Summary Brief – Is the last mile the longest? : Economic Gains from Gender Equality in Nordic Countries

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S U M M A R Y B R I E F

May 2018 http://oe.cd/last-mile-gender-nordic

The Nordic countries are leaders on gender

equality

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The Nordic approach to family- and

gender-equality policy

Key measures of gender gaps in employment, Nordic and selected other OECD countries, 2016 or latest available year Top performer Moderate performer Bottom performer Gender gap in the labour force participation rate, 15-64 year-olds (p.p.) Gender gap in the employment rate, 15-64 year-olds (p.p.) Gender gap in the employment rate, low education, 25-64 year-olds (p.p.) Gender gap in the employment rate, high education, 25-64 year-olds (p.p.) Gender gap in usual weekly working hours, all ages (p.p.) Female share of managers, all ages (%) Gender gap in median earnings for full-time employees, all ages (%) Denmark 6.3 6.2 17.9 4.9 4.2 27.3 5.8 Finland 3.0 2.0 16.7 4.0 4.0 33.8 18.1 Iceland 4.8 4.8 11.3 5.5 8.4 33.3 9.9 Norway 4.3 3.6 11.3 1.4 4.8 37.8 7.1 Sweden 3.6 3.0 13.7 1.5 3.6 39.4 13.4 Canada 7.6 6.1 19.7 6.7 5.6 35.5 18.2 France 7.9 6.4 13.9 5.8 5.6 32.9 9.9 Germany 9.1 8.0 16.4 6.7 8.7 29.3 15.5 Italy 20.0 18.3 30.8 10.0 7.3 27.7 5.6 Japan 18.2 17.2 .. 21.1 .. 13.0 25.7 United Kingdom 10.3 9.4 20.6 8.0 9.0 36.0 16.8 United States 11.5 10.8 25.2 9.8 4.0 43.4 18.1 OECD average 12.2 11.4 20.4 8.7 5.9 32.3 14.1 OECD std. dev. 8.0 7.8 9.0 5.5 2.5 8.0 7.2

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The Nordic model has helped deliver large

gains in gender equality in employment over

the past half-century

Female employment rate, 15-64 year-olds, earliest available year and latest available year (2016), Nordic and selected other OECD member countries 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Denmark* (1967 & 2016) Finland (1970 & 2016) Iceland* (1970 & 2016) Norway (1972 & 2016) Sweden (1963 & 2016) Canada* (1971 & 2016) France* (1962 & 2016) Germany (1991 & 2016) Italy (1970 & 2016) Japan (1970 & 2015) United Kingdom* (1960 & United States (1970 & % Earliest available year (varies) Latest available year (2016)

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Gains in women’s employment can account for

a large portion of economic growth in the

Nordic countries

Average annual rate of growth in GDP per capita and disaggregation of growth into its primary components, longest available series, Nordic and selected other OECD member countries

-0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Denmark (1967-2016) Finland (1970-2016) Iceland (1970-2016) Norway (mainland) (1972-2016) Sweden (1963-2016) Canada (1971-2016) France (1962-2016) Germany (1991-2016) Italy (1970-2016) Japan (1970-2015) United Kingdom (1960-2016) United States (1970-2016) GDP per capita, average annual growth rate (%) Labour productivity (p.p.)

Working age share of population (p.p.) Men's employment (p.p.) Women's employment (p.p.)

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Future gains from closing remaining gender

participation gaps are limited, but potential

gains from closing Nordic working hours gaps

are larger

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The last mile might just be the longest

Estimated gains relative to the baseline in the projected average annual rate of growth in GDP per capita over the period 2013-2040, different gender gap scenarios (closing gender gaps in labour force participation and working hours), percentage points, Nordic and selected other OECD

member countries 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden Canada France Germany Italy United Kingdom

United States Percentage point

difference

Gender gap in labour force participation rates fully closed by 2040, gender gap in working hours at baseline Gender gaps in both labour force participation rates and working hours fully closed by 2040

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References

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Is the Last Mile the Longest? Economic Gains from Gender Equality in Nordic Countries

Is the Last Mile the Longest? Economic Gains from Gender Equality in Nordic Countries

Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, commonly known as the Nordic countries, have been leaders in the development of modern family and gender policy, and the explicit promotion of gender equality at home, at work, and in public life. Today, on many measures, they boast some of the most gender-equal labour markets in the OECD.

This report shows that improvements in gender equality have contributed considerably to economic growth in the Nordic countries. Increases in female employment alone are estimated to account for anywhere between roughly 0.05 and 0.40 percentage points to average annual GDP per capita growth – equivalent to 3 to 20% of total GDP per capita growth over the past 50 years or so, depending on the country. The Nordic countries are closer than most to achieving gender equality in the labour market. But the last mile may well prove to be the longest one. To make further progress, a continued assessment of the effectiveness of existing public policies and workplace practices is needed. Only with resolve and a continued focus can Nordic countries ensure that men and women contribute to their economies and societies in gender equal measure.

IsbN 978-92-64-30003-3 81 2018 11 1 P

Consult this publication on line at http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264300040-en.

This work is published on the OECD iLibrary, which gathers all OECD books, periodicals and statistical databases. Visit www.oecd-ilibrary.org for more information.

9HSTCQE*daaadd+ Is t h e L as t M ile t h e L o nge st ? E co no mi c G ain s f ro m G en d er E q u al ity in No rd ic C o u nt ries

This brief summarises the OECD's report Is the Last

Mile the Longest? Economic Gains from Gender

Equality in Nordic Countries. The report looks at how

past improvements in gender equality in employment

have contributed to economic growth in the Nordic

countries, and how much more could be gained from

closing gender gaps still further. Findings suggest that past

increases in women's headcount employment, in

particular, have made large contributions to economic

growth in the Nordics. It also finds that, while closing

remaining gender participation gaps would have only a

comparatively small effect on future growth, large gains

could still be made by closing gender gaps in working hours.

Is the Last Mile the Longest?

Economic Gains from Gender Equality in Nordic Countries

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Referenser

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