https://doi.org/10.1140/epjc/s10052-020-7624-4 Regular Article - Experimental Physics
Transverse momentum and process dependent azimuthal
= 8.16 TeV p+Pb collisions with the ATLAS
ATLAS Collaboration CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
Received: 31 October 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published online: 30 January 2020 © CERN for the benefit of the ATLAS collaboration 2020
Abstract The azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles produced in√sNN = 8.16 TeV p+Pb collisions is measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 165 nb−1that was collected in 2016. Azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, ellipticv2and tri-angularv3, extracted using two-particle correlations with a non-flow template fit procedure, are presented as a function of particle transverse momentum ( pT) between 0.5 and 50 GeV. Thev2results are also reported as a function of centrality in three different particle pTintervals. The results are reported from minimum-bias events and jet-triggered events, where two jet pTthresholds are used. The anisotropies for particles with pT less than about 2 GeV are consistent with hydro-dynamic flow expectations, while the significant non-zero anisotropies for pTin the range 9–50 GeV are not explained within current theoretical frameworks. In the pT range 2– 9 GeV, the anisotropies are larger in minimum-bias than in jet-triggered events. Possible origins of these effects, such as the changing admixture of particles from hard scattering and the underlying event, are discussed.
The collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic speeds gener-ate hot and dense droplets of matter composed of decon-fined quarks and gluons known as the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) [1,2]. Studies of the QGP at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have yielded a wealth of surprising results that reveal a com-plex set of QGP-related phenomena. Bulk hadron produc-tion, occurring mainly at low transverse momentum ( pT 3 GeV), exhibits significant azimuthal anisotropies that are well described in terms of nearly inviscid hydrodynamic flow of the QGP . The final hadron momentum anisotropies arise from inhomogeneities in the initial spatial distribution e-mail:email@example.com
of the QGP translated to momentum space via strong dif-ferential pressure gradients. These anisotropies are charac-terised in terms of a Fourier decomposition:
Y(φ) = G 1+ 2 ∞ n=1 vncos(n(φ − n)) ,
wherevnare the anisotropy coefficients,nis the nth-order
orientation of the anisotropy, and the normalization, G, is set by the integral of the distribution. In particular,v2 and v3are referred to as the elliptic and triangular coefficients, respectively.
In addition, the production of high transverse momentum hadrons ( pT 10 GeV) is highly suppressed relative to the yields expected from nuclear thickness scaling of proton– proton collision yields . This suppression is understood to result from high momentum transfer parton–parton inter-actions followed by the outgoing partons losing energy via radiative and collisional processes in the QGP – processes referred to as jet quenching [4–6]. These high- pT hadrons and associated jets are also observed to have a non-zero azimuthal anisotropy [7–9], despite being well outside the nominal domain where the anisotropies are interpreted in terms of hydrodynamic flow. Instead, these anisotropies are understood to also arise from inhomogeneities in the initial spatial distribution of the QGP, but in this case, where the jet quenching effect is stronger for partons traversing longer paths through the QGP and weaker for partons traversing shorter paths . In this way, low- and high- pT hadrons have a common orientation of their azimuthal anisotropy in a given event, because both are correlated with the orientation of the initial geometry of the colliding nucleons. It is notable that, for more than a decade, an outstanding and challenging theoretical puzzle has been how to quantitatively describe both high- pThadron suppression and azimuthal anisotropy in Pb+Pb collisions . There are a number of proposed explanations for resolving this puzzle in heavy-ion collisions – see Refs. [12–17] for examples.
Measurements in smaller collision systems, pp and p+Pb collisions at the LHC [18–23] and p+Au, d+Au, and3He+Au at RHIC , indicate significant azimuthal anisotropies for low- pThadrons with patterns quite similar to those observed in the larger heavy-ion collision systems. For a recent review see Ref. . These observations have raised the question of whether smaller and shorter-lived droplets of QGP are formed in these smaller collision systems. Indeed, models employing nearly inviscid hydrodynamics for the QGP pro-vide a quantitative description of this large body of data at low pT.
In contrast, measurements aimed at observing signatures of jet quenching in small collision systems have found no such effect. Measurements of hadron and jet pT spectra at high pTindicate production yields consistent with those in pp collisions scaled up by the expected nuclear thickness in p+Pb [27–29] and d+Au collisions , and that the pT-balance between dijets or hadron–jet pairs is unmod-ified in p+Pb collisions within uncertainties [31,32]. The ATLAS experiment has also published results for the hadron azimuthal anisotropy up to pT ≈ 12 GeV that hint at a non-zero anisotropy extending into the region beyond the usual hydrodynamic interpretation and into the regime of jet quenching . However, it is unlikely that there can be differential jet quenching as a function of orientation rel-ative to the QGP geometry if there is no jet quenching in p+Pb collisions as observed in the spectra. Thus, there are two related outstanding puzzles, one being the lack of jet quenching observed in the spectra, if indeed small droplets of QGP are formed, and the other being what mechanism can lead to high- pThadron anisotropies other than differential jet quenching.
This paper presents a measurement of the azimuthal anisotropy of unidentified hadrons as a function of pTand centrality in √sNN = 8.16 TeV p+Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector. The measurement is made using two-particle correlations, measured separately for minimum-bias triggered (MBT) events and events requiring a jet with pT greater than either 75 GeV or 100 GeV. There are contri-butions to the azimuthal correlations from particle decays, jets, dijets, and global momentum conservation, which have traditionally been referred to as ‘non-flow’ . Using this nomenclature, a standard template fitting procedure is applied to subtract non-flow contributions [19,20]. To decrease the residual influence of the non-flow correlation in the jet events, a novel procedure is used to restrict the acceptance of particles according to the location of jets in the event. Assuming that the two-particle anisotropy coefficients are the products of the corresponding single-particle coef-ficients (factorisation), the elliptic and triangular anisotropy coefficients,v2andv3, are reported as a function of pT. Addi-tionally,v2results are presented as a function of centrality in three different pTranges. Finally, the fractional contribution
to the correlation functions from jet particles is determined as a function of pT.
2 ATLAS detector
The ATLAS experiment  at the LHC is a multipurpose particle detector with a forward–backward symmetric cylin-drical geometry and nearly 4π coverage.1This analysis relies on the inner detector, the calorimeter, and the data acquisition and trigger system.
The inner detector (ID) comprises three major subsys-tems: the pixel detector and the silicon microstrip tracker, which extend up to|η| = 2.5, and the transition radiation tracker, which extends to|η| = 2.0. The inner detector cov-ers the full azimuth and is immcov-ersed in a 2 T axial magnetic field. The pixel detector consists of four cylindrical layers in the barrel region and three discs in each endcap region. A new innermost layer, the insertable B-layer [36,37], has been operating as a part of the pixel detector since 2015. The sili-con microstrip tracker comprises four cylindrical layers (nine discs) of silicon strip detectors in the barrel (endcap) region. The minimum-bias trigger scintillator detects charged par-ticles over 2.07 < |η| < 3.86 using two hodoscopes of 12 counters positioned at|z| = 3.6 m.
