It Is Difficult to Get Feedback

I dokument Koli Calling 2008 (sidor 63-66)

Ambitions and Ambiguities

Lesson 4: It Is Difficult to Get Feedback

Students know best what students want. The more often they can really tell what they feel about the program, the better. In Tanzania this is, however, a difficult task to achieve. Students are not used to telling what they re-ally think about their teachers or their institution—it seems

that some students do not even believe that feedback can even lead anywhere. Others are reluctant to give critical feedback. However, when students do decide something to-gether, they are very strongly united behind their decisions.

A pitfall to this lesson in Tanzania is, however, that students often do not know enough about technology to make in-formed demands. A mass student movement about a poorly understood thing is scarcely constructive phenomenon and always hard to deal with.

This article is the first report of a three-year investiga-tion of the development of Tumaini University’s BIT pro-gram. In our future research, we focus on the challenges of online teaching in Tanzania, public-private partnership development, public perceptions of IT and ICT, issues of e-privacy, and course contextualization. In the end, we hope that this report encourages ambitious, alternative initiatives in IT education in developing countries, and clarifies some ambiguities regarding contextualized IT education.


[1] R. L. Ackoff. The Art of Problem Solving. John Wiley

& Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA, 1978.

[2] ACM Computer Engineering Curriculum Committee.

Computer engineering 2004: Curriculum guidelines for undergraduate degree programs in computer


[3] ACM Computer Science Curriculum Committee.

Computing curricula 2001: Computer science, 2001.

[4] ACM Information Technology Curriculum Committee.

Computing curricula: Information technology volume, 2005.

[5] M. Agar. Ethnography. In N. J. Smelser and P. B.

Baltes, editors, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, volume 7, pages 4857–4862. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2001.

[6] P. Atkinson and M. Hammersley. Ethnography and participant observation. In N. K. Denzin and Y. S.

Lincoln, editors, Handbook of Qualitative Research, pages 248–261. SAGE, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1994.

[7] R. H. Austing, B. H. Barnes, D. T. Bonnette, G. L.

Engel, and G. Stokes. Curriculum ’78:

Recommendations for the undergraduate program in computer science– a report of the ACM curriculum committee on computer science. Communications of the ACM, 22(3):147–166, 1979.

[8] N. Bangu, R. Haapakorpi, H. H. Lund, N. Myller, F. Ngumbuke, E. Sutinen, and M. Vesisenaho.

Information technology degree curriculum in Tanzanian context. In P. Cunningham and

M. Cunningham, editors, IST-Africa 2007 Conference Proceedings, volume CD-ROM, Maputo, Mozambique, May 9–May 11 2007.

[9] D. P. Bills and J. A. Biles. The role of programming in IT. In SIGITE ’05: Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Information Technology Education, pages 43–49, Newark, NJ, USA, 2005.

[10] M. C. Borba. Ethnomathematics and education. For the Learning of Mathematics, 10(1):39–43, 1990.

[11] E. Brewer, M. Demmer, M. Ho, R. J. Honicky, J. Pal, M. Plauch´e, and S. Surana. The challenges of

technology research for developing regions. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 5(2):15–23, 2006.

[12] F. P. Brooks, Jr. The computer scientist as toolsmith II. Communications of the ACM, 39(3):61–68, 1996.

[13] L. Cheptegei. Standards and contextual sensitivity in computer science/information technology degree curricula: A case of five sub-sahara africa universities.

Master’s thesis, University of Joensuu, Joensuu, Finland, 2008.

[14] P. J. Denning, D. E. Comer, D. Gries, M. C. Mulder, A. Tucker, A. J. Turner, and P. R. Young. Computing as a discipline. Communications of the ACM,

32(1):9–23, 1989.

[15] J. J. Ekstrom, S. Gorka, R. Kamali, E. Lawson, B. Lunt, J. Miller, and H. Reichgelt. The information technology model curriculum. Journal of Information Technology Education, 5:343—361, 2006.

[16] C. Ellis and A. P. Bochner. Introduction: Talking over ethnography. In C. Ellis and A. P. Bochner, editors, Composing Ethnography: Alternative Forms of Qualitative Writing, pages 13–48. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA, USA, 1996.

[17] T. L. Friedman. The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, New York, NY, USA, 2005.

[18] R. W. Hamming. One man’s view of computer science.

Journal of the ACM, 16(1):3–12, 1969.

[19] C. Islas, M. Vesisenaho, M. Tedre, and E. Sutinen.

Implementing information and communication technology in higher education in Tanzania. In P. Cunningham and M. Cunningham, editors, IST-Africa 2006 Conference Proceedings, volume CD-ROM, Pretoria, South Africa, May 3–May 5 2006.

