISO, 1999; Earthy et al., 2001 in: Tang, 2010). In this process, designers act as coordinators and mediators and adopt a series of innovative technologies, such as interviews, observations, user trials, and use scenarios design products to identify "potential" user needs and increase usage, success, and performance. (Tang, 2010) A better understanding of users is needed in order to establish a "close fit" between the product and the user's experience and perceptions (Redström, 2006 in: Tang, 2010).

2.3.2 Gamification

“Gamification” is an informal general term used to describe the use of video game elements in non-gaming systems to improve user experience (UX) and user engagement (Deterding et al., 2011). Gamification can generate habits by enhancing the rewards and emotional responses of individuals involved in the experience to produce desired behavioral changes. Gamification has broad application prospects in sustainable development. (Robson et al., 2015) Game design elements are the basic building blocks of gamified applications (Werbach and Hunter, 2012). Sailer et al. (2017) summarize some typical game design elements: points, badges, leaderboards, performance graphs, meaningful stories, avatars and teammates. In Table 2.2, each design element is briefly explained as described by Sailer et al. (2017).

Game design elements Explanation

Points Get rewarded for successfully completing specific activities in a gamified

environment, using numbers to represent player progress (Werbach and Hunter, 2012). It can be used as continuous feedback and rewards(Sailer, Hense, Mandl, & Klevers, 2013).

Badges Obviously demonstrate a player's level or goal achievement and also can exert

social influences on players and co-players (Antin & Churchill, 2011). Leaderboards Leaderboards can help determine who performs best in an event (Crumlish &

Malone, 2009), and is, therefore, an motivating, competitive indicator of progress, linking the player's own performance to the performance of others. Performance graphs The renderings provide information on how the player's performance in the game

compares with previous performance and evaluates the player's own

performance. This promotes mastery, which is especially beneficial for learning (Sailer et al., 2013).

Meaningful stories Contextualize and give meaning to activities and characters in the game (Kapp, 2012), thus inspiring and motivating players-especially if the story fits their personal interests (Nicholson, 2015).

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(Werbach & Hunter, 2012)to distinguish it from other human or computer-controlled avatars (Werbach & Hunter, 2015).

Teammates Promote conflict, competition, or cooperation (Kapp, 2012) by creating a clear group of players to achieve common goals (Werbach & Hunter, 2012).

Table 2.2 ​Explanation of different game design elements

Landers et al. (2015) claim that gamification can use both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to change user behavior. In the process of gamification, both motivations are affected (Landers & Callan, 201l). Obtaining gamification elements such as badges exists as extrinsic motivation. At the social level, these elements satisfy the psychological needs of relevance. Gamified applications may change behavior through intrinsic or extrinsic motivations and some combination of them (Landers et al. 2015). Lafrenière, Verner-Filion & Vallerand, (2012: in Landers et al. 2015) proposed that the motivational taxonomy of SDT (see Figure 2.4) may be applied in the context of gamification, which provides some implicit meanings for design, such as adding more autonomy to tasks to promote different kinds of motivation.

2.4 Design for sustainable behavior (DfSB)

Design for sustainable behavior (DfSB) is a new area of research that explores how design influences user behavior to reduce negative social or environmental use impacts (Bhamra, Lilley and Tang, 2011). Although there is a lack of uniform behavior change design models, there are four basic principles in most developed methods and tools (Niedderer et al., 2014):

- making it easier for people to adopt the desired behavior; - making it more difficult for people to perform bad behavior; - making people want a desired behavior;

- making people not want an undesired behavior.

Ceschin & Gaziulusoy (2016) point out that sustainability is a system attribute, not an attribute of each element of the system. To achieve sustainability, the traditional goal-based optimization method is not suitable, but a process-based, multidimensional system approach should be used to plan for sustainability. Applications of design for sustainable behavior exist in the environmental dimension (encouraging users to adopt more environmentally sustainable use), the social dimension (enabling users to adopt a healthier lifestyle) or to act more safely in the built environment. Applications range from products to product-service systems, mobile interaction, and built environment design. (Ceschin & Gaziulusoy, 2016)

2.5 Conclusion

In order to further study the characteristics of behaviors and habits, by understanding the theory of design interventions, this chapter explores the possibility of integrating behavioral issues into design practice. At the same time, by understanding the relationship between motivation and behavior/habit change, explore the feasibility of user-centered, gamified user experience design for behavior change, which will be applied in the next stage of the work which will involve developing methods and

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concepts based on the theoretical framework with the aim of change consumers’ water-using habits. Finally, through the design of sustainability and system-related theories, explore the possibility of promoting the application of sustainability in the next stage of work.