The calorimeter is a large-acceptance, longitudinally seg-mented sampling detector covering|η| < 4.9 with electro-magnetic (EM) and hadronic sections. The EM calorimeter is a lead/liquid-argon sampling calorimeter with an accordion-shaped geometry. It is divided into a barrel region, covering |η| < 1.475, and two endcap regions, covering 1.375 < |η| < 3.2. The hadronic calorimeter surrounds the EM calorimeter. It consists of a steel/scintillator-tile sampling calorimeter covering|η| < 1.7 and a liquid-argon calorime-ter with copper absorber covering 1.5 < |η| < 3.2. The for-ward calorimeter (FCal) is a liquid-argon sampling calorime-ter located on either side of the incalorime-teraction point. It covers 3.1 < |η| < 4.9 and each half is composed of one EM and two hadronic sections, with copper and tungsten serving as the absorber material, respectively. The FCal is used to char-acterise the centrality of p+Pb collisions as described below. In this analysis, a two-level trigger system was used to select events, with a first-level (L1) trigger implemented in hardware followed by a software-based high-level trig-1 ATLAS uses a right-handed coordinate system with its origin at the
nominal interaction point (IP) in the centre of the detector and the z-axis along the beam pipe. The x-axis points from the IP to the centre of the LHC ring, and the y-axis points upward. Cylindrical coordinates(r, φ) are used in the transverse plane,φ being the azimuthal angle around the z-axis. The pseudorapidity is defined in terms of the polar angle θ as η = − ln tan(θ/2). Transverse momentum and transverse energy are defined as pT = p sin θ and ET = E sin θ, respectively. Angular
ger (HLT) which reconstructs the event in a manner sim-ilar to the final offline reconstruction. Events used for the measurements presented in this paper were selected using several triggers. MBT events were selected by a trigger that requires a signal in at least one minimum-bias trigger scin-tillator counter at L1  followed by the requirement of at least one reconstructed track at the HLT stage. Events with a high- pTjet were acquired using a high-level jet trigger cov-ering the central region (|η| < 3.2). These events were first required to have energy deposits at L1 that are compatible with the presence of a jet and then to pass various thresholds for the jet transverse energy at the HLT stage.
3 Data and event selection
During p+Pb data-taking in 2016, the LHC was configured with a beam composed of protons with an energy of 6.5 TeV and a beam of lead ions with an energy per nucleon of 2.51 TeV. This resulted in a collision system with proton– nucleon centre-of-mass energy √sNN = 8.16 TeV and a rapidity shift of the centre of mass by +0.465 units in the proton-going direction relative to the laboratory frame. The data were taken over two running periods with different con-figurations of the LHC beam directions. In the first period of data-taking, comprising a total integrated luminosity of 57 nb−1, the lead ions circulated clockwise in beam 1, while the protons circulated counterclockwise in beam 2. For the second period of data-taking, which comprised 108 nb−1, the beam species were interchanged. The analysed data were pro-vided by the minimum-bias trigger described above, which was prescaled and sampled 0.079 nb−1of luminosity. In addi-tion, data were selected by the high-level jet triggers with transverse energy thresholds of 75 GeV and 100 GeV, which sampled 26 nb−1and the full 165 nb−1of p+Pb luminosity, respectively.
Events selected by the triggers described above were reconstructed offline following procedures that were opti-mised for the Run-2 detector configuration . Events are required to have at least one reconstructed vertex. To reduce the contribution from events with multiple in-time p+Pb interactions, events with more than one vertex are used only if the additional vertices have fewer than seven associated reconstructed tracks with pT> 0.4 GeV. That is, events are only allowed to have one vertex with seven or more associated tracks. Two classes of jet events were defined by requiring an offline jet with pT > 75 GeV or pT > 100 GeV respec-tively, and were drawn from the jet-triggered event samples with the analogous online thresholds. The trigger efficiency, given this offline selection, was greater than 97% for both jet samples.
Events were further characterised by the sum of the trans-verse energy in the FCal module in the direction of the Pb
beam, EPbT . The event centrality is defined as the ETPb percentile of the events in minimum-bias collisions, after accounting for the inefficiency introduced by the trigger and event selection criteria, and was determined in a way similar to previous analyses of Run-1 p+Pb data at√sNN= 5.02 TeV [27,40]. Events within the 0–90% centrality range were used in this analysis, with low (high) values corresponding to high- EPb
T (low- E Pb
T ) events with large (small) overall particle multiplicity. Since the acceptance of the FCal is separate from that of the ID, this centrality definition has the benefit of reducing event-selection-induced biases in the measured quantities .
4 Track and jet reconstruction
The reconstruction, selection, and calibration of charged-particle tracks and calorimetric jets, and their performance as determined using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, are described below.
Charged-particle tracks and collision vertices are recon-structed in the ID using the algorithms described in Ref. . Inner detector tracks with pT> 0.4 GeV and |η| < 2.5 were required to satisfy a set of quality criteria similar to those described in Ref. . The total number of reconstructed ID tracks satisfying these selection criteria in a given event is called the multiplicity or Nchrec. The reconstruction and selec-tion efficiency for primary  charged hadrons to meet these criteria was determined using a sample of 3 million minimum-bias p+Pb events simulated by the Hijing gener-ator . Events were generated with both beam configura-tions. The ATLAS detector response to the generated events was determined through a full Geant4 simulation [44,45], and the simulated events were reconstructed in the same way as the data. Over the measured kinematic range, the efficiency varies from approximately 50% for the lowest- pThadrons at large pseudorapidity, to greater than 90% for hadrons with
pT> 3 GeV at mid-rapidity.
Jets are reconstructed using energy deposits in the calorime-ter system,|η| < 4.9, in a range partially overlapping with both the ID and the FCal used to determine centrality. The reconstruction closely follows the procedure used in other measurements for Pb+Pb and pp collisions [46,47]. Jets are measured by applying the anti-ktalgorithm [48,49] with
radius parameter R= 0.4 to energy deposits in the calorime-ter. No jets with pT < 15 GeV are considered. An iterative procedure is used to obtain an event-by-event estimate of the η-dependent underlying-event energy density, while exclud-ing jets from that estimate. The jet kinematics are corrected for this background and for the detector response using an η- and pT-dependent calibration derived from fully simu-lated and reconstructed Pythia 8  hard-scattering events configured with the NNPDF23LO parton distribution
func-tion set  and the A14 set of tuned parameters  to model non-perturbative effects. An additional, small correc-tion, based on in situ studies of jets recoiling against pho-tons, Z bosons, and jets in other regions of the calorimeter, is applied [53,54]. Simulation studies show that for jets with pT> 75 GeV, the average reconstructed jet pTis within 1% of the generator level jet pTand has a relative pTresolution below 10% after the calibration procedure.