[20] D. H. Jonassen. Instructional design model for well-structured and ill-structured problem-solving learning outcomes. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45(1):65–95, 1997.

[21] D. H. Jonassen. Toward a design theory of problem solving. Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(4):63–85, 2000.

[22] J. Kemppainen. Building ICT facilities for education in a developing country. Analysis of an ICT project at Tumaini University/Iringa University College

2000–2004. Master’s thesis, University of Joensuu, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Joensuu, Finland, December 11 2006.

[23] D. E. Knuth. Theory and practice. Theoretical Computer Science, 90(1991):1–15, 1991.

[24] S. Loft Rasmussen and E. Larsen. Social

empowerment through ICT education: An empirical analysis of an ICT-educational program in Tanzania.

Master’s thesis, IT University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, March 3 2008.

[25] J. M. Longino. Evaluation of implementation of BSc IT curriculum at Tumaini University. Master’s thesis, Lappeenranta University of Technology,

Lappeenranta, Finland, September 2 2008.

[26] H. H. Lund, J. Nielsen, E. Sutinen, and M. Vesisenaho.

In search of the point-of-contact: Contextualized technology refreshes ICT teaching in Tanzania. In Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International

Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, 2005.

ICALT 2005., pages 983–987, July 5–July 8 2005.

[27] K. Mgaya. Development of information technology in

Tanzania. In E. P. Drew and F. G. Foster, editors, Information Technology in Selected Countries. United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan, 1994.

[28] A. Moreno. Program animation as a learning scaffold.

Unpublished Manuscript, 2008.

[29] A. Moreno and M. S. Joy. Jeliot 3 in a demanding educational setting. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 178:51–59, 2007.

[30] H. Reichgelt, B. Lunt, T. Ashford, A. Phelps, E. Slazinski, and C. Willis. A comparison of baccalaureate programs in information technology with baccalaureate programs in computer science and information systems. Journal of Information

Technology Education, 3:19–34, 2004.

[31] G. W. Ryan and H. R. Bernard. Data management and analysis methods. In N. K. Denzin and Y. S.

Lincoln, editors, Handbook of Qualitative Research, pages 769–802. SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 2nd edition, 2000.

[32] E. Sutinen and J. Tarhio. Teaching to identify problems in a creative way. In Proceedings of the FIE’01 Frontiers in Education Conference, volume T1D, pages 8–13, Reno, NV, USA, October 10–13 2001.

[33] E. Sutinen and M. Vesisenaho. Ethnocomputing in Tanzania: Design and analysis of a contextualized ICT course. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 1(3):239–267, 2006.

[34] M. Tedre. The Development of Computer Science: A Sociocultural Perspective. PhD thesis, University of Joensuu, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Joensuu, Finland, 2006.

[35] M. Tedre and B. Chachage. University students’

attitudes towards e-security issues: A survey study in Tumaini University, Tanzania. In Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Technology for Innovation and Education in Developing Countries (TEDC2008), Kampala, Uganda, July 31–August 2


[36] M. Tedre and R. Eglash. Ethnocomputing. In M. Fuller, editor, Software Studies / A Lexicon, pages 92–101. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., USA, 2008.

[37] M. Tedre, E. Sutinen, E. K¨ahk¨onen, and P. Kommers.

Ethnocomputing: ICT in cultural and social context.

Communications of the ACM, 49(1):126–130, January 2006.

[38] M. Tedre, E. Sutinen, P. Kommers, and E. K¨ahk¨onen.

Appreciating the knowledge of students in computer science education in developing countries. In Proceedings of the IEEE conference ITRE/TEDC 2003, pages 174–178, Newark, NJ, USA, August 11–13 2003.

[39] L. A. Tomei. The impact of online teaching on faculty load: Computing the ideal class size for online courses.

Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(3):531–541, 2006.

[40] M. Vesisenaho. Developing University-Level Introductory ICT Education in Tanzania: A Contextualized Approach. PhD thesis, University of Joensuu, Department of Computer Science and Statistics, Joensuu, Finland, 2007.

[41] M. Vesisenaho, M. Duveskog, E. Laisser, and E. Sutinen. Designing a contextualized programming course in a Tanzanian university. In Proceedings of the 36th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference, pages 1–6, 2006.

[42] M. Vesisenaho, J. Kemppainen, C. Islas Sedano, M. Tedre, and E. Sutinen. Contextualizing ICT in Africa: The development of the CATI model in Tanzanian higher education. African Journal of Information and Communication Technology, 2(2):88–109, 2006.

[43] L. Wittgenstein. Philosophical Investigations.

Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK, 2nd bilingual edition, 1958.

Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.

Koli Calling '08, November 13–16, 2008, Koli, Finland. Copyright 2008 ACM 978-1-60558-385-3/08/11…$5.00.

I dokument Koli Calling 2008 (sidor 63-66)