3. Methodological Framework

3.1 Action research

McNiff and Whitehead (2006) explore that action research is a form of inquiry that enables practitioners everywhere to investigate and evaluate their work. The purpose is to achieve changes in the organization or community, especially the attitudes of its members, by creating new knowledge (Bargal, 2008; McNiff and Whitehead, 2006). The purpose of all research included in the action research process is to generate new knowledge. Researchers can use action research when they want to assess whether what they are doing is affecting their own or others’ learning, or whether they need to do something different to improve understanding (McNiff and Whitehead, 2006).

The purpose of action research is to form a disciplined and systematic process. (McNiff and Whitehead, 2006). McNiff and Whitehead (2006) explain the process of action research, which includes observing, reflecting, acting, evaluating, modifying, and moving in new directions, it is often referred to as an action-reflection cycle (Figure 3.1).

Figure 3.1 ​An action-reflection cycle

McNiff and Whitehead, (2006); Bargal, (2008) point out that action research is usually a long-term intervention, not a one-time solution. Whenever the cycle ends, new questions will appear, and these questions need to go through the periodic process again to find answers in an orderly manner.

Figure 3.2 describes the process the author implements the theoretical, methodological, and analytical frameworks drawn upon in the design process with the action research cycles, which covers all the methods, findings, and analyses that appear in chapters 3 to 5. A total of three cycles are carried out, and the beginning of each cycle takes over the last cycle. The first cycle mainly focuses on the formation of concepts, the second cycle mainly covers the process of specific design projects, and the third cycle mainly re-evaluates and reflects on the design prototype.

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Figure 3.2 ​Action research process

3.1 Literature review

Martin and Hanington (2012) define literature reviews as an integral part of academic papers and a useful component of any design project to collect and synthesize research on a given topic. Literature reviews aim to extract information from publicly available sources to capture the essence of previous research or projects, as they may inform the current project. Literature reviews need to fuse information in a comprehensive way to establish a link between references while maintaining a focus on design projects. Internet resources have greatly accelerated the speed of literature retrieval, but researchers still need to ensure that when selecting references, the included studies and literature are not only relevant but also from reliable sources. (Martin and Hanington, 2012)

During the data collection process, keywords were mainly searched in search engines such as Google Scholar or One Search, for example: “relationship between design and behavior, habit and behavior change, motivation in behavior change, user experience design, gamification and system design for sustainability ”.

3.3 Interview

Martin and Hanington (2012) argue that interviews are the basic qualitative research method of directly connecting participants with first-hand personal records of experiences, opinions, attitudes and perceptions. Interviews can be structured or follow the script of the question, which means it is easier to control in terms of questions and timing, and easier to analyze. It can also be relatively unstructured, with flexible detours in the form of conversations. Make the participants comfortable and keep the conversation.

Gill et al. (2008) define an interview as a method that requires communication skills, such as asking questions, hanging out, and listening, with the goal of gaining more knowledge on the subject. They emphasized that the questions asked during the interview should be open, neutral, sensitive, and understandable. At the same time, the ability to listen meticulously to participants is also important during the interview process.

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In the background research and problem definition phase, the team had two separate interviews with staff working in Växjö Wastewater Treatment Plant and Växjö Municipality. The first interview was conducted in a structured form. The team prepared a question list in advance and sent it to the interviewees. The interviewees answered the questions one by one during the interview. The second interview with Växjö Municipality was conducted in a more unstructured manner. The team and the interviewee conducted a comfortable and free discussion on the local residents' water consumption phenomenon. In order to better understand, analyze, and summarize the content of the interviews, both interviews were recorded after asking the interviewees for their consent.

3.4 Survey

Martin and Hanington (2012) define surveys as a common method of gathering information from a large sample of respondents. Surveys are a way of collecting self-reported information from participants about their characteristics, thoughts, feelings, perceptions, behaviors, or attitudes. They are effective tools for collecting large amounts of data (usually at a lower cost) in a short period of time, and they are versatile in the type of information that can be collected. For a sufficiently large sample, the results can be analyzed statistically (Martin and Hanington, 2012). Singleton and Straits (2009) stated that surveys are often used to explore human behavior. It can be qualitative, quantitative, or a mixture of both. Qualitative research refers to the use of open-ended questions in questionnaires. Quantitative research refers to the use of questionnaires with digital rating elements.