5 Analysis procedure
This analysis is based on previous ATLAS two-particle cor-relation studies [19,20]. To construct the two-particle cor-relation functions, the selected inner-detector tracks with pT > 0.4 GeV are divided into two sets, referred to as A-and B-particles in this paper, although they are sometimes referred to as trigger and associated particles in the litera-ture. To reduce the contribution of non-flow correlations from decays and jets, two restrictions are placed on A–B particle pairs drawn from the two sets. First, as was done in previous analyses [19,20], the particles are required to be separated in pseudorapidity with|ηAB| = |ηB− ηA| > 2. This require-ment removes the short-range decay and jet fragrequire-mentation structure, while emphasising global, early-time correlations. Due to the enhanced contribution from jet correlations in the jet-triggered events, an additional constraint was developed for this analysis. Namely, B-particles are required to be sep-arated in pseudorapidity by one unit from all reconstructed jets with pjetT > 15 GeV, i.e. |ηjB| = |ηB− ηjet| > 1. This latter requirement is only applied to the jet-triggered events, and in this way, the jets act as a source of high- pTA-particles but contribute few B-particles.
The correlation functions, S(φ), are defined as the yields of particle pairs passing the above event and pair selection, binned inφ = φA− φB, and normalised by the total num-ber of A-particles. Corrections for the imperfect trigger and tracking efficiencies are applied as weights to the entries of the correlation functions. A mixed-event correction, M(φ), is generated by correlating A-particles from one event with B-particles from a different event with a vertex z-position differing by less than 10 mm and a number of reconstructed charged particles (Nchrec) differing by less than 10 for Nchrec< 100 and less than 20 for Nchrec> 100. Thus, the mixed events contain only trivial detector acceptance effects and no phys-ical correlations. To reduce the statistphys-ical uncertainty intro-duced by the correction, each event is mixed with five others meeting the above vertex z and Nchrec conditions. The cor-rected correlation is, then, Y(φ) = S(φ)/M(φ), where M(φ) is normalised such that the ratio preserves the overall integral of S(φ). Jet events are mixed with other jet events, and the|ηjB| condition is applied with respect to the jets in
the A-particle event only. Thus, the B-particle acceptance is consistent between the same- and mixed-event correlations. To extract the anisotropy coefficients while accounting for residual non-flow, the ATLAS template fitting procedure, as used for previous results [19,20], is applied to Y(φ). In this procedure, Y(φ) is found for two different selections of event activity quantified by centrality: a central selec-tion, Ycent(φ), and a peripheral selection, Yperi(φ). In this analysis, the peripheral selection corresponds to the 60– 90% centrality interval. Assuming that the shape of the non-flow correlation is independent of centrality, Ycent(φ) is expressed as Ycent(φ) = FYperi(φ) + G ⎡ ⎣1 + 24 n=2 vn,ncos(nφ) ⎤ ⎦ ,(1) where F and eachvn,n are parameters of a globalχ2fit, and
G is fixed by the requirement that the integral of the fit model is that of Ycent. The parameter F allows for a linear scaling of the non-flow between the two centrality classes. The fit includes the fourth harmonic,v4,4, but it is not presented in the results because it is statistically insignificant. The fitχ2 function incorporates the statistical uncertainties from both Ycentand the peripheral template, Yperi, although the exam-ples shown in Figs. 1and2 do not show the uncertainties of Yperi for readability. The statistical uncertainties of the extractedvn,nparameters are returned from the MINUITχ2
minimiser , accounting for correlations between param-eters.
Figure 1 shows an example of two template fits using jet-triggered events with jet pT > 100 GeV. The left plot shows the fit for correlations made without the B-particle jet rejection condition, and the right plot shows the same cor-relation, but with the condition|ηjB| > 1 applied. In this figure, YNridgerepresents the Nth-order harmonic component of the fit. The left plot has a dominant non-flow contribu-tion, and a distortion in the resulting subtracted distribution is observed nearφ ≈ π. Removing much of the jet correla-tion in this way reduces the overall sensitivity to the template method assumption that the shape of the non-flow contribu-tion is the same for the central and peripheral seleccontribu-tions. However, violation of this assumption will introduce distor-tions that could potentially bias the harmonic coefficients. This is explicitly tested by varying the centrality selection of the peripheral template, as discussed further in Sect.6. Two additional examples of template fits from the jet-triggered events with jet pT > 100 GeV and with the B-particle jet rejection are plotted in Fig.2. These show the behaviour of the template fits for high A-particle pT.
If the particle momentum correlations originate from a global field, as is the case for collective expansion, thevn,n
Fig. 1 Template fitting output for events with jet pT> 100 GeV. Both
require 3.5 < pA
T < 4.0 GeV and are made with 60–90% peripheral
selection and 0–5% central selection. The left plot is made with no selection on the B-particles and the right plot is made requiring the B-particles to have|ηjB| > 1 relative to all jets with pjetT > 15 GeV in the event. In the upper panels, the open circles show the scaled and shifted peripheral template with uncertainties omitted, the closed cir-cles show the central data, and the red line shows the fit (template
and harmonic functions). The blue dashed line shows the second-order harmonic component, Y2ridge, and the orange dotted line shows the third-order harmonic component, Y3ridge(the n= 2 and n = 3 contributions to the sum in Eq.1, respectively). The lower panels show the difference between the central data and the peripheral template along with the sec-ond and third harmonic functions. The resultingv2,2,v3,3, and global
fitχ2/NDF values are reported in the legends. In these fits, NDF= 35
By assuming this relation and making specific pT selec-tions on A- and B-particles, the single-particlevn(pTA) can
be obtained from vn(pAT) = vn,n(pAT, pBT)/
wherevn,n(pAT, pTB) is determined with A- and B-particles having pTin range pTAand pBT, respectively, andvn,n(pTB, pBT)
is determined with A- and B-particles both having pTin range pBT. In this analysis, this range is nominally pTB> 0.4 GeV, although the dependence of the extracted anisotropy on this choice is explored in Sect.7.
The relative yield of particle pairs entering the correlation functions is estimated assuming a simple, two-component model of particle production. Particles are assumed to be pro-duced either by hard scattering (HS) processes, such as jet production, or by soft underlying event (UE) processes. With this assumption, the correlation functions are constructed from pairs pulled from a mixture of the two sources. Particle pairs can be formed in the following four A–B combinations: UE–UE, UE–HS, HS–UE, and HS–HS. The event-by-event yields of the UE and HS processes are estimated by classify-ing the charged particles accordclassify-ing to their azimuthal orien-tation relative to the leading jet or, in the case of MBT events that contain no jets with pT> 15 GeV and |η| < 4.9,
rela-tive to the leading hadron. The following regions are defined relative to this leading vector:
• towards: (|φB− φjet| < π4) ∪ (|φB− φjet| > 34π)
• transverse: π4 < |φB− φjet| < 3π
Then, assuming that HS particles are completely contained in the towards region and the UE particles are distributed uniformly in azimuth, the following relations are inferred: NUE = 2Ntrans,
NHS= Ntoward− Ntrans,
where NUE and NHSare the single-particle yields from UE and HS processes, respectively, and Ntransand Ntowardare the particle yields in the transverse and toward regions, respec-tively. The quantities NUE and NHS are statistically deter-mined from the event averaged Ntrans and Ntoward and are, thus, insensitive to event-by-event fluctuations. However, it is not possible to classify individual particles. It should be noted that the assumptions used in this derivation are likely not per-fect; for example, the UE is not uniformly distributed inφ, event by event, due to the presence of azimuthal anisotropy. The leading object may be more likely to be oriented with the
Fig. 2 Template fitting output for events with jet pT > 100 GeV
with 60–90% peripheral selection and 0–5% central selection. The left plot is made with 11 < pA
T < 16 GeV and the right plot with
16< pTA< 100 GeV. In the upper panels, the open circles show the scaled and shifted peripheral template with uncertainties omitted, the closed circles show the central data, and the red line shows the fit (tem-plate and harmonic functions). The blue dashed line shows the
second-order harmonic component, Y2ridge, and the orange dotted line shows the third-order harmonic component, Y3ridge(the n= 2 and n = 3 contri-butions to the sum in Eq.1, respectively). The lower panels show the difference between the central data and the peripheral template along with the second and third harmonic functions. The resultingv2,2,v3,3, and global fitχ2/NDF values are reported in the legends. In these fits, NDF= 35
anisotropy, in which case the UE yield would be underesti-mated and the HS yield overestiunderesti-mated. However, the analysis proceeds with the assumptions as given and includes no addi-tional uncertainty for this potential effect.
TheηABandηjBrejections produce a geometric corre-lation between the yields of A- and B-particles and, thus, the number of pairs is not the simple product of the two individ-ual yields. Accounting for the dependencies, the total yield of particle pairs can be expressed in the following way
YX–Z= 2.5 −2.5 dNXA(ηA) dηA 5 2 d2NZB(ηA, |ηAB|) dηAd|ηAB| d|η AB| dηA, (2) where X–Z could be any pairwise combination of UE and HS. In the case of jet events, theηjBcondition is enforced when filling theηAandηABdistributions so it’s effects are taken into account.
6 Systematic uncertainties
The systematic uncertainties fall into two categories: those associated with both the MBT and jet events and those asso-ciated with only the jet events. The uncertainties are
deter-mined by assessing the difference between the nominal value ofv2orv3and the value after a given variation. Unless other-wise stated, the uncertainties are defined as asymmetric one-standard-deviation errors. The final uncertainty is the quadra-ture sum of the uncertainty from each individual source. The relative downward and upward systematic uncertainties from different sources and all sources combined are shown forv2in Table1and forv3in Table2. The rest of this section focuses primarily on the systematic uncertainties of v2. While the absolute uncertainties inv2andv3are of similar magnitude, this represents larger relative uncertainties in thev3 values since they are generally smaller than the v2 values at any given pT.
For both the MBT and jet events, the sensitivity to the trigger and tracking efficiency corrections was assessed by removing each. This variation (‘Track/trig Eff.’ in Table1) yields a 0–2% (2–4%) difference for MBT (jet) events, depending on track pT, and is subdominant. In the construc-tion of the correlaconstruc-tion funcconstruc-tions, the uncertainty in the mixed-event correction was again found by removing it from the analysis. This variation results in an uncertainty that van-ishes at low pTbut grows to 20% (10%) at high pTfor MBT (jet) events, but remains subdominant to statistical uncertain-ties over the whole pTrange. Regarding the template fitting procedure, the centrality range for the peripheral reference
Table 1 Systematic uncertainty summary for anisotropy coefficients v2. The values are approximate, as they represent the average variation
in each pTrange, and are reported relative tov2. Negative and positive
values indicate downward and upward uncertainties respectively. Com-mas separate the downward and upward uncertainty where applicable
Source pT< 2 GeV pT= 2–10 GeV pT> 10 GeV
MBT Jet MBT Jet MBT Jet
Track/trig Eff. < + 1% + 2% < + 1% + 4% − 2% + 2%
Mixed event < + 1% < + 1% − 4% + 4% + 20% + 10%
Peri. reference − 1, + 2% − 2, + 2% − 2, + 10% − 10, + 18% − 10, + 10% − 2, + 10%
Trig jet pT – < + 1% – − 6, + 6% – − 10, + 10%
Reject jet pT – − 2, + 2% – − 5, + 5% – − 10, + 10%
Reject jet mult. – < + 1% – − 5% – − 5%
Disabled HEC sector – < + 1% – + 10% – + 20%
Jet-UE bias – − 5% – − 15% – − 25%
Total − 1, + 2% − 5, + 4% − 5, + 10% − 20, + 20% − 10, + 25% − 30, + 25%
Table 2 Systematic uncertainty summary for anisotropy coefficients v3. The values are approximate, as they represent the average variation
in each pTrange, and are reported relative tov3. Negative and positive
values indicate downward and upward uncertainties respectively. Com-mas separate the downward and upward uncertainty where applicable
Source pT< 2 GeV pT= 2–10 GeV pT> 10 GeV
MBT Jet MBT Jet MBT Jet
Track/trig Eff. + 1% + 4% < + 6% − 7% − 5% − 7%
Mixed event < + 1% − 4% − 20% + 6% − 200% + 20%
Peri. reference − 2, + 2% − 7, + 10% − 8, + 8% − 20, + 10% − 150, + 100% − 30, + 30%
Trig jet pT – < + 1% – − 10, + 10% – − 40, + 40%
Reject jet pT – − 2, + 2% – − 15, + 15% – − 15, + 15%
Reject jet mult. – < + 1% – + 5% – + 20%
Disabled HEC sector – − 2% – − 5% – − 10%
Total − 2, + 2% − 10, + 10% − 20, + 10% − 30, + 20% − 250, + 100% − 50, + 50%
Fig. 3 Distribution ofv2 (left) andv3 (right) plotted as a function
of the A-particle pT. Values from MBT events are plotted as black
squares, and those from events with jet pT> 75 GeV and events with
jet pT > 100 GeV are plotted as blue circles and orange diamonds
respectively. Statistical uncertainties are shown as narrow vertical lines on each point, and systematic uncertainties are presented as coloured boxes behind the points
Fig. 4 Measuredv2values plotted as a function of the A-particle pT
for MBT events (top), events with jet pT > 75 GeV (bottom left),
and events with jet pT> 100 GeV (bottom right). The nominal values
(closed black circles) are overlaid with points generated by making dif-ferent B-particle pTselections: 0.4 < pTB< 1 GeV (blue open circles),
T< 2 GeV (open violet squares), and 2 < pBT< 3 GeV (open red
triangles). The points with different B-particle pTselections are offset
slightly from the nominal horizontal-axis positions to make the uncer-tainties visible. For clarity, systematic unceruncer-tainties are omitted from the three sets of restricted B-particle pTranges; they are, however,
con-sistent with those from the inclusive results and are highly correlated between the selections
selection was varied from the nominal 60–90% to 50–70% and 70–90%. This variation (‘Peri. reference’) results in an uncertainty of about 2% at low pT and increasing to about 10% or 18% in the mid pT range between 2 and 10 GeV depending on the event trigger. This last uncertainty is dom-inant in this category for most of the pT range probed in the measurement. At high pT, the sensitivity of the mea-surements in MBT events to the mixed event correction and reference selection is significantly higher than in jet events; this is particularly noticeable for thev3 values, where the relative uncertainties in the MBT events for pT > 10 GeV are 5–10 times larger than in the jet-triggered events.