Like any self-reporting tool, surveys may not accurately reflect true thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and even behaviors. This requires careful design and survey management, as well as the use of complementary observations or other methods (Martin and Hanington, 2012).

During the project background and problem definition phase, in order to collect from people about their attitudes towards residential water management and their water usage behavior to confirm the problem (there is a gap between user water behaviors/habits and the water management system) defined by the research team presence, the project team conducted a questionnaire survey 1 (see appendix 9.4). The surveys consisted mainly of quantitative questionnaires. The survey was posted online on social media platforms and emailed to reach the largest number of respondents. Because water services are slightly different in each region, the main target group for the survey was Swedish residents (nationals, immigrants, and international students) living or working in Växjö.

In the problem analysis phase, in order to better use the design method to give solutions to the problem, the research team needs to have a deeper understanding of the daily water behavior habits of the target group (tenant). Therefore, the research team designed a qualitative survey 2 (see appendix 9.6) that provides open-ended questions to record the water use behavior and time of the target group in a day. The address for distributing surveys was selected on the notice boards of the different teaching buildings of the Linnaeus University Växjö campus. Due to the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, the school switched to online lessons during the distribution of the survey, so the team decided to change the method of collecting results by sending photos of the results to the team member’s email address.

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3.5 Benchmarking

Kyrö (2004) considers benchmarking to be an action research method that collects data on a topic or issue. The process includes preliminary planning, observation, reflection, and application of a theoretical framework. A successful benchmarking process consists of several cycles, where each new cycle is built on the reflection and knowledge created previously.

Ceric et al. (2016) point out that benchmarking can identify gaps between competitors and organizational capabilities to provide direction and goals for improvement. Benchmarking is also a factor in innovation, as it is an emerging tool that can provide stakeholders with more value in the co-creation process. Using benchmarks helps identify deviations, innovations, and trends in the given field (Vorhies and Morgan, 2005).

3.6 Brainstorming

Gogus (2012) approaches brainstorming as a technique that fosters group creativity in which the members share ideas and thoughts spontaneously to reach solutions to practical problems. Martin and Hannington (2012) defined some of the widely accepted rules of brainstorming: “go for quantity over quality,” “withhold judgment and criticism,” “build on each other’s ideas,” and “welcome oddity”. They argue the purpose of these rules is to provide a safe forum for expression and free association of ideas and to remove any constraints from participants by providing a judgment-free zone to explore new concepts.

Hyerle(1996) argues that brainstorming webs, tree diagrams, and flow diagrams are three important visualization frameworks that can help design teams visually communicate the rigor required of most brainstorming sessions. Design teams can use these three sense-making frameworks to visually brainstorm information to disrupt and challenge old thinking patterns. By using these frameworks, new knowledge and meaning can emerge, and this has the added benefit that the rigor of brainstorming sessions can be visually recorded in the framework itself (Martin and Hanington, 2012).

3.7 Concept selection

Ulrich and Eppinger (2000) raise concept selection as one of the most critical issues in design. Concept selection is a method in the product design process. In this process, the alternative concepts are compared and a decision is made to select an alternative solution to enter the later stage of the design (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2000).

Table 3.1 shows a graphical concept selection method that is developed by Pugh (1995) which utilizes a matrix with columns (detailing concepts) and rows (indicating decision criteria). Okudan and Tauhid (2008) explain this decision-making procedure can be carried out in the following steps:

- Choose any concept as a datum, and all other concepts will be evaluated according to the datum.

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- Compare each concept with the datum. If the concept is considered to be better than the datum, place a “+” for the concept; otherwise, if the concept is considered to be worse than the datum, it is “-”. If it is judged that the concept is the same as the origin, an “S” score is given. - Add all “+” and “-” of each concept and delete the concept with a lower score, and repeat the

same process repeated until a decision is made.

Table 3.1 ​Template of Pugh’s matrix

Okudan and Tauhid (2008) point out that this graphical method is simple and fast. In addition, it provides insights into concepts that are clearly better than other concepts. However, this method has the limitation that it does not allow for criteria to be given weights, nor does it allow coupling decisions. Also, uncertainty cannot be modeled in this process.