The following set of uncertainties is associated with jet events only. To assess the sensitivity to the uncertainty in the jet energy scale and the impact of imperfect trigger efficiency, the jet pTthresholds used to select events were varied from 75 GeV and 100 GeV to 80 GeV and 105 GeV, respectively. This variation (‘Trig jet pT’) results in a symmetric
uncer-tainty that is smaller than 1% at low particle pT and that increases to about 10% with increasing pT. It is subdomi-nant to other sources in this category. The jets used in the B-particle jet rejection were varied to include only jets with pT greater than 20 GeV instead of the nominal 15 GeV (‘Reject jet pT’). The 2% and 10% differences at low and high pT are incorporated as a symmetric uncertainty that is subdom-inant to other sources in this category. TheηjBrejection allows jets to be composed of only a single particle that may originate in the tail of the UE particle pT spectrum. Thus, the jets used in this rejection were varied to require at least three tracks in aR = 0.4 cone around the jet axis (‘Reject jet mult.’). The uncertainty associated with this variation is about 5% and subdominant to the others in this category. An additional uncertainty is used to cover the impact of a sector of the hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) being dis-abled for the running period. The disdis-abled sector was in the range 1.5 < η < 3.2 and −π < φ < −π/2. This
uncer-Fig. 5 Distribution ofv2plotted as a function of centrality for MBT
events (black squares), events with jet pT > 75 GeV (blue
cir-cles), and events with jet pT > 100 GeV (orange diamonds). The
results are obtained in three different selections of the A-particle pT:
0.5 < pT < 2 GeV (top left), 2 < pT < 9 GeV (top right), and
9 < pT < 100 GeV (bottom). Statistical uncertainties are shown as
narrow vertical lines on each point, and systematic uncertainties are presented as coloured boxes behind the points
tainty (‘Disabled HEC sector’) was assessed by requiring all B-particles to be outside the pseudorapidity region of the dis-abled HEC. The difference was found to be less than 1% at low pTand about 20% at high pT, where it is the dominant positive uncertainty. Finally, an uncertainty is assigned to account for the potential of the UE to bias the event selection. The azimuthal modulation of the UE increases the recon-structed pT of jets aligned with the flow orientation, and, thus, the event-wise jet- pTthreshold will bias the events to have more jets correlated with the flow plane. The impact of this effect on the measured results was assessed in sim-ulation by mixing jet events with a realistic UE containing azimuthal anisotropy. The resulting uncertainty only affects v2, is the dominant negative uncertainty for track pTgreater than 3 GeV, and is about 30% (20%) for jet-triggered events with jet pT > 75 GeV (100 GeV). The effect is larger for lower- pT jets because the UE energy contribution is inde-pendent of jet energy. For a power-law spectrum, a given
threshold change has a greater fractional effect on the yield for smaller values of the threshold.
In summary, the uncertainty inv2from the peripheral ref-erence selection was found to be dominant for pTless than 10 GeV for MBT events, above which, the mixed event cor-rection uncertainty is dominant, and between 2 and 5 GeV for jet events. The uncertainties associated with the jet selection were found to be dominant for pT 10 GeV in jet events. The total uncertainty in MBT events ranges from (−1%, +2%) at low pTto about (−10%, +25%) at high pT. For jet events, the total uncertainty ranges from about (−5%, +4%) at low pTto about (−35%, +50%) and (−30%, +25%) at high pT for events with jet pT > 75 GeV and jet pT > 100 GeV respectively.
The uncertainties associated with the measurement of par-ticle pair yields are generated from some of the variations dis-cussed above, namely the track and trigger efficiency varia-tion, the trigger jet pTthreshold variation, and each B-particle jet rejection variation. An additional variation was made to
Fig. 6 Coefficientsv2andv3 (left panel) and RpPb(right panel)
plot-ted as a function of particle pTfor p+Pb collisions. The left panel is
for central 0–5% events from the jet pT> 100 GeV event sample.
Sta-tistical uncertainties are shown as narrow vertical lines on each point, and systematic uncertainties are presented as coloured boxes behind the points. The left panel has two sets of curves showing theoretical predictions from a jet quenching framework with two different initial geometries in 0–4% central collisions ; the upper two (red/orange)
arev2for ‘size a’ (dotted) and ‘size b’ (dash-dotted) configurations,
and the lower two (blue) arev3where the ‘size a’ (dash-dotted) and
‘size b’ (dashed) curves are nearly indistinguishable from each other. The right panel shows RpPbdata from ATLAS  and QpPbdata from ALICE . Theoretical calculations (red/orange lines) from Ref.  are also shown in this panel; the dotted line gives the results of the ‘size a’ configuration and the dash-dotted line gives the results of the ‘size b’ configuration
test the assumption that the toward region contains all HS particles. The two transverse region sides were tagged as having the minimum and maximum number of tracks out of the two. The pair yields were, then, calculated using the min-imum and maxmin-imum sides only, as separate variations. This variation produces the dominant uncertainty in the relative pair yields, defined in Eq. (2), for all particle combinations at all pT.
Figure3 shows the extracted second- (v2) and third-order (v3) anisotropy coefficients for the MBT events compared to those from both selections of jet events plotted as a function of A-particle pT in the range 0.5 < pT < 100 GeV. Each set of values is from events with the same 0–5% centrality selection. Points are located on the horizontal axis at the mean pTof tracks within any given bin. Thev2andv3coefficients increase as a function of pT in the low pT region ( pT < 2–3 GeV), then decrease (2–3< pT < 9 GeV), and finally plateau for high pT( pT > 9 GeV). The v2coefficients are consistent with being independent of pT for pT > 9 GeV, while the larger uncertainties in the values ofv3preclude any strong conclusion.
The v2 results show agreement within uncertainties between the MBT and jet events for the low pT( pT 2 GeV) and high pT ( pT 9 GeV) regions. For the intermediate pTregion, the MBT events yield a higherv2value than jet events, although the trends are qualitatively similar.
Simi-Fig. 7 Coefficientsv2andv3plotted as a function of pTfor central
0–5% p+Pb collisions from the MBT event sample. Theoretical calcu-lations relevant to the low- pTregime from hydrodynamics and to the
high- pTregime from an ‘eremitic’ framework from Romatschke 
are also shown. The lines are Padé-type fits connecting the two regimes, where the red dotted line is forv2and the blue dash-dotted line is forv3.
Statistical uncertainties are shown as narrow vertical lines on each point, and systematic uncertainties are presented as coloured boxes behind the points
larly tov2, thev3results show agreement between the MBT and jet events for pT< 2 GeV, and higher values from MBT events for pT> 2 GeV.
As mentioned in Sect.5, if the measured anisotropy orig-inates from a global momentum field, thev2andv3values,
Fig. 8 Predictions of azimuthal anisotropy from Pythia 8 using the same two-particle formalism used for the data results. The events com-bine minimum-bias p+Pb underlying events generated in the Angantyr framework with hard pp events that require the presence of a jet with pT> 100 GeV. The two top plots show example correlation functions,
with template fits, from a low particle- pTselection (top left) and a high
particle- pTselection (top right). In the upper panels of the two top
plots, the open circles show the scaled and shifted peripheral template with uncertainties omitted, the closed circles show the central data, and the red histogram shows the fit (template and harmonic functions). The
blue dashed line shows the second-order harmonic component, Y2ridge, and the orange dashed line shows the third-order harmonic compo-nent, Y3ridge(the n= 2 and n = 3 contributions to the sum in Eq.1, respectively). The lower panels show the difference between the cen-tral data and the peripheral template along with the second and third harmonic functions. The resulting v2,2,v3,3, and global fitχ2/NDF
values are reported in the legends, where NDF= 35. The bottom plot shows the extractedv2,2 values as a function of A-particle pT
extracted for a given pAT range, will be independent of B-particle selection. This assumption of factorisation is explic-itly tested by carrying out the analysis for different selections of pBT. Figure4shows thev2values, from each event trig-ger, for the nominal results using pBT > 0.4 GeV overlaid with results using 0.4 < pB
T < 1 GeV, 1 < pBT < 2 GeV, and 2< pTB < 3 GeV. The test shows factorisation break-ing at the level of 5% for pTA < 5 GeV in MBT events. However, at higher pAT, the differences grow with pAT to be
10–100% from the nominal values. For jet events, factorisa-tion holds within about 10–20% for all values of pAT, except for 4< pTA < 9 GeV in pjetT > 100 GeV events, where it is within about 30–40%. Although the large uncertainties pre-vent strong conclusions from being drawn, there is a hint of a difference in behaviour at high pTAwhere the factorisation breaking is greater for MBT events than for jet events. This result could be due to the B-particle jet rejection scheme used for the jet events. Correlations resulting from hard-process,
Fig. 9 Scaled p+Pbv2values plotted as a function of the A-particle pT
overlaid withv2from 20–30% central Pb+Pb data at√sNN= 5.02 TeV
. Results from MBT and jet pT> 100 GeV p+Pb events are plotted
as black squares and orange diamonds, respectively, and those from Pb+Pb are plotted as green circles. Statistical uncertainties are shown as narrow vertical lines on each point, and systematic uncertainties are presented as coloured boxes behind the points
e.g. from back-to-back jets, specifically violate the factorisa-tion assumpfactorisa-tion, and the B-particle jet rejecfactorisa-tion dramatically limits the contribution from these processes from entering the correlation functions in jet events. However, the correla-tions from MBT events have no such rejection, and could, therefore, be more susceptible to hard-process correlations at high pAT.
Figure5showsv2plotted as a function of centrality for MBT events and both classes of jet events. The results are divided into three regions in A-particle pT: 0.5 < pT < 2 GeV, 2 < pT < 9 GeV, and 9 < pT < 100 GeV. The v2results show agreement, within uncertainties, between the MBT and jet events for pT selections 0.5 < pT < 2 GeV and pT > 9 GeV for all centralities and are found to be nearly independent of centrality. For 2< pT < 9 GeV, the MBT events give a higherv2value than the jet events, and all three sets show a trend to lower values ofv2as the collisions become more peripheral.
Focusing on the overall pTdependence of the anisotropies, Fig.6(left panel) showsv2andv3coefficients from events with jet pT > 100 GeV compared with theoretical calcu-lations from Ref. . This theoretical calculation, within the jet quenching paradigm, invokes a stronger parton cou-pling to the QGP near the transition temperature, which helps to reduce the tension in simultaneously matching the nucleus–nucleus high- pThadron spectrum suppression and the azimuthal anisotropyv2. The calculation tests two dif-ferent initial p+Pb geometries referred to as ‘size a’ and ‘size b’, where the latter has a smaller initial QGP vol-ume. The predictions are slightly lower than the data for
bothv2 andv3, and the ‘size a’ curve is within two stan-dard deviations of all points. However, in the right panel of Fig. 6, the same calculation predicts a substantial sup-pression of high- pT hadrons, as expressed by the quantity RpPb= d2NpPb/d pTdy/(TpPb×d2σpp/d pTdy) where TpPb
represents the nuclear thickness of the Pb nucleus, as deter-mined via a Monte Carlo Glauber calculation . Shown in comparison are published experimental results from ATLAS and ALICE for RpPbin central events that are consistent with
no nuclear suppression, i.e. RpPb = 1 [41,57]. The ALICE
experiment uses the notation QpPb for the same quantity
to describe a bias that may exist due to the centrality cate-gorisation. There are uncertainties in the experimental mea-surements related to the centrality or multiplicity selection in p+Pb collisions, particularly in determining the nuclear thickness value TpPb. However, there is no indication of the
large RpPb suppression predicted by the jet quenching
cal-culation. Thus, the jet quenching calculation is disfavoured as it cannot simultaneously describe the non-zero high- pT azimuthal anisotropy and the lack of yield suppression.