3.8 Storyboard

Martin and Hannington (2012) define storyboard as a visual way of telling stories. The storyboard can intuitively present the main social, environmental, and technical factors of the where, when, and why people use the product. The storyboard can narrate a lot of content and can be used to empathize with the end user's thinking, helping designers to consider the background of technology and form factors from the user's perspective in the early stages of design (Martin and Hanington, 2012).

Truong, et al. (2006) introduce five common visual narrative methods for designing storyboards: - A certain level of detail in art or realistic to ensure that it can be understood and can express a

wealth of information (simple, abstract drawings, no complex details required).

- Text-based narration or explanations, the text is usually added to the storyboard as a word, thought balloon, a title, or "background" logo.

- Emphasis on people, products, or both. In order to stimulate an emotional response, the storyline should be designed to describe the characters, while when describing the conceptual technology, it should focus on the product.

- The right number of storyboard panels If the designer wants to express multiple messages, multiple storyboards are needed, each of which describes one of the messages.

- Depicting the passage of time. Add a clock, calendar, enlarged watch picture or moving sun in the background to clearly indicate changes in time.

According to the results of concept selection, a storyboard is drawn (see Appendix 9.7). The author divides the storyboard's storyline into two parts: the user's interaction with the app and the user's actual

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behavior, and tries to connect the two through the timeline. The author followed the suggestions provided by Truong, et al. (2006), described the entire user experience process and adjusted the details of ideas in time according to the feedback obtained during the drawing process. At the same time, time, storyline, and text description are used in the storyboard to strengthen the description.

3.9 Mood board

Mood board is defined as a collage of collected pictures, illustrations, or brand imagery that can be used to visually communicate an essential description of different aspects of design intent such as targeted aesthetics, style, audience, and context (Martin and Hanington, 2012). Mood board is suitable for expressing ideas to different stakeholders in the early stages of a design project, without having to pay too much attention to the specific details of the product (Milton and Rodgers, 2017). The mood board needs to be created based on the design aesthetics, style, context, or audience. Then, further collect, edit, and collage these representative images (Martin and Hanington, 2012).

Martin and Hanington (2012) point out that software tools and online services for digital creation can also be used to create mood boards. When working on the mood board, the author mainly used pictures from Google and Pinterest image search engines. During the process, the results of the concept selection process (section 4.5) (the description of the final idea) and the situation described by the storyboard (section 3.8) are considered, and the pictures that represent the key points and clearly convey the ideas and features are selected. Subsequently, all images are adjusted to the appropriate size and organized on the template to express the complete idea (see Appendix 9.8).

3.10 Mobile Information Architecture

Information Architecture (IA) is the structural design of a shared information environment. By organizing and tagging websites, intranets, online communities and software, it can support the art and science of usability and discoverability (Information Architecture Institute, 2013). Information architecture is the core of user experience design and also the foundation of a mobile product, the mobile information architecture defines both the information you structured and the users’ interaction with it (Fling, 2009). Compared with other forms of information architecture (based on desktop or website), the mobile information architecture has many differences (Solution, 2018), Ding, Lin, and Zarro, (2017) mentioned several aspects and guidelines that should be considered when designing mobile information architecture:

- Focus on the mobile text: Design considerations for differences with non-mobile products - Minimizing the need for text entry: Option selection instead of typing enables users to reduce

the rate of information input errors

- Prioritize essential information: For ease of use, maximize the use of limited screen space - Other mobile usability best practices: Maintain continuity between different platforms and

reduce users' re-learning costs

- Mobile as the platform: Consider the combination of mobile phone software and hardware (operating system application market, mobile phone camera, wifi and other functions)

- User’s identity and wallet: Possibility of mobile payment for individual users - Mobile and personalization: Suitability for personal information management

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- Privacy and security issues: Right to use and manage personal user information

The author designed the mobile sitemap and low-fidelity prototype of the project according to the above design guidelines, see sections 6.1 and 6.2 for details.