Figure7shows the MBTv2andv3coefficients compared with theoretical calculations from Ref. . The calcula-tions are derived from two opposite limits of kinetic theory. The low momentum bands represent zeroth-order hydrody-namic calculations for high-multiplicity p+Pb events that give quantitative agreement with v2 up to pT = 2 GeV while predicting values of v3 that are too high. Above some high pT threshold, hadrons are expected to result, not from hydrodynamics, but instead from jets where the resulting partons have the opposite limit than in hydrody-namics, i.e. a large mean free path. To model this region, a non-hydrodynamic ‘eremitic’ expansion calculation (see Ref.  for the detailed calculation), shown as the bands at high pT, indicates slowly decliningv2 andv3coefficients. The dashed lines are a simple Padé-type fit connecting the two regimes . The trends are qualitatively similar to those in the data, although there is not quantitative agreement. In particular, the calculation predicts values ofv2andv3 sub-stantially below the experimental results for pT= 4–15 GeV. It should be noted that calculations presented in Ref.  are performed, consistently between the hydrodynamic and eremitic components, only for massless partons and with an ideal equation of state. Thus, one does not expect quantita-tive agreement and is looking for rather qualitaquantita-tive trends. More sophisticated treatments in the hydrodynamic regime result in better quantitative agreement with the anisotropy coefficients at low pT[58,59]. It is worth highlighting that traditional parton energy-loss calculations connect the high-pT v2 with a suppression in the overall yield of high- pT particles. The same is true with this eremitic calculation, and thus, it should also be in contradistinction to p+Pb high- pT experimental data indicating almost no suppression, i.e. jet quenching.
Fig. 10 Particle pair yield composition fractions for MBT events (top), events with jet pT > 75 GeV (bottom left), and events with jet pT> 100 GeV (bottom right) plotted as a function of the A-particle pT.
Green and blue open circles represent HS–HS and UE–HS pairs,
respec-tively, and red and violet closed circles represent UE–UE and HS–UE pairs, respectively. Statistical uncertainties are shown as narrow verti-cal lines on each point, and systematic uncertainties are presented as coloured boxes behind the points
Another possible source of the high- pTanisotropies could lie in an initial-state effect, potentially encoded in a model such as Pythia 8. Shown in Fig.8 is a Pythia 8 calcula-tion with hard2 pp events overlaid on minimum-bias p+Pb events generated in the default Angantyr framework . It is emphasised that this version of Pythia does not include the recently developed string–string, or so-called string shov-ing, implementation . The generator-level charged par-ticles are then processed with the entire analysis procedure, including the non-flow template fit. The result is a negative v2,2for all momenta, in contradistinction to the experimen-tal data. Further investigation reveals that Pythia 8 run in ‘hard’ scattering mode has correlations with large pseudo-rapidity separation between particle pairs as a result of the specific implementation of initial-state radiation. This corre-lation is reduced in high-multiplicity events because of the 2The term ‘hard’ refers to Pythia 8 run with the following settings:
HardQCD:all=on, PartonLevel:MPI=off, and containing a jet with pT> 100 GeV.
large number of uncorrelated UE particles, and thus results in a negativev2,2after subtracting the non-flow contribution. Figure9 shows the published Pb+Pb results forv2as a function of pTin the 20–30% centrality selection  com-pared to the v2 from both the MBT p+Pb data and p+Pb containing a jet with pT> 100 GeV. This Pb+Pb centrality range is selected because the spatial elliptic eccentricity is approximately the same as in 0–5% centrality p+Pb colli-sions , despite having a much larger total particle multi-plicity. The overall trends for Pb+Pbv2as a function of pTare qualitatively similar to those presented here for p+Pb from MBT events and the jet events with jet pT> 100 GeV. Both sets of the p+Pb values are scaled by a single multiplicative factor (1.5) to match the Pb+Pb rise at low pT. After scaling, the MBT p+Pb results quantitatively agree with those from the Pb+Pb system for 0.5 < pT< 8 GeV, except for a slight difference in the peak value near pT≈ 3 GeV. For pTabove about 8 GeV, the Pb+Pb results indicate a slow decline of v2values with increasing pT, while the p+Pb results exhibit
more of a plateau. Strikingly, the overall behaviour of thev2 values are quite similar.
As described above, the physics interpretations of the Pb+Pb elliptic anisotropies are hydrodynamic flow at low pT, differential jet quenching at high pT, and a transition between the two in the intermediate region of approximately 2< pT < 10 GeV. Since these effects all relate to the ini-tial QGP geometric inhomogeneities, a common shape with a single scaling factor for p+Pb could indicate a common physics interpretation. This scaling factor of 1.5, as empiri-cally determined, may be the result of slightly different initial spatial deformations, or from the much larger Pb+Pb overall multiplicity, which enables a stronger translation of spatial deformations into momentum space. For the high pTregion, this presents a conundrum in that it is difficult for differential jet quenching to cause thev2anisotropy in p+Pb collisions when there is no evidence for jet quenching overall. These measurements showing non-zero high pT v2in p+Pb col-lisions in the absence the jet quenching observed in Pb+Pb collisions suggest there might be additional contributions to v2at high pTin Pb+Pb collisions.
Returning to the issue of the difference in the intermedi-ate pTregion between the p+Pb MBT and jet event results, the source of hadrons in this region should be considered. As detailed previously, in a highly simplified picture one can classify hadrons as originating from hard scatterings (HS) or from the underlying event (UE). Thus, pairs of particles of A and B types can come from the combinations HS–HS, HS– UE, UE–HS, and UE–UE. Figure10presents the measured pair fractions for both MBT and jet, 0–5% central events plot-ted as a function of the A-particle pT. UE–UE pairs dominate the correlation functions at low pTin each case, and HS–UE combinations dominate at high pT. Combinations with HS B-particles are sub-dominant, because there are fewer jet par-ticles than UE parpar-ticles in central events; for the jet selected events, these combinations are further suppressed by the B-particle jet rejection condition. Figure11 shows the dom-inant contributions from the MBT and jet events overlaid. Although the same qualitative behaviour is found in each case, the point at which the HS–UE pairs become dominant over the other combinations is at a lower pT for jet events than for MBT events.
This behaviour can also be seen in Fig.12, in which the pair fractions are plotted as a function of centrality, and again, the values for MBT and jet events are overlaid. The centrality-dependent results are plotted for low, medium, and high A-particle pTranges in the same way as in Fig.5. At low pT, pair fractions from MBT and jet events agree, and in the mid- pT transition region, MBT events have a larger UE–UE contribu-tion and smaller HS–UE contribucontribu-tion compared to jet events. At high pT, central events show a difference between UE– UE and HS–UE that is reduced in more-peripheral events and absent for more peripheral than 25% centrality. The overall
Fig. 11 Underlying event–underlying event (UE–UE) (open circles) and hard scatter–underlying event (HS–UE) (open squares) particle-pair yield composition fractions for MBT events (black), events with jet pT> 75 GeV (blue), and events with jet pT> 100 GeV (orange) plotted
as a function of the A-particle pT. Statistical uncertainties are shown
as narrow vertical lines on each point, and systematic uncertainties are presented as coloured boxes behind the points
trend of the pair fractions with centrality is quite similar to that ofv2shown in Fig. 5; little centrality dependence for low and high pT, and significant centrality dependence in addition to MBT–jet event ordering in the mid- pTtransition region.