3.11 Digital User Experience Design

Digital user experience design was originally the domain of web designers. Therefore, it is related to elements such as web page color, navigability, layout, and performance. Today, it has involved the intuitiveness of web pages or applications, the efficiency with which users complete tasks, and the degree of integration of products with other applications (What is Digital User Experience?, 2019). Lee, Smith, Calvert & Snajdr (2016) describes the digital user experience (DUX) as a combination of art and science. In order to design a simple, clean, and engaging web or mobile interface that ensures the best user experience, scientific user research must be conducted to better understand user needs, their motivations for using the website, and their network behavior. In general, DUX consists of six stages: planning, user research, design, development, launch, and quality control (Lee, Smith, Calvert & Snajdr, 2016).

Garrett (2010) proposes that the process of UXD can be divided into five elements/levels from abstract to concrete and also explained the methods involved in each level (Figure 3.3):

- Strategy: The beginning of everything, a step to understand user needs and business goals - Scope: A step to translate strategy into requirements, consider what content and functions the

designed project will contain

- Structure: A step to give the shape to scope, using methods like information architecture and interaction design to make different content fit together and behave

- Skeleton: A step to make the structure concrete, using interface design, navigation design and information design to enable people using the site

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Figure 3.3 ​Jesse James Garrett’s Elements of User Experience

The author designed the project based on the elements of UXD proposed by Garrett. The specific content is shown in Table 3.2.

Elements/levels Section Content

Strategy 1.4, 1.5 Delineation of field of study and project, aim and purpose Scope 3.3-3.9, 4, 5 Interview, survey, benchmarking, brainstorming, concept

selection, storyboard, mood board

Structure 6.1 Mobile sitemap

Skeleton 6.2, 6.3 Low fidelity prototyping, usability testing

Surface 6.4, 6.5 High fidelity prototyping, focus group, participant observation

Table 3.2 ​Project process based on Garrett’s Elements of User Experience

3.12 User Interface Design

User interface design is a branch of a field of study called human-computer interaction (HCI). The user interface is part of the computer and its software, enabling people to directly see, hear, touch, talk or understand. A proper user interface design should provide a mix of well-designed input and output mechanisms to meet user needs, functions, and limitations in the most efficient manner possible (Galitz, 2007).

Johnson (2015) introduces two of the most recognized design guidelines in the user interface field by Shneiderman and Plaisant (2009) and Nielsen and Molich (1990). By comparing the two guidelines

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(see Table 3.3), Johnson found that there are many similarities in the current design rules that can be used as general guidelines, such as the description of consistency and user control.

Schneiderman (1987); Shneiderman & Plaisant (2009)

Nielsen & Molich (1990)

Strive for consistency Consistency and standards

Cater to universal usability Visibility of system status

Offer informative feedback Match between system and real world

Design task flows to yield closure User control and freedom

Prevent errors Error prevention

Permit easy reversal of actions Recognition rather than recall

Make users feel they are in control Flexibility and efficiency of use

Minimize short-term memory load Aesthetic and minimalist design

Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors

Provide online documentation and help

Table 3.3 ​The Two Best-Known Lists of User Interface Design Guidelines (Johnson, 2015)

Material Design is a set of adaptable guidelines, components and tool systems that can support best practices for user interface design. With the support of open source code, Material Design simplifies the collaboration between designers and developers, and helps the team quickly build products (Material Design, 2020). Material Design contains design guidance for the user interface design, including guidance for different interactive elements such as environment, layout, navigation, color, typography, iconography, color, motion.

Based on the general user interaction design guideline mentioned in Table 3.4 and the guideline on different design elements in Material, the author designed the user interaction aspects of the project. These design details will be explained in sections 6.2 and 6.4.

3.13 Usability Testing

Martin and Hannington (2012) define usability testing as an evaluation method that allows a team to observe individual experience through an application as the participant walks through or through a given task. This method aims to help the team find the most confusing and frustrating parts of the interaction, so that the team can prioritize the severity of the problem, and then fix and retest the interface. The tests are designed for tasks and scenarios that represent the goals of typical end-users. The task should be specific and reflect the actual goals of the target audience. Neither tasks nor

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programs should affect participants to solve problems in a certain way, nor should they seek to adjust product requirements (Martin and Hanington, 2012).

Jacobsen, Hertzum, and John (1998) provide some situations and problems that participants may encounter during prototype testing. Observation and evaluation personnel should try to find out the problem behind.

- Understand task requirements but cannot complete within a reasonable time - Understand the goal but try several ways to complete it

- Give up or quit when doing the test - Complete tasks other than those specified - Showing surprise or happiness

- Frustrated even blame themselves for not being able to complete the task - Assert that something is wrong or doesn’t make sense

- Make suggestions for improving the interface or flow

Zhang and Adipat (2005) point out that the unique capabilities of mobile devices and wireless networks pose many major challenges for checking the availability of mobile applications. When designing and conducting usability tests, challenges including mobile environments, multi-mode, connectivity, small screen size, different display resolutions, limited processing power and functionality, and restrictive data entry methods should be taken into consideration.

In order to conduct usability testing for mobile devices, the author decided to focus on the process connectivity of the prototype and the functionality under the limitations of screen size. The author prepared a series of tasks for participants to test, and asked for feedback after the test, and improved the user interface and low-fidelity prototype based on the feedback (see section 6.3).

After the high-fidelity prototype was completed, the author also conducted usability tests on it. At this stage, the process of the test is combined with the user’s real and practical scenarios (the user tests the app in a real apartment environment) and provides feedback, which helps the author discover areas that need further research, as well as deficiencies in products and services (see section 6.6).

3.14 Focus group

Martin and Hannington (2012) discuss that focus group is a qualitative research method that provides deep insights into themes, patterns, and trends. Researchers can use this method to collect the opinions, feelings and attitudes about products, services, activities, or brands from carefully selected participants. The advantage of focus groups is the vitality created by the group. In this environment, participants are more willing to share experiences, stories, memories, opinions, desires, and dreams. When analyzing the data of the focus group, the logic used by the participants to draw conclusions, the stories told, the metaphors used and analogies should be considered. By looking for recurring topics and themes that generate strong repercussions, you can analyze current trends (Kuniavsky, 2003). By analyzing trends, researchers can get a hypothesis, and researchers can continue to investigate the attitudes and behaviors of participants through hypotheses and observe the behavior of people when they use products or services to verify the hypothesis (Martin and Hanington, 2012).

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Due to the limited time of the project and the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, the author chooses to arrange the focus group on this project after the completion of the high-fidelity prototype, and invites a limited number of users (two tenants living in the Växjöbostäder apartment and a professional UI designer from a Chinese internet company). The main purpose is to analyze and share the opinions, feelings, and attitudes of high-fidelity prototypes and final results from the perspective of users through participants (one of the stakeholders). By sorting out the results of the focus group, the author analyzes the visual elements, functionality, system-level, sustainability, ethics, etc., the author can reflect on the limitations of the final result and the possibility of improved methods.

3.15 Risk assessment

Rausand (2011) defines risk assessment as a combination of risk analysis and risk tolerance judgment based on risk analysis. In short, a risk assessment can determine possible accidents, their likelihood and consequences, and ability to withstand such incidents. The results of the risk analysis can be expressed in a quantitative or qualitative way, and this process can help eliminate the relevant consequences of potential risks. In order to best identify and formulate risk strategies, it is necessary to establish classifications ranked by digital scales in order to view the correlation between risks and potential outcomes (Fewster and Mendes, 2001).

Based on the purpose of this project, the author conducts a risk analysis from the perspective of the possible stakeholders of this project (also the possible user of the project's design), Växjöbostäder (one of Vaxjo’s main housing companies). By assessing the likelihood of certain risks and what steps can be taken to avoid or respond to them.

3.16 Ethics thinking

3.16.1 Ethical implications of applying DfSB

Ceschin & Gaziulusoy (2016) raise some important challenges and limitations for DfSB. First, the ethical significance of applying DfSB should be better explored and discussed: in fact, there are concerns about the extent to which designers and companies have the power to drive user behavior.

Bhamra, Lilley, and Tang (2011) analyze different product cases involving design intervention strategies and DfSB and found that if the product continues to regulate behavior, it will not encourage people to learn from "wrong" and may cause users to feel affected and controlled by the product. They point out that products should only take action to prevent the behavior when consumers do not engage in "normal" behavior.

Bhamra, Lilley, and Tang (2011) also mention concerns about the degree of control or influence designers should integrate ethically into product design. Interviews with professionals have shown that most people feel "uncomfortable" with the level of control imposed by devices that use ecological technology, especially with regard to potential violations of choice and privacy.In the field of mobile devices, particular attention needs to be paid to the security, distribution and storage of data. There are also concerns about personal freedom and the distribution of power between users and devices. It is almost unacceptable for consumers to raise the influence of products to exceed the level of influence

References

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