Thus, a potential explanation for the lowerv2andv3in the intermediate pTregion is simply that, in that region, the HS particles have lower anisotropy coefficients than UE parti-cles, and MBT events have a larger fraction of UE–UE pairs than jet-triggered events. In the low and high pT regions, the same types of pairs dominate in both the MBT and jet-triggered events, namely UE–UE and HS–UE respectively, and hence the anisotropy coefficients agree between the event samples. If this explanation is correct, it also aids in under-standing Fig. 9 in which there is a significant difference between the p+Pb jet eventv2and the Pb+Pbv2in the inter-mediate pT region, because the relative pair fractions are potentially significantly different.
This particle mixing picture is attractive in that it naturally explains the general shape of thev2(pT) and v3(pT) distribu-tions as well as the ordering of the different event samples. However, it is noted that the correspondence between the differences in the flow coefficients and pair fractions is not quantitative; the differences in the flow coefficients are frac-tionally much larger than the differences in the pair fractions. Thus, there are either additional sources of correlation or our assumptions are violated in some way (e.g. the two assumed HS and UE sources are too simplistic or the measured pair fractions do not accurately represent the sources, as is dis-cussed in Sect.5). That said, for particle pT> 20 GeV, where
Fig. 12 Underlying event–underlying event (UE–UE) (open circles) and hard scatter–underlying event (HS–UE) (open squares) particle-pair yield composition fractions for MBT events (black), events with jet pT> 75 GeV (blue), and events with jet pT > 100 GeV (orange)
plotted as a function of event centrality. The results are obtained in three
different selections of the A-particle pT: 0.5 < pT< 2 GeV (top left),
2< pT < 9 GeV (top right), and 9 < pT < 100 GeV (bottom).
Sta-tistical uncertainties are shown as narrow vertical lines on each point, and systematic uncertainties are presented as coloured boxes behind the points
particle production in any model is thought to arise mainly from jet fragmentation, the non-zerov2demonstrates that a positive correlation exists between hard (high pT) and soft (low pT) particles, irrespective of the pair fractions.
This paper presents Fourier coefficients of the azimuthal dis-tribution of unidentified charged particles from 165 nb−1of √
sNN = 8.16 TeV p+Pb collisions at the LHC and measured with the ATLAS detector. Results are presented separately for minimum-bias and jet events, with jet pTthresholds of 75 and 100 GeV, as a function of particle pTand centrality. The results are extracted using two-particle azimuthal corre-lations combined with a non-flow template fit procedure. The charged particle pTdependence ofv2andv3is found assum-ing the factorisation ofvn,n. Thev2results are presented for charged-particle transverse momentum pT= 0.5–20 GeV for minimum-bias events and pT= 0.5–50 GeV for jet-triggered
events, and thev3results are for pT= 0.5–20 GeV in both cases.
For charged particles with pT between 0.5 and 2 GeV, the vn results from each event selection are quantitatively
consistent with each other, rising steadily with pT, and the v2 coefficients are roughly independent of centrality. The v2values at 0–5% centrality agree with those predicted by hydrodynamic calculations.
Between charged particle pTof 2 and 9 GeV, thevn
val-ues drop in each case, but are ordered with minimum-bias events yielding the highestvnvalues and the jet events with
jet pT > 100 GeV the lowest. Charged particles in this pT range exhibit a significant centrality-dependent v2, mono-tonically decreasing from central to peripheral events. This behaviour can be qualitatively explained within a simplified two-component model of particle production, in which the magnitude of the correlation in this region is determined by the admixture of charged particles originating from soft and hard processes in the given event selection. The measured particle pair yields support this qualitative argument.
For charged particles with pTabove 9 GeV, thevnresults
are again consistent between MBT and jet events. Although the uncertainties in thev3values make any quantitative state-ment difficult,v2plateaus at a value of 0.025 up to a pTof 50 GeV. This result cannot be explained in the theoretical context of jet quenching or eremitic expansion calculations while simultaneously describing the observed lack of sup-pression of high- pThadron and jet yields in p+Pb collisions. Acknowledgements We thank CERN for the very successful oper-ation of the LHC, as well as the support staff from our institutions without whom ATLAS could not be operated efficiently. We acknowl-edge the support of ANPCyT, Argentina; YerPhI, Armenia; ARC, Australia; BMWFW and FWF, Austria; ANAS, Azerbaijan; SSTC, Belarus; CNPq and FAPESP, Brazil; NSERC, NRC and CFI, Canada; CERN; CONICYT, Chile; CAS, MOST and NSFC, China; COLCIEN-CIAS, Colombia; MSMT CR, MPO CR and VSC CR, Czech Repub-lic; DNRF and DNSRC, Denmark; IN2P3-CNRS, CEA-DRF/IRFU, France; SRNSFG, Georgia; BMBF, HGF, and MPG, Germany; GSRT, Greece; RGC, Hong Kong SAR, China; ISF and Benoziyo Center, Israel; INFN, Italy; MEXT and JSPS, Japan; CNRST, Morocco; NWO, Netherlands; RCN, Norway; MNiSW and NCN, Poland; FCT, Portu-gal; MNE/IFA, Romania; MES of Russia and NRC KI, Russian Federa-tion; JINR; MESTD, Serbia; MSSR, Slovakia; ARRS and MIZŠ, Slove-nia; DST/NRF, South Africa; MINECO, Spain; SRC and Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden; SERI, SNSF and Cantons of Bern and Geneva, Switzerland; MOST, Taiwan; TAEK, Turkey; STFC, United Kingdom; DOE and NSF, United States of America. In addition, individual groups and members have received support from BCKDF, CANARIE, CRC and Compute Canada, Canada; COST, ERC, ERDF, Horizon 2020, and Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, European Union; Investissements d’ Avenir Labex and Idex, ANR, France; DFG and AvH Foundation, Ger-many; Herakleitos, Thales and Aristeia programmes co-financed by EU-ESF and the Greek NSRF, Greece; BSF-NSF and GIF, Israel; CERCA Programme Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain; The Royal Society and Leverhulme Trust, United Kingdom. The crucial computing support from all WLCG partners is acknowledged gratefully, in particular from CERN, the ATLAS Tier-1 facilities at TRIUMF (Canada), NDGF (Den-mark, Norway, Sweden), CC-IN2P3 (France), KIT/GridKA (Germany), INFN-CNAF (Italy), NL-T1 (Netherlands), PIC (Spain), ASGC (Tai-wan), RAL (UK) and BNL (USA), the Tier-2 facilities worldwide and large non-WLCG resource providers. Major contributors of computing resources are listed in Ref. .